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scarcely inferior to it in civilization and learning. Some of the best Latin writers were natives of Spain. Under the caliphs o Cordova flourished many celebrated writers. The Spaniarde have been distinguished for their success in compositions of galJantry, in fables, and ingenious fictions. For narrative invention they are not rivalled by any European nation. The plots of their fables, their comedies, farces, novels, and romances, are original ; and have been borrowed by the Italians, French, English, and Germans. Cervantes will always be the first model of satirical and humorous narrative.
The best English and French works on morality, history, and philosophy are translated into Spanish. In philosophy the native authors have not excelled. For some time past the nation has not been distinguished by its progress in learning or science.
Universities. The Spanish universities are 22 in number. Six of these were devoted to the education of young men of family, The university of Salamanca has a library of more than 20,003 volumes, and in 1785 contained 1909, students. The logic of Aristotle, and the theology of Thomas Aquinas are still taught in all the universities. There are acadeinies for the laws of Spain, for the canon law, and for medicine at Madrid; for the belles lettres and for medicine at Seville; an academy of the arts at Valencia and Saragossa ; one of geography al Valladolid ; one of mathematics and drawing at Granada ; and one of belles lettres at Barcelona.
Citic3. According to Hassel there are in Spain 145 cities, 4364 borough towns, and 9293 villages.
Madrid, the capital of Spain, is built on a small stream, which emplies into the Xarama, a tributary of the Tagus, in lat. 40 25 N. and lon. 3 12 W. It continued an obscure town in Casuile, till Charles V. made it the royal residence. It has no fortifications nor ditches, being only surrounded by a bad wall with 15 gates. The streets are not at right angles but they are almost all straight, wide, clean, and well paved. Madrid contains 18 parishes, 35 convents of monks, 31 of nuns, 39 colleges and hospitals, 14,100 houses, and 156,672 inhabitants. The houses are chiefly of brick, and several' are large and handsome. The Manzanares, which runs W. of the town, a small distance from its walls, in winter is a torrent, but dry in summer.
Barcelona, a sca-port of Catalonia, stands on a plain open to the S. E. but protected by hills on the N. and W. It is surrounded by a double brick wall with 14 bastions, hornworks, ramparts, and ditches. The town contains 8 parishes, 111,410 inhabitants. The inhabitants are industrious and hospitable. The women are are distinguished for their beauty, their vivacity, and their free. dom from restraint. The harbor is spacious, deep and secure.
Valencia stands on the Guadalaviar, about half a league from its mouth. The streets are narrow but every where clean, and the appearance of the town is pleasing. Here are a military school, a public library, and 45 convents. The environs of the city are every where crowded with villages and orchards in the midst of
3 men di
ez. Some e a fertile and beautiful country, and the top of a very lofty tower
The Spur Population, 105,000.
to have had a population of 400,000 souls. Ferdinand IV. in 1757,
established in this town a royal tobacco manufactory, at an exCosapisi
pense of 30,000,000 rials. The chief building is a square of 750 the batta feet, two stories high, constructed of a white stone. From 1500 to science. 2000 persons are here daily employed, and 80 mills are worked by in Qurbet
100 horses or mules. All the tobacco of Spain is prepared here.
Cadiz is built on the N. W. extremity of a long sandy peninsula, for the
which is connected by a very narrow isthmus with the isle of Leon. Madrid: 1
This island is 10 miles in length, and is separated from the con-
Granada stands at the foot of the snow-topped Sierra Nevada.
Murcia stands on the N. side of the river Segura, about 20 miles from the Mediterranean, in a delightful valley, 25 leagues long from E 10 W. and a league and a half broad. The town contains 6 parish churches, a cathedral, 16 convents, and a large library, but not a single inn. The population is 44,000. The river is decorated with a fine stone bridge, and a magnificent quay.
Sarag088a stands in a fertile plain, on the southern bank of the Ebro, which by its windings renders the neighborhood extremely rich and delightful. The streets are long and broad, but dirty and :ill-paved. Here are two cathedrals, 15 parish churches and 10
convents ; also some distilleries, and manufactories of silks, eos tons, and bats. Population 42,000.
Malaga, in the W. part of Granada, has a safe and commodicus barbor, protected by an expensive mound running 1200 feet into the sea. The town stands at the fooi of a high mountain, and is small, but handsome. It contained in 1808, 41,932 inhabitants."
Ferrol is a strong fortress, and seaport on the bay of Corunna, with one of the best and safest harbors in Europe. It is one of the stations of the navy, has a large sea-arsenal, the most important dockyards and sail-cloth manufactories in the kingdom, and a large marine hospital, capable of receiving 5000 patients. It had in 1793, 30,000 inhabitants, and as late as 1752, was merely a collection of fishermen's huts.
Carthagena is in Murcia. The environs for some distance are crowded with villages, farms, and country seats. High mountains and barren rocks protect the town on the S. and W. On the N. and E. it is open. The harbor is among the best in Spain, deep, well sheltered and well defended; and affords a fine fishery. The streets are wide and the houses commodious. They have flat roofs, affording an agreeable retreat after sunset. In the niiddle of the city is a high hill, with a fort. The trade is in silks and barilla. Esparto ropes and cables are manufactured here. Popa ulation 29,000. This is a station of the royal navy.
Toledo, in New Castile, 42 miles from Madrid, is built on a rock of granite that is almost surrounded by the Tagus. The town is large, and was formerly the capital, and contained 200,000 inbabitants. It has now but 25,000. The Toledo rapiers were once celebrated for their temper, and the secret of hardening them is said to have been lately recovered.
Valladolid, in Leon, is an ancient bandsome town on the Pisuerga, containing 15 churches, 16 convents, and 24,000 inhabitants. An annual fair is held here, and the streets are lively and full of business.
Alicant, in Valencia, is built between a mountain and the sea and is well defended by strong bastions ; it has a good barbor, and an extensive commerce. Popularion 17,435. Elche, a few miles south, contains 17,403 inhabitants.
Of the most noted smaller towns Bilboa has 13,000, Burgos 10,000, Badajos 10,000, Lerida 16,818, Pampeluna 14,054, Sala. manca 15,000, and St. Sebastian 12,000.
Manufactures and Commerce. There are respectable woollen manufactures at Segovia, Seville, Guadalaxara, and several other places. Cotton manufactures are also found, especially in CataJonia. The silk manufactures are the most important and flourish most in Catalonia and Valencia. At Carthagena, Ferrol, and other places are considerable linen and sail cloth manufactories; but the greater part of these articles is supplied from abroad. Manufactures of leather are found in every considerable town, and most of the small cnes. There are about 200 paper mills in Spain,
the most and best in Valencia ; where china is also manufactured,
The foreign trade is mostly carried on by other nations. Spanish
Climate. Many of the highest mountains are covered with perennial snow. The winter is very mild in the low and southern districts, where it seldom freezes ; but in the higher tracts, the winter is often as severe as in England or Germany. On the Mediterranean the sea-breeze blows every day from 9 till 5 o'clock; and pleasantly tempers the warmth of summer. The south wind from Africa is oppressive and unwholesome; but the N. W. wind from the mountains of Gallicia is cool and refreshing. In many parts the trees retain their verdure all the year, and where the leaf falls it buds again in January.
Face of the Country. Spain, next to Norway, is probably the most mountainous country in Europe. The western part of New. Castile is open and plain. The centre of Arragon is level and sandy. Valencia and the northern half of Murcia consist chiefly of extensive plains and valleys, every where fertile and well cultia vated. The rest of the country is rough and broken.
The highest mountains are chiefly destitute of vegetation, and their tops are always while with snow. The lower eminences are, still, almost universally forested, and in this respect resemble the mountains of New-England. The rivers and streams are numerous, and, with the exception of New-Castile, the country is well watered.
Soil and Agriculture. The soil is generally light and rests on
ertile than in the central districts. The two Castiles, Biscay, Na-
orous husbandry. Asturia, Estremadura, and the Mediterranean provinces, especially Andalusia and Valencia, have natively an exuberant feruility, and, with moderate cultivation, yield many of the luxuries of life. In the vale of Valencia wheat yields from 20 to 40 for one; barley from 18 to 24; oats from 20 to 30 ; maize 100; and rice 40. The provinces on the Mediterranean, except Anda. lusia, especially Valencia and Granada, are under high cultivation, as are also Gallicia, Asturia, Biscay, and Navarre. The agriculture of the other provinces is much neglected. Leon is merely a sheep-pasture. Large uncultivated tracts are spread over NewCastile, and the other provinces. The vine, the olive, maize, wheat, rye, barley, hemp, flax, and saffron, are cultivated in every province. The best wine districts are. New Castile, La Mancha, in particular ; Malaga, Seville, Cadiz, Valencia, Arragon, and Navarre. Of the three sorts of Malaga wine, Malaga, Mountain, and Tent, about 30,000 ankers are yearly exported; and of the Xeres or Sherry wine, about 20,000 pipes. This is made at Xeres de la Frontera, 10 miles N. E. of Cadiz. A great part of the wine made in Spain is distilled into brandy; of a quality, however, much inferior to the French. The best raisins are made of the grapes of Malaga, Alicant, Valencia, and Granada. Biscay and Asturia abound in orchards, and make the best of cyder in great quantities. The northern provinces raise great quantities of cattle. The sheep are of two kinds, the travelling or Merinos, estimated at 5,000,000 in number, and the stationary at 8,000,000.
Rivers. The only large river that falls into the Mediterranean in Spain, is the Ebro, the ancient Iberus. Its length is about 440 miles. It begins to be navigable at Tudela ; and its water is remarkable for its salubrity.
The Guadalquivir runs S. W. through Granada and Andalusia, to the Atlantic, about 20 miles N. W. of Cadiz. Its length is about 340 niiles.
The Gaudiana runs S. W. through Now-Castile and Estremadura, to Badajos, where it enters the province of Alentejo in Portugal. Thence its course is S. W. and then S. E. till at length it becomes a boundary of the two kingdoms, separating Algarve from Andalusia, and falling into the Atlantic, after a course nearly equal to that of the Ebro It is navigable to Mertola, about 45 miles.
The Tagus runs W. S. W. through New-Castile and Estremadura, 1o Alcantara, and entering, flows through Estremadura to the Atlantic by a mouth 4 miles broad, forming the harbor of Lisbon. Its course is rapid and the upper part impeded by cataracts. Its length is about 520 miles, and it is much the largest river of Spain. The tide flows-up to Santarem, and the river is navigable for flat vessels about 120 miles.
The Douro runs westward through Old Castile and Leon, 10 Miranda. Thence S. W. between the two kingdoms, about $0 miles, separating Leon from Tras-os-Montes. Here it enters Portugal, and runs westward to the Atlantic, into which it falls, a little mrlow Oporto. Its whole course is about 400 miles.