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assemblage of palaces and apartments, placed by the side of each other, without symmetry or order. The Harem is that part of the seraglio appropriated to the females of the imperial family. The Greeks have 22 churches, besides the patriarchal church; the Armenians have an archbishop and 3 churches; the Roman Cathofics have 6 convents, and the Jews several synagogues. There is also a Sucolish Lutheran church. There are in Constantinople 518 seminaries of learning, 1250 schools, and 55 public libraries

, some of which contain 15,000 volumes. Hassel states the number of houses to be 88,185; and, following Eaton, estimates the number of inhabitants at 300,000. Olivier says the population exceeds 500,000. Probably the calculation of Dalloway is more correct than these. He says that there are 200,000 Turks, 100,000 Greeks, and 100,000 Jews, Armenians, and Europeans. The city has suffered often and severely by the plague and by fires. The trade of the ciiy is chiefly in the hands of the Jews, Armenians, and Greeks ; and the navigation is carried on by Europeans, who are all confounded under the general nanie of Franks.

Philippi, on the river Maritz, was founded by Philip of Macedon. The pumber of inhabitants in 1790 was 120,000. Lat. 42 22 N.

Adrianople, stands also on the Maritz, at the confluence of the Tunsa and the Harda. The number of inhabitants is about 100,000, and the commerce is very extensive. It is the see of the Greek archbishop, and often the residence of the grand signior during the plague. N. lat. 41 41, E. lon. 26 27.

Saloniki, called Thessalonica, stands at the head of the Gulf of Salonica, in Macedonia, in the N. W. corner of the Archipelago. The nuinber of inhabitants is 62,000. This town has always been distinguished for its commerce.

Bucharest, the capital of Wallachia, stands upon the Dembrovitz, a tributary of the Danube. The streets are paved transversely, with planks of wood, badiy fastened, and much decayed. Here is a singular number of churches and convents. Population, 42,000.

Belgrade, the capital of Servia, stands on a side hill, at the conflux of the Save with the Danube. Population, 30,000. The fortifications of Belgrade formerly very strong, were demolished in 3739.

Athens, or Athinla, or Setines, is the see of a Greek archbishop, with a revenue of £ 1000, sterling, and is inhabited almost exclusively by Grecks. It stands on the N. E. coast of the gulf of Engia, with a safe and large harbor, narrow at the entrance, and com. manded by the citadel. Silk, wax, wool, and oil, are the chief exports. The Athenians are still distinguished by the subtlety and acuteness of their understandings, and are more polished in their manners and conversation than their ncighbors. The population is 12,000 souls. The monuments of ancient art remaining in this ciiy, are probably unrivalled in their magnificence.

Manufactures and Commerce. The Turkey carpets have long been distinguished for their beauty; as have the printed muslins of Constantinople, and the crapes and gauzes of Salonica. The brass cannon of the Turks are admired, and their musket and pis

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tol barrels, and sword-blades, are held in great estimation by for-
eigners. Morocco leather is manufactured in large quantities,
and of the best quality, in Gallipoli and the Dardanelles. The
commerce of Turkey is very far from being in a flourishing state.
The oppression of public officers, the venality of tribunals, and the
general want of common honesty, inspire an universal distrust, and
render commercial risks extremely precarious. The effect of
this state of things is to raise the interest of money, and the price
of goods, to an cxorbitant height. Commonly moncy cannot be
borrowed, nor goods purchased on credit, without a pledge above
their value. The interest of money lent to Europeans is from 8
to 10 per cent. ; to Jews, Armenians, and Greeks, from 15 to 20 ;
to private Turks, from 25 to 30 ; and to Turks who beloag to the
government, from 40 to 50.

Climate, Face of the Country, and Soil. The climate of Turkey
is generally mild, the air pure, and the seasons regular. Indian
corn and the vine flourish even in Moldavia and Wallachia ; and
rice and the olive together with these, in the more southern re-
gions. The country is rather mountainous. Rumelia, however,
is chicfy a plain country, and many plains and valleys are found in
the other provinces. The soil is almost universally fertile, yield-
ing vast quantities of excellent grain, particularly wheat, barley,
Indian corn, and rice. The characteristical indolence of the Turks
suffers extensive tracts of fine land to lie in an uncultivated state,

Rivers. The Danube, already mentioned, is in part a Turkish
stream. The Save separates Slavonia from Bosnia. The most
considerable tributary of the Danube from Turkey is thc Morava,
which falls into it a little below Semendria, after a course of 200
miles. The Esker runs 120 miles, and falls into it above Nicopoli.

The Maritz, running S. E. and afterwards S. W. falls into the
Archipelago, after a course of about 300 miles.

The Vardari pursues a southeasterly course of more than 200
miles, to the guif of Salonica.

The Drin pursues a winding course of about 120 miles, and empties into the gulf of Drin, in the Adriatic.

Gulfs. The gulf of Lepanto sets up eastward, about 120 miles from the Ionian sea, separating the Morea from Livadia.

The gulf of Engia, on the opposite side of the isthmus of Core inth, extends from S. E. to N. W. about 20 miles, and is 25 miles wide at the mouth.

The gulf of Salonica is the N. W. termination of the Archipela. go. It is about 120 miles long and 30 wide.

Isthmus. The isthmus of Corinth separates the gulfs of Lepanto and Engia, and connects the Morea with Livadia. This was the scene of the celebrated Isthmian games, which began B. C. 1326.

Mountains. The chains of mountains are numerous and extensive. A southern branch of a grand chain, tending S. W. for inore than 200 miles, forms the N. and W. boundary of Wallachia. On the S. of the Danube appears the grand range of the Ha

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mus. This mountainous tract extends more than 400 miles, aneste is now known under various names.

TURKISH ISLANDS.

Candia, anciently Crete, lies at the bottom of the Archipelago, and is one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean. It extends from E. to W. about 180 mniles in length, between lon. 23 30 and 26 30 E. and about 40 from N. to S. containing, according to Hassel, 4318 square miles. Candia is divided into 3 pachalics that of Retimo, in the west, Canea, in the middle and Candia, inthe cast.

The population of the island is estimated by Olivier, at 240,000. One half of these are Greeks. The mountains are inhabited by the Spachiots, distinguished from the other Greeks by their tall stature, their courage, and their love of liberty.

The exports are horses, oil, soap, wax, honey, cheese, raisins, almonds, walnuts, chesnuts, linseed, and liquorice root. There is scarcely a safe anchorage on the southern coast, but many fine harbors and roadsteads on the northern.

The climate has from remote antiquity been celebrated for its salubrity. Winter is merely a rainy season on the plains, though the bigh mountains are covered with snow. The refreshing sea. breeze constantly tempers the heat of summer. The rivers are little more than torrents, swelled by the rains of winter.

The town of Candia is the capital of the island. It is a sea-port on the northern shore, about the middle of the island. The harbor is small, but well fortified. The streets are straight, and at right angles. The town contains from 10 to 12,000 Turks, from 2 to 3000 Greeks, and about 60 Jews. Here are 25 soap houses, The environs present a few fertile plains and rising grounds

Canea, near the western extremity, is surrounded by a strong wall and deep ditch. Here are 20 soap houses. The town is es-uimated to contain 4000 Turks, 2 or 3000 Greeks, 150 Jews, 4 French and some Italian houses. Canea is the most commercial town in the island.

Retimo, about half way between Candia and Canea, is also a seâa port, on the northern shore. Its harbor is small and shallow. The environs are delightful. It contains about 6000 inhabitants ; half Greeks and half 'Turks.

Negropont stretches from S. E. to N. W. along the coast of Grecia Profiria, and is 96 miles long, and from 8 to 16 broad; containing, according to Hassel, 482 square miles. The whole number of inhabitants is stated in the table at 40,000, which is far less than the ancient population Negropont, the capital, stands on the western side of the island. The harbor is large and deep, and seldom without a fleet of galleys. The town is the residence of the admiral of Turkey, who is the governor of Eubea, the smaller jslands, and of the district of Gallipoli. Population 16,000.

Lemnos, in the northern part of the Archipelago, is 15 miles long and 11 broad. The eastern part of the island is dry and bar

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Ten; the western is fertile and abounding in springs. Stalimene, is the see of a Greek bishop. The other town is Cochino. The whole population is 8000, others say 10,000.

Andros, a small distance S. E. from Negropont, is 90 miles in circumference. It is generally high and mountainous. The popu. .lation is 15,000 souls, distributed into 12 villages.

Tino, one mile S. E. of Andros, is 60 miles in circumference, contains about 70 square miles, and is almost every where mountainous. The inhabitants are the bravest in the Archipelago, and though often attacked, did not submit to the l'urks, till 171.4, when they were probably betrayed by the governor. Here are reckoned 60 towns or villages, inhabited by 40,000 to 45,000 souls.*

Myconi, 12 miles S. E. of Tino, is far from fertile, and almost all mountainous. The inhabitants, 6000 in number, all reside in one town on the coast. They are all farmers or mariners. A little barley and wine are annually exported.

Naria, is chiefly covered with high mountains, the highest of which, called Jupiter, affords an extensive prospect of the Archipedago. The towo Naxos, containing 2000 souls, is on the western -side. The other inhabitants, exceeding 8000, are scattered through 41 villages.

Paros, 6 miles west of Nasia, contains 6000 inhabitants. It has 4, excellent harbors. The celebrated Parian marble is obtained from this island.

Antiparos, 7 miles S. W. and 16 in circumference, is chiefly celebrated for its grotto.

Nio, anciently 10s, 40 miles in circuit, is lofty and mountainous, and far from being fertile. It contains 3700 inhabitants, all Greeks. Homer is said to have been buried here.

Milo, formerly Melos, the southwesternmost of the Cyclades, is 160 miles in circumference, and has a very large harbor, one of the finest in these scas. The population does not exceed 1500.

Santorini, is 40 miles in circumference, and in shape like a horseshoe. The coast rises abruptly from the sca, often to the height of 600 feet. The road is 7 miles long, and 6 deep. The water in it has a depth of from 250 to 300 lathoms, so that ships can find no anchoring ground. The population exceeds 12,000 ; about one sixth of which are Roman Catholics. Here are two bishops, one Latin, the other Greek, and two nunneries. The inhabitants are distinguished for industry, temperance, probity, and good morals.

The other considerable islands will more properly fall under the description of Turkey in Asia.

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ASIA,

AS Asia cxceeds Europe and Africa in the extent of its territo, ries, it is also superior 10 them in the serenity of its air, the fertility of its soil, the deliciousness of its fruits, the fragrance and balsamic qualities of its plants, spices, and gums; the salubrity of its drugs; the quantity, variety, beauty, and value of its gems; the richness of its metals, and the fineness of its silks and cottons. It was in Asia, according to the sacred records, that the all-wise Creator planted the garden of Eden, in which he formed the first man and first woman, from whom the race of mankind has descended. Asia became again the pursery of the world after the deluge, whence the descendants of Noah dispersed their various colonies into all the other parts of the globe. It was in Asia that God placed his chosen people, the Hebrews, to whom, by the prophetsa and other holy men, he gave the Oracles of Truth. It was here that the great and merciful work of our redemption was accom plished by the Son of God; and it was from hence that the light of his glorious gospel was carried with amazing rapidity into all the known nations, by his disciples and followers. Here the first Christian churches were founded, and the Christian faith miracuJously propagated, and cherished, by the preaching of the gospel, and the blood of innumerable martyrs. It was in Asia that the first edifices were reared, and the first empires founded, while the other parts of the globe were inhabited only by wild animals. On these accounts, this quarter claims a superiority over the rest : but a great change has happened, especially in that part of it called Turkey, which has lost its ancient splendor, and from the most populous and best cultivated spot in Asia, is become almost a wild and uncultivated desert.

Extent. This division of the earth extends from the Hellespont, the most westerly point, lon. 26 E. to East Cape, in about 190 degrees E. lon. from London, being 7583 miles in length. 1o.' breadth it is 5250 miles.

Asia is limited, on the east, by a strait which divides it from America, and which, in honor of the discoverer, is called Behring's strait. The northern and southern boundaries are the Arctic and Indian oceans, in which last, many large islands, particularly that of New-Holland, now more classically and properly styled Australasia, affords a vast additional extent to this quarter of the globe. The western limits of Asia have already been defined.

Divisions. Though Pinkerton's arrangement will be followed in the description of the different parts of Asia, it will be useful here to insert Hassel's table of divisions, though implicit confidence is not to be placed in their correctness.

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