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These provinces are subdivided into governments, arbitrarilo administered by pachas.

Histury. The present limits of Turkey were fixed by the trea's between the Porte and Persia, 1736, since which period the Turk have been chiefly occupied in their own defence against the Res. sias.

Population. The Turkish empire in Asia is estimated by Pirkerton at 470,400 square miles ; and the population at ten millions; which, allowing eight for the European part, will render the total 18,000,000.*

In the Caucasian mountain, not far from the Black Sea, is a people called Sonnas, from their country of this name, amounting to about 200,000 souls, inhabiting 60 villages, some of which are towns of 900 houses. These people acknowledge Jesus Christ to be their only King and Saviour. They pray that God would bless them for Christ's sake, observe the sabbath, have priests who baplize their children, and administer the sacrament of the supper. They have many church books, but know not the ineaning of them. They believe in a future judgement. They are said, some of them, to labor under deep convictions of sin, and to pray night and day. They consider their preservation and the preservation of Christianity among them as a miracle. They inoculate their children for the small pox ; have gardens enclosed with stone walls, and abundance of fruit, and live in harmony and comfort.t

Cities and Towns. Aleppo, on the Mediterranean, the capital of Syria, is supposed to contain about 250,000 inhabitants. The buildings and population seem to have been on the increase, but the adjacent villages are descrted. The chief languages are the Turkish and Arabic. The manufactures of silk and cotton are in a flourishing condition, and large caravans frequently arrive from Bagdad and Bassora, charged with the products of Persia and India ; consuis from various European powers reside here, to attend the interests of the respective nations.

Damascus is supposed to contain about 180,000 souls. It was formerly celebrated for the manufacture of sabres. The manufactures now consist of silk and cotton, and excellent soap. From the Mediterrancan are imported metals and broadcloths : and the caravans of Bagdad bring Persian and Indian articles.

Smyrna may be regarded as the third city in Asiatic Turkey, containing about 140,000 souls. This flourishing seat of European commerce, and chief mart of the Levant trade, is said to have been founded by Alexander the Great, eminently distinguished from all other conquerors by the foundation, and not the destruction of cities. The excellence of the haven renders Smyrna the centre of all the traffic of Asia Minor; but the frequent visits of the pestilence greatly impede its prosperity. It has been observed that the sands in the bay of Smyrna gradually incrcase, and may probably

• Hassel estimates the square miles at 533,000, and the population at 11,090,000, and Montelle and Malte, at 13,600,000. But both these pages phers include Egypt in their calculations, which accounts for the difference | Brunton's Letter, Feb. 1806.

| Chandler, 65.

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In time impede the commerce. Earthquakes are here terrible. The city of Smyrna is poorly built. The houses in general are mere mud huts, and the streets loathsome and filthy in the extreme. The street of the Franks is the principal commercial street. It contains many well built houses. The warehouses are all fire. proof.*

Prusa is a beautiful city, in a romantic situation, at the northern bottom of mount Olympus. By Tournefort's computation of families the inhabitants may be about 60,000. It was formerly the chosen residence of the sultans, and contains many of their tombs.

Angora contains about 80,000 inhabitants. The trade is chiefly in yarn, of which the English shalloons are made ; and in their own manufacture of Angora stuffs, made chiefly of the fine hair of a particular breed of goats, which, like that of the cats, occurs in no Other country.

Tokat is also a flourishing place. The inhabitants are computed at 60,000. Silk and leather are manufactures of Tokat ; but the chief is that of copper utensils, which are sent to Constantinople, and even to Egypt.

Basra or Bassora, on the estuary of the Euphrates and Tigris, is a city of 50,000 inhabitants, and great commercial consequence, being frequented by numerous vessels from Europe and Asia, and the seat of an English consul.

The great and romantic Bagdad, the seat of the califs, and the scene of many eastern fictions, has now dwindled into a town of about 20,000 inhabitants. Near this city was ancient Babylon, whose present state furnishes conclusive evidence of the fulfilment of prophecy.

The ancient and celebrated city of Jerusalem is reduced to a mean town, chiefly existing by the piety of pilgrims. This city will ever be interesting to the heart of sensibility. Christ declared that the place “ should be trodden down of the Gentile&.To this day Gentiles possess the city. It is inhabited by 'Turks, Arabs, and a few Christians. The Jews do not choose to dwell here; they say it must undergo a conflagration and inundation, when the Messiah comes to purity it from the defilements of Christians and Mahome. tans.

Erzeron, the capital of Armenia, contains about 25,000 inhabitants.

Tyre was once a famous city of Phenicia, and anciently a place of more extensive commerce than any spot in the world. In the time of the prophet Isaiah, “ Her merchants were princes.” In the time of Alexander, it was encircled by a wall 150 feet high. This city arrested the progress of his conquering arıy for seven months. But for their wickedness God threatened by the voice of prophecy, that this mart of nations should become desolate. "I will cause the noise of thy songs to cease; I will make thee like the top of a rock. Thou shalt be a place to spread nels upon. Thou shalt be built no more.” This prophecy has been literally fulfilled. The

• Langdon's MS

place is now buried in its own ruins. There is nothing here now to give the least idea of its former glory and magnificence. There is, indeed, on the N. side, one old Turkish castle, beside which, nothing is to be seen, but fallen, broken pillars. Not a single habitation for human beings is there on this once celebrated spot. It is totally abandoned, excepting by a few fishermen, who sometimes visit it to fish in the surrounding waters, and on its rocks dry their nets, sheltering themselves under the ruins of its ancient grandeur. Lon. 35 48 E. lat. 33 23 N.

Climate and Seasons. Asia Minor has a fine climate. There is a peculiar softness and serenity in the air, not perceivable on the European side of the Archipelago. The heat of the summer is considerably tempered by the numerous chains of high mountains, some of which are said to be covered with perpetual snow.

Face of the Country. The general appearance of Asiatic Tur-' key is mountainous; but intermingled with large and beautiful plains, which, instead of being covered with rich crops of grain, are pastured by the numerous flocks and herds of the Turcomans. The soil of Asia Minor is chiefly a deep clay ; and wheat, barley, and durra, form the chief products of agriculture.* Excellent grapes and olives abound; and the southern provinces are fertile in dates. In Syria the agriculture is in the most deplorable condition. The peasants though not sold with the soil, like those of Poland, are, if possible, yet more oppressed; barley bread, onions, and water, furun their constant fare.f

Rivers. The principal river of Asiatic Turkey is the Euphrates, which rises from the mountains of Armenia, a few miles to the N. E. of Erzeron ;£ and chiefly pursues a S. W. direction to Semisat, where it would fall into the Mediterranean, if not prevented by a high ridge of mountains. In this part of its course the Euphrates is joined by the Morad from the east, a stream almost double in length to that of Euphrates. At Semisat, the ancient Samosata, thisnoble river assumes a southerly direction; then runs an extensive course to the S. E. and after receiving the Tigris, falls by two or three mouths into the gulf of Persia, 50 miles S. E. of Bassoras The length of the Euphrates is about 1400 miles. Its water is remarkably pleasant. It is muddy when first taken up, but soon becomes clear; and is by some preferred to wine or spirits. The tide raises its water more than 30 leagues above its mouth, lon. 66 55 E. lat. 29 50 N:

Next in importance is the Tigris, which rises about 150 miles south from the sources of the Euphrates, and pursues nearly a rego ular direction S. E. till it joins the Euphratesbelow Korna, about 60 miles north of Bassura; after a course of about 800 miles. The Euphrates and the Tigris are both navigable for a considerable distance from the sea.

The third river in Asiatic Turkey is Kizil Irmak, the celebrated Halys of antiquity, which rising in mount Taurus, crosses nearly the whole of Asia Minor, and joins the Euxine sea, on the west of the gulf of Sansoun.

* Browne, 418. + Volney, ii. 419. | Tournefort, ii, 198.

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Jordan is a river of Palestine, rising from lake Phiala, in AntiLibanus. It runs under ground 15 miles, then breaks out at Peneum ; passes through Samachomite lake, anciently called Meron, 6 miles long, 4 broad. Two miles after its leaving the lake, is. a stone bridge, of 3 arcbes, called “ Jacob's Bridge,” supposed to have been built before the days of Jacob. After separating Galilee from Tracontis, it passes through the lake Tiberias; thence, after a course of 65 miles, part of the way through a vast and most hora, rid desert, receiving the Carith, (on the bank of which Elijah was fed by ravens) and many other tributary streams, it empties into the Dead Sea. It is a very rapid river, generally about 4 or 5 rods wide, and 9 feet deep, and, except in freshets, runs 2 yards below the brink of its channel. The waters are turbid, but very wholesome.

Lakes. Asiatic Turkey contains numerous lakes. That of Van, in the north of Kurdistan, is the most remarkable, being about 80 miles in length, and about 40 in breadth.

In Syria is Asphallites lake, known also by the names of the Salt
Sea, Dead Sea, and Sea of Sodom, S. of Jordan, and on the S. E.
border of the ancient Canaan. According to Josephus, it is 72 iniles

long, and about 19 broad. Modern travellers, however, make it
only 24 miles long, and 6 or 7 broad. The rivers Jordan, Arnon,
Kidron, and other streams, empty into this lake. It has no visible
communication with the sea. The great quantities of bitumen,
slime or mineral pirch, in this lake, render its waters unfit to drink.
No fish can live in it. The sulphurous stream affects even the
fruit on the shore in some parts. This lake is supposed to occupy
the ancient site of Sodom, Gomorrah, Adinah, and Zeboim, and the
valley of Siddim.

The lake of Rackama, to the south of Hilla, and the ancient
Babylon, is about 30 miles in length, and flows into the Euphrates.

Towards the centre of Asia Minor, there is a remarkable saline
lake, about 70 miles in length, and a mile or two in breadth, being
the Tatta, or Palus Salsa of D'Anville's ancient geography.

Mountains. The first rank is due to the Taurian chain of antiquity, which was considered as extending from the neighborhood of the Archipelago to the sources of the Ganges. The Caucasian mountains form a range from the mouth of the river Cuban, in the N. W. to where the river Ker enters the Caspian, in the S. E. A chain extends from Caucasus S. W. to near the bay of Scanderoon.

Towards the east of Armenia, is Ararat, a detached mountain, with two summits; the highest being covered with eternal snow. In one of the flanks is an abyss, or precipice, of prodigious depth, the sides being perpendicular, and of a rough black appearance, as if tinged with smoke. This mountain belongs to Persia, but is here mentioned on account of connexion.

In Syria the most celebrated mountain is that of Lebanon, or Libanus, running in the soutberly and northerly direction of the Mediterranean shore, and generally at the distance of about 30 or 40 miles. It is about 100 leagues in circumference. Its cedars have been remarkable from the days of Solomon. But 16 aged ones re

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main. One of them is 36 feet 6 inches in circumference, and the spread of its branches proportionably extensive.

The eastern side of the Archipelago presents many mountains of great height and classical fame, chiefly in ranges extending from N to S. Of these Olympus is one of the most celebrated, a vast range covered with perpetual snow. About 140 miles W. of Olympus rises mount Ida, of great though not equal height.


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The chief islands in the Archipelago, considered as belonging to Asia, are Mytilene, Scio, Samos, Cos, and Rhodes.

Mytilene, the ancient Lesbos, is the most northerly and largest of these isles, being about 40 miles in length, by 24 at its greatest breadth. Its population is upwards of 100,000. The climate is exquisite; and it was anciently noted for wines, and the beauty of the women.

Scio, the ancient Chios, is about 56 miles in length, by about 13 in medial breadth. The Chian wine is celebrated by Horace, and retains its ancient fame. The inhabitants are supposed to be about 60,000.

Samos is about 30 miles in length, and 10 in breadth. This isle is also crossed by a chain of hills, and the most agreeable part is the plain of Cora. Tourncfort computes the inhabitants at 12,000.

Cos, or Coos, is about 24 miles in length, by 3 or 4 in breadth ; but has been little visited by modern travellers.

Rhodes is about 36 miles in length, by 15 in breadth, an island celebrated in ancient and modern times. It is fertile in wheat, though the soil be of a sandy nature. The population is computed at about 40,000. The city of the same name, in which no Christian is now permitted to dwell, stands in the north end of the isle ; and was anciently noted for a colossus in bronze, about 130 feet high. This isle was for two centuries possessed by the knights of St. John of Jerusalem, thence styled of Rhodes, till 1523, when it was taken by the Turks; and the emperor Charles V. assigned to the knights the island of Malta.

Cyprus is about 160 miles in length, and about 70 at its greatest breadth. The soil is fertile, yet agriculture is in a neglected state. The chief products are silk, cotton, wines, turpentine, and timber. The Cypriots are a tall and elegant race; but the chief beauty of the women consists in their sparkling cyes. To the disgrace of the Turkish government, the population of this extensive island is computed at 50,000 souls !


Extent. ASIATIC RUSSIA extends between the 57th and the 190th degrees of east longitude from London, computed at 4570 miles in length. Its greatest breadth, from the Altaian chain of

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