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China
Choctaws
Ciampa
Cochin
Cochin China
Coimbra
Colombo
Colorado river
Columbia District
Columbia river
Comets
Connecticut

river
Constantinople
Continents
Copenhagen
Copernican system
Corea
Cork
Corsica
Coos island
Crcek Indians
Cuba
Cumberland river
Curacoa
Cusco
Cyprus
Damascus
Danish America
Danish Empire
Dantzic
Danube river
Dardanelles
Delaware state
Denmark
Deseada
Detroit
Divisions of the earth
Domingo St.
Dominica
Dresden
Dublin
Dutch Guiana
Earth
Ætna, mount
Edinburgh
Egypt
Elizabeth islands
England
English Guiana
Erie lake
Essequebo river
Euphrates river
Europe

532 Euxine sea
257 Falkland islands
548 Ferro islands
582 Fishery of Newfoundland
548 Fixed stars
493 Fiorence

585 Floridas
69, 358 Formosa island

215 Fox islands
69 France
29 Frankfort

153 French Guiana
110,161 Gallapagos

511 Ganges
51

Geneva
415 Genoa

20 Georgia
541 Germany
401 Ghent
454 Gibraltar
524

straits
257 Gilolo island
293 Glasgow
110 Globes and their use
314 Goa
334 Gottingen
524 Governments of America
520. Granada

75 Greenland
407 Green mountains
464 Grenada
367 Guadaloupe
364 Guatemala
182 Guayaquil
412 Guernsey isle
308 Guiana
201 Gulf stream

51 Hague
295 Halifax
308 Hanoverian states
460 Hartford
401

Harvard Coilege
327

Havanna
23, 49 Hayti

504 Heckla mountain
393 Helena St.
633 Hesse, grand duchy of
14 Ilindostan
371 Hispaniola
328 Holland

63 Hudson river
331

sca
593 Hudson
369 Huron lake

662
361
417
84
32
498
273
537

74
445
466
328
351
367
477
498
249
456
443
489
364
610
395

34
583
461

58
483

77
114
311
S07
284
317
S88
327

60
440

88
461
158
138
294
295

77
660
462
566
295
437
110

59
169

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Jamaica
298 Malta

506
Japan
550 Manillas

609
Java
607 Mantua

500
Iceland
75 Maps and their use

42
Jedda
602 Marigalante

308
Jersey isle

388
Maracaibo

323
Jerusalem

521
Marietta

198
Illinois river
109 Marseilles

450
territory
205 Martha's Vineyard

108
Indian ocean
52 Martinico

309
Indiana territory
203 Maryland

209
Interesting tables
661 Massac fort

207
Ionian republic
507 Massachusetts

134
Ircland
399 Mauritius

660
Isle of Shoals
129 M'Kenzie's river

69
Isle of Man
388 Mecca

602
Isle of Wight
388 Medina

602
Ispahan

590
Mediterranean sea

562
Italy

495 Mecklenburg, house of 462
Juggernaut
580 Mexico

277
Ivica

488
gulf

60
Julian calendar
47 Michigan lake

63
Kamtchatka sound

364
territory

200
Kaskaskias
206 Michilimackinac

203
Kentucky
225 Milan

500
Kingston (Upper-Canada) -86 Milcs, length of in differ-
Lakes of America

61
ent countries

45
La Plata
347 Mindanao

609
river
68, 349 Minorca

488
La Guira
323 Missisippi river

65
La Pas

347
territory

200
Lapland
405 Missouri river

65
Leghorn
499 Mobile river

112
Leipsic
460 Modena

500
Leoo Keoo islands
549 Moluccas

610
Leyden

440
Montserrat

307
Lima
334 Montreal

82
Liverpool

380
Monte Video

346
Long island
174 Moroceo

629
sound
108 Moosehead lake

134
Louisburg
93 Munich

467
Louisiana
260 Nankin

534
Low Countries
437 Nantucket

147
Lower-Canada
80 Naples kingdom

501
Lucca
499 Narragansett bay

108
Lyons
451 Nassau

290
Madagascar
658 Natchez Indians

257
Madeira
659 Navigator's islands

615
Madiid
482 Naxia

515
Magdeburg
461 Nepaul

545
Majorca
488 Netherlands

442
Maine District

130 Newbern (North-Carolina) 232
Malaga

484 Newark (Upper-Canada) 86
Malara
560 New-Bedford

143

[blocks in formation]

617
317

New-Britain
615 Patagonia

358
New-Britain (N. America) 79 Patna

577
New-Brunswick
91 Pearl river

259
New-Caledonia
615 Pegu

558
Newfoundland
84 Pekin

534
New-Granada
315 Pelew isles

617
New Hampshire
124 Pennsylvania

186
New-Haren
158 Penobscot river

133
New-Holland
612 Pensacola

274
New-Ireland
615 Pernambuco

342
New-Jersey
175 Persia

586
New-London
159 Peru

332
New-Madrid

265 Petersburg (Russia) 428
New Orleans
265 Philippinc islands

609
Newport
151 Philadelphia

192
New-York
162 Pisa

499
city
168 Placentia

84
New Zealand
616 Poland

431
Nevis

306 Polynesia
Niagara river

116, 64 Porto Bello
fort
64 Porto Cavallo

323
Niger
366 Porto Rico

301
Nile
365 Porto Santo island

659
Norfolk island
613 Portland

131
(Virginia) 321 Ponchartrain lake

276
North-America

71 Portsmouth(N, Hampshire) 126
North-Carolina
229 Port Royal

300
Northern ocean
52 Portugal

490
Northwest Coast
74 Portuguese Guiana

328
Norway
407 Potosi

346
Nova-Zembla
431 Potowmac river

111
Nova-Scotia
87 Prague

470
Nubia
637 Presque isle

63
Oparo isles

621 Princeton (New-Jersey) 180
Oporto
493 Providence

151
Oceans, account of
52 Prussia

432
Okefonoco swamp
256 Pyramids of Egypt

632
Ohio
196 Ptolemaic system

19
river
109 Pyrenees

454
Ontario lake
64 Quebec

182
Orkney islands

598 Queenstown
Oronoco river
69 Quito

SI
Otaheite
620 Raisin river

202
Owhyhet
619 Raleigh

232
Pacific occan
52 Rappahannoc river

22,3
Palermo
503 Rariton river

181
Pamlico sound
108 Red sea

363
Panama
317 Red river

268
Papua

614 Religions, account of 49
Parana river
350 Rhode Island

146
Paria, gulf of
324 Rhodes

524
Paris
450 Richmond

221
Parma
499 Riga

42&
Paramaribo
3.30 Rio Janeiro

342

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Rio Negro
Roanoke river
Rome
Russian Empire

America
Saba
Salopika
Samarcand
Sandusky river
Sandwich isles
Santa Cruz
Santa Fe de Bogola
Santa Martha
Santee river
Santorini
Sardinia
Savannah river
Saxony
Scheldt
Scioto river
Scotland
Seringapatam
Siam
Sicily
Smyrna
Socotra isle
Solomon islands
Solar system
South-America
South-Carolina
Southern Georgia
Southern states
Spain
Spanish America

Guiana
Spitzbergen
Spice islands
St. Bartholomcw
St. Christophers
St. Lucia
St. Martin's
St. Eustatius
St. Domingo
St. Jago
St. John's
St. Lawrence gulf
St. Thomas
Stockholm
Suez
Sumatra
Susquehannah river
Superior lake
Surat
Sweden

359 Switzerland
112 Syrian Christians
498 Tangier
424 Tartary

73 Tchoka
305 Tennessee
512

river
597 Terra del Fuego
200 Tibet
619 Tides
304 Tigris
317 Timor
318 Tobago
112 Tortola
515 Tranquebar

505 Tripoli
112, 252 Trenton

459 Trinidad
444 Trois Rivieres
199 Truxillo
388 Tunis
582

Turin
562 Turkcy in Asia
505

in Europe
520 Tychonic system
661 Tyre
615 Valdivia

19 Valencia
515 Van Diemen's Land
240 Ubes St.
361 Venice
209 Venezuela
478 Vera Cruz
269 Vermont
327 Vernon mount

73 Vesuvius mount
610 Vienna
305 Vincennes
306 Virginia
310 Virgin isles
305 United States
305 Upper-Canada
295 Uraguay river
354 Utrecht
84. Wabash river
60 Washington city
304 Warsaw

421 West-Indies
602, 634 Westphalia

606 Winnipiseogee lake
il Wurtemberg

62 Xarayes lake
580 Yale College
418 Zealand island

473
584
625
595
540
234
109
360
541

44
593
608
312
304
582
631
179
312

82
334
630
499
519
509

20
521
355
482
616
493
500
319
280
118
221
498
470
204
2017
303
94
85
350
440
110
215
460
285
460
129
465

65
157
412

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INTRODUCTION.

RISE AND PROGRESS OF GEOGRAPHY.

3

G a

EOGRAPHY is a term," derived from the Greck language,

4 2 1 9 2 2

4 o 9 9 9 0 1 5 2 5 3

the nature, figure, and magnitude of the earth; the situation, extent, and appearance of different parts of its surface; its productions and inhabitants.

The time when attention was first paid to the pleasing and useful study of geography, is unknown. It seems to be the general opinion, that the Greeks, who were the first cultivators of this science in Europe, received it either from the Egyptians or Babyloninians; but it cannot be determined to which of these two nations belongs the honor of having invented it.

Geography was very imperfect in its beginning, and has advanced slowly towards its present degree of perfection. The true figure of the earth was unknown to its first inhabitants, and the earliest opinion seems to have been that, which would most naturally result from the first information given by the senses. It was considered as a large circular plane; and the heavens, in which the sun, moon, and stars appear daily to move from east to west, were supposed not to be elevated to a very great height above it, and to have been created solely for its use and ornament. It is not known who first rejected this erroneous hypothesis, and shewed that the figure of the earth is spherical; but it seems to have been done at a time of remote antiquity.

It appears that the situation of places was first determined according to climates; and that geographers were then guided, in fixing on the climates, by the form and colour of certain animals, which were to be found in different countries. The appearance of Ne. groes, or what they called Ethiopians, and of the larger sized animals, as the rhinoceros and elephant, suggested to them the northern and southern limits of the torrid zone. A different and more scientific method was used by the Egyptians and Babylonians, who determined the situation of places, or their distance from the equatory by observing the length of their longest and shortest days. And these observations were made with a species of sun-dial, having a stilus or gnomon, erected perpendicularly upon a horizontal planc, by which the length of the shadow of the gnomon, in proportion to its height, might be mcasured.

It may be conjectured that travelling, soon after it began to be much practised in the world, gave rise to a kind of geography.

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Tosypaçit, from yñ the earth, and ypása to describe,

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