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IV. THE CELEBEZIAN ISLES.

C'elebez is more than 600 miles long, but not above 60 miles broad, containing about 92,000 square miles, and 3,000,000 inhabitants,* lon. from 116° to 124° E. Jat. I 30 to 5 30 N. This island is lofty and mountainous, especially towards the centre, and there are several active volcanoes. The natives, commonly called Macassars, often degrade their courage in the quality of freebooters, attacking vessels with surprising desperation, and often with lances, or arrows poisoned with the juice of the notorious tree calied upas. Their houses are raised on pillars, as usual, on account of the rainy? season, or W. monsoon, from November till March.

Around Celebez are many small isles, mostly inhabited, and governed by chicfs.

V. THE SPICE ISLANDS, INCLUDING THE MOLUCCAS.

The chief Spice Islands are Gilolo, Ceram, and Bouro, with More tay, Oubi, Mysol, that of Amboyna, and the group of Banda, with such small isles as approximate nearer to these than to the Celebezian group, or Sumatran chain.

Gilolo is about 230 miles in length; the breadth seldom above40. The shores are low: the interior rises to high peaks. The sultans of Ternat and Tidore now share this large isle between them.t One of the chief towns is Tatany, on a point or small promontory of the eastern limb. The bread fruit is frequent in Gilolo, with thc sago tree. The natives are industrious, particularly in weaving.

Ceram is about 190 miles in length by 40 in breadth; low towards the shore, but with inland mountains, producing clove trees, and large forests of the sago tree.

Bouro is about 90 miles in length, by 50 in breadth. It rises suddenly from a deep sea, being encompassed as with a wall. The interior mountains are lofty.

Of Mortay, Mysol, and Oubi, little is known.

The proper Moluccas are Ternat, Tidore, Motir, Makian, and Batchian.

The largest is Butchian, being governed by a sultan, who is like. wise sovereign of Oubi and Ceram, with Goram, a little isle S. E. of Ceram, reputed the most eastern boundary of the Mahometan faith. This monarch had a pension from the Dutch, either for the destruction or supply of nutmegs, but is otherwise little subservi. ent. Barcliian rises into woody bills; and on the shores, as in most isles of this archipelago, there are prodigious rocks of coral, of great varicty and beauty. Makian is a small isle to the N. of Batchian, and rises like a high conic mountain from the sea. This was regarded as the chicf Dutch settlement before Amboyna became the metropolis of the Moluccas. Next is Motir, formerly

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? said to be the seat of Venus and voluptuousness. - In Tidore there
are 25 mosques; and the sultan, as already mentioned, possesses
also the south of Gilolo, and claims tribuite from Mysol.

Ternat is the most northern and important of the Moluccas,
: though it scarcely exceed 24 miles in circumference. The sultani
controls Makian and Motir, with the north of Gilolo, Mortay, and
even some Celebczian isles, and part of Papua, whence he receives
a tribute of gold, amber, and birds of Paradise. Ternat consists
chiefly of high land, abounding with streams from the mountains.

. Amboyna is about 60 miles in length from N. to S. and on the
west side there is a large bay, which divides it into two limbs or
peninsulas. On the eastern side is another bay, with a bad harbor,
where the Portuguese erected their chief fortress, Vicioria. The
town of Amboyna, the capital of the isle, stands near the S. W.ex.
tremity and is neatly built; the houses, on account of the frequent
earthquakes, seldom exceed one floor. The face of this island is
beautiful, woody mountains and verdant vales being interspersed
with hamlets, and enriched by cultivation.* The clove tree grows
to the height of about 40 or 50 feet, with spreading branches and
long pointed leaves. In deep sheltered vales some trecs will pro-
chce 30 pounds weight annually, the chief crop being from No-
vember to February. The soil is mostly a reddish clay, but in the
vales blackish and sandy. When Amboyna was recently seized by
the English,t it was found, with its dependencies, to contain 45,25%
souls, of which 17,813 were Protestants, thic rest Mahometans, ex-
cept a few Chinese and savages. The Dutch are tolerably polish-
ed, this being the next settlement to Batavia in wealth and conse-
quence. The natives cannot be praised, they differ little from other
Malays; and when intoxicated with opium will commit any crime.

Banda, or Lantor, is the chicf isle of a group, which comprises
6 or 7 others; it does not exceed 8 miles in length, from W. to E.
and the greatest breadth at its castern extremity may be 5 miles.
The nutmeg tree is the principal object of cultivation in these
is!es ; and flourishes not only in the rich black mould, but even
amidst the lavas of Gunong, which is the highest isle, the summit
being 1940 feet above the sea. When the English seized these
isles in 1796, the annual produce was about 163,000 pounds of
nuimers and 46,000 pounds of mace. The pumeg treu g?ows to
lile size of a pear tree, ibe Icaves resembling those of the laurel,
and bears fruit from the age of 10 to 100 years.

The inhabitants of the Banda isles were found to be 5763. The
English were expelled from Lantor, and Rolin, or Pulo Rohn,

• An account of the Spice Islands, since they have been in the possession of
Great Britain. Asiatic Register, 1800, p. 200. There was a most violent
earthquake in 1755.

The islands of Amboyna and Banda were taken without resistance in February and March, 1796, by the Evolisis admiral Rainier.

'The hurricane and earthquake, 1778, almost angibilated the nutmeg treesia Banda, so that the Dutch have become the dupes of their own avarice. From 1796 to 1798 the English East India Company imported 817,312 lb. clo 93,752 lb. nutmegs, 46,730 ils, mace, besides private trade, amounting to about a third part of the above, Starorinus, ij. 418.

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prior to the massacre of Amboyna; Lui seized the whole Spice Islands in 1796, and restored them to their Batavian masters by the treaty with France, 1801. In 1810, they were again taken by the British, in whose possession they now remain.

AUSTRALASIA,

AUSTRALASIA, as alrcady bounded, contains the following countries :

1. The central and chief land of New-Holland, with ang isles which may be discovered in the adjacent Indian ocean, 20 degrees to the W. and between 20 and 30 degrees to the E. including particularly all the large islands that follow :

2. Papua, or New-Guinea.
3. New-Britain and New-Ireland, with the Solomon Isles.
4. New-Caledonia, and the New-Hebudes.
5. New Zealand.

6. The large island called Van Diemen's Land, recently discova ered to be separated from Now-Holland by a strait, or rather channel, called Bass's strait.

1. NEW-HOLLAND.

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Some suppose that this extensive region, when more thoroughly investigated, will be found to consist of two, three, or more vast islands, intersected by narrow seas. However this be, the most re. cent and authentic charts sull indicate New-Holland as a county fully entitled to the appellation of a continent. The length from E. 10 W. is about 2730 miles. The breadth 1960 miles. Europe, the smallest of the ancient continents, is supposed to be about 3500 miles in its ulmost length, and its greatest breadth 2350. New Holland, appears, therefore, to be a quarter less than Europe.

The Dutch are regarded by Des Brosses, as the chief discoverers of Australasia, between the year 1616 and 1644.*

The eastern coast having been carefully examined by Cook, was formally taken possession of in the name of the king of Great Britain, 1770. On the close of thc American war, it being difficult to select a proper place of transportation for crimina's sentenced to that punslinien by the laws of their country, this new territory was at length preferred, in 1786, and the first sluip sailed from Spiriead on to souh January, 1787, and arrived on the 2014 of the sarse month in the following year. Botany Bay being found to be a station of interior advantages to what were expected, and no spot appearing proper for the colony, it was immediately resolved by governor Phillip to transfer it to another excellent inlet, about 1: miles farther to the rorth, called Port Jackson, on the south sides

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ized ide at which, at a spot called Sidney Cove, this settlement is now fixed. E:Lavan

Port Jackson is one of the noblest harbors in the world, extending re again that about 14 miles in length, with numerous creeks or coves.

Division. The name of Cumberland county is given by the government to the settlement at Sidney Cove. It is about 50 miles in length, and 30 in breadth. The chief place of settlement, is it Sidney Cove, near the centre, where a rown has been regularly laid out, and built. The principal streets are 200 feet wide. The cli. mate is said to be equal to ihe finest in Europe.

Inhabitants. The inhabitants on the E. coast are merely divided into families, the senior being styled Bc-ana, or father. Each family or tribe has a particular place of residence, and is distinguished by adding sal to ihe name of the place ; thus the southern shore of Botany Bay is called Gwca, and ihe tribe there Gwea-gal. No religion whatever is known, though they have a faint idea of a future existence, and think their people return to the clouds, whence they originally fell. They are of a low stature, and ill made. Some are nearly as black as African negroes, while others exhibit a copper or Malay color, but the hair is long, not woolly like the African. Their noses are flat, nostrils wide, sunk eyes, thick brows and lips, with a mouth of prodigious width, but the teeth white and cven.

The huts are most rudely constructed of the bark of crees, in the form of an oven, the fire being at the entrance.

Climate and Seasons. From its situation, on the southern side of the equator, the seasons are like those of the southern part of Afija ca and America, the reverse of those in Europe; the summer cor. responding with our winter, and the spring with autumn. Mr. Collins found the weather in December very hot, but the climate was allowed to be fine and salubrious. The rains were heavy, appearing to fall chiefly about the full and change of the inoon; and at intervals there were storms of thunder and lightning:

Face of the Country. It would be idle to attempt any delineation of the general aspect of this country. The small portion known scems hilly, but not mountainous. The soil around Botany Bay is black and fat, and fertile of plants, whence the namic arose.

Rivers and Mountains. Concerning the rivers, lakes, and moun. tains of New-Holland there is liitle information. Nepean river in New-South Wales, is 34 miles S. W. of Port Hunter, and 46 from the town of Paramatia. The Paramalta river passes the town of this naine, which is the residence of the missionary, and is a fourishing place. A chain of mountains is said 10 run N. and S. belwcen 30 and 60 miles inland, but not easily accessible on account of numerous deep ravines.

Islands Norfolk Island lies in S. lat. 29 4, E. lon. 168 12; at the distance of icoo miles N. E. of Pori Jackson, containing 11,010 acres of an excellent soil; it is 7 leagues in circumference, disa covered by Capt. Cook, in 1774. The island is very hilly. The highest peak, named Mount Pitt, is 1200 feet high. The cliff's round the coast are 240 feet perpendicular. In February, 1788, %6 persons from the New-Holland cclony took possession of this

island, which was inhabited, with a view to cultivate maize, wheat, and particularly the flax plant.

vipean Island is opposite Port Hunter, on the S. coast of Norfolk Island. It is a mass of sand, surrounded by a border of hard rocks. The surface is covered with coarse grass, and upwards of 200 fine pines are growing on it.

II. PAPUA, OR NEW-GUINEA.

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This country is still far from being completely investigated, but is conceived to be a vast island, extending more ihan 1200 miles in length by a medial breadth of perhaps 300, and thus far superior in size to Borneo, formerly reputed the largest of islands.

The inhabitants of the northern parts are called Papous, whence the name of the country. They are black, and even said to have the woolly hair of negroes; but this last circumstance will proba. bly be discovered, as in New-Holland, to proceed from art, and in some paris it would seem that the inliabitants have the true Malay complexion and features. In the interior is a race called Haraforas, who live in trees, which they ascend by a notched pole, drawing it after them to prevent surprise.

The religious tenets of the Papuans have been little examined, They make tombs of the rude coral rock, sometimes with sculp. tures. The chief commerce is with the Chinese, from whom they purchase their instruments and utensils. Their returns are am. bergris, tortoise-shell, small pearls, birds of paradise, and other birds which the Papuans dry with great skill. Some slaves are also exported, probably captives taken in intestine wars.

The coasts of Papua are generally lofty, and, inland, mountain rises above mountain, richly clothed with woods.

Captain Forrest, to wliom we are indebted for an interesting voyage in these scas, only visited the harbor of Dory in the northern part of Papua, so that our knowledge of this large island remains extremely imperfect. He observed at a considerablc distance, the mountains of Arlac of a remarkable height. Near the hai bor of Dory he found in some little isles abundance of nutmeg Creus, and there is room to infer that the land of Papua is not desuitutc of the same productions, and may perhaps also boast of cloves.

Some rf the small adjacent islands are better known than the main land of Popus.

lluijou, or Il'adjoo, is an isle of considerable size, and is said 10 contain 100,000 inhabitanis. The land is high with lofty moun, tains and on the north side are two excellent 1.a, bors, Piapis and Otrak.*

Sointti is also a populous island, governed by a raja. The people of these two large is)ands resemble those of the main and oi Papua

* See Forresi's voyage and the chart.

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