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neighboring tribes. Schools are established.
The country is healthy, and the colony thriving.
SHERBRO is another English colony, !00 miles S. E. of Sierra Leone.
Feloops. The Feloops are a wild, fierce, but grateful race, near the coast S. of the Gambia. They speak a peculiar language.
Governor ludlam gives the following account of the baneful effects of the slave trade, witnessed by himself, in the country on the .banks of the river Sherbro, 100 miles S. of Sierra Leonc : “ Thus has this fertile country been rendered a desert, and its trade, once extensive, been almost annihilated. Some thousands of square miles are now without an inhabitant. In this extent is included the richest land on the Windward coast. No place equalled Boom in fertility. Finer sugar-cane is not found in the West-Indies, than grows wild in Bagroo. And as for the interior country behind the Sherbro, it must also be rich from the quantity of rice, and cotton cloth brought thence."*
MANDINGOES. These are now far the most numerous nation in the W. of Soudan. They commence on the coast at the mouth of the Gambia, bordering S. on the Feloops, Barra, Yani, and Woolli, three kingdoms on both sides of the Gambia from its mouth eastward. The Mandingoes also constitute the chief population of western Bambarra.
The men are well shaped, above the middle size, strong and capable of enduring labor. The women are good nature«l, sprightly, and agreeable. Polygamy is universal, and each wife has her own hut. All the huts of one family are enclosed by a hedge fence. Agriculture and pasturage are the favorite employments of the Mandingoes. These occupy them through the rainy season. In the dry season they catch fish in wicker baskets, or small cotton nets, and hunt birds and beasts. The women, at lie same time, manufacture cotton cloth, coarse, but durable. One woman will make 8 or 9 garments a year. They die it a rich and permanent blue color. Tanners and blacksmiths are the only mechanics by profession.
Park describes the Mandingoes as gentle, cheerful inquisitive, credulous, simple and fond of Hattery. They are prone to steal from strangers; but are at the same time liospitable and kind. A lively natural affection subsists between the mothers and their children. The practice of truth is strongly inculcaied in childhood. Circumcision is universal, and takes place at the age of puberty. The value of two slaves is the common price of a wise. The Pagan negroes always offer a short prayer to God, at the appearance of the new moon, and this is their only worship. The belief of one God, and of a future state of rewards and punishments, is universal. They rarely survive 55 or 60, and are grey and wrinkled at 40.
Barra is the kingdom at the mouth of the Gambia on both sides, rcaching up about 180 miles. The necessaries of life are abundant. Jillifrey, is a town on the N. bank of the river.
• Report 2d of the Committee of the African Institution, p. 15.
Yani lies E. of Barra, reaching about 100 miles up, on both sides of the Gambia, Pisania is a well known English fort in this kingdom, on the N. bank.
Wooli, E. of Yani, reaching about as far along the Gambia, has Foota Torra N. and Bondou N. E. Medina, the capital, comtains about 1000 houses. · KAARTA is a kingdom of considerable extent; having Bambarra on the E.
FOOTA JALLO. This is an extensive kingdom of the southern Foulahs, lying W. of Jallonkadoo, reaches S. to the Mountains of the Moon, and is divided into several petty kingdoms. Their language has some affinity to the Mandingo.
Kong is probably the most extensive and powerful kingdom of Western Soudan. It has Bambarra on the N.; and reaches eastward a great distance along the Mountains of the Moob.
BAMBARRA, in the S. W.commences on the Niger, at Bammakoo, and reaches down that river, on both banks about 400 miles. It is from 200 to 250 miles wide.
Sego, the capital of the kingdom, is on Park's map, in lat 14 15 N. and in lov. 2 30 W.; on both sides of the Niger. It con-sists, properly speaking, of 4 towns : all surrounded with high mud walls ; the streets are sufficiently broad; the houses are -built of clay, of a square form, with flat roofs ; some of them hare two storics, and many are whitewashed. Moorish mosques are seen in every quarter. The town contains about 30,000 inhabitants. The surrounding country is in a high state of cultivation.
Jenne belongs to the king of Bambarra. It stands on an island in the Niger, half way from Manzon to lake Debbe. It is larger than Sego.
JINBALA occupies the large island in the Niger, below lake Debbe. On Park's map, it is 100 miles long, and 50 broad. Tombuctoo lies N. and N. E.; Gotta S. and S. E. The soil is remarkably fertile ; and the whole country so full of creeks and swamps, that the Moors have been baffed in every aitempt to subdue it. The inhabitants are negroes and live in considerable affluence.
Gotto. This is a powerful negro kingdom, bounding N. on Jinbala and Tombuctoo, from both of which, it is separated by the Niger. Moossedoo is the capital.
Baepon, lics S. W. of Gotto.
Maniana, lies S. W. of Bacdoo, and bounds on Bambarra. The inhabitants are cruel and ferocious, and are said to be cannibals.
FOULAHs. This is, next to the Mandingoes, the most extensivo negro race in the W. of Soudan. Their complexion is lawney, and they have small pleasing features, and soft silky hair. The great body of them are Mahometans, and the Koran is both their statue book and Bible. They are reserved and not distinguished for their hospitality, but not intolerant. Schools are kept by the Mahometan priests in all their villages. The children are caught to read the Koran, and discover great docility and submission.
(ost of the Foulahs speak Arabic; but they have a language of their own, abouding in liquids, though unpleasant in its enuncia
kon. Most of them are engaged in agriculture and pasturage. They are commendably industrious, and discover great skill in the management of their cattle. They possess some excellent horses.
Bondou lies W. of Bambouk, and has Wooli on the S. W. The soil is not surpassed in fertility. The inhabitants are wealthy and industrious. They seil. large quantities of salt to the inhabit. ants of the interior, and the great body of the slaves from the E. pass through Bondou. Fattecorda, the capital, is a considerable iown about 15 miles E. of the Faleme. The king's troops are well supplied with fire arms and ammunition.
JALOFFS. The Jaluffs are an active, powerful, and warlike racc, inhabiting an extensive tract of country, between the Foulahs of the Senegal N. Foota Torra E. the Mandingo states on the thc Gambia S. and the coast W. They arc of a jet black. They are divided into several independent kingdoms. In ineir government, superstitions, and manners, they resemble the Nandingoes ; but excel them in the manufacture of cotton cloth, spinning the wool to a finer thread, weaving it in a broader loon, and dying it of a better color.
Serawoolies. Thesc occupy only one independent kingdom, that of Kajanga ; but many of them are dispersed as merchants, brokers, and slave-drivers, over the whole country, particularly near the coast. They are habitually a trading people, but always look upon Kajaaga, as their country. They traile with the British factories on the Gambia, are tolerably fair and honest, indefatigable in the pursuit of wealth, and derivc considerable profit from the sale of salt and corrons in distant countries.
Kajaaga has Bondou on the S. W. and Bambouk on the S. E. The king is absolute and powerful. The climate is peculiarly healthy, and the soil fertile. Maana is the capital. Joag is a frontier town of 2000 inhabitants, on the Senegal.
Moons. The Moors possess a number of kingdoms between the desert on the N. and ihe negro kingdoms on the S. The Senepal divides them from the negroes, as far up as about opposite to Joaq. Thence eastward, they bound S. on Kasson, Kaarta, Bambarra, Masina, and Jinbala.
12 y are divided into numerous tribes, or kingdoms. There is reason to believe, says Park, that their dominion stretches from W. to E. aciuss the continent, in a parrow belt, from the mouth of the Senegal 10 Abyssinia.
Their complexion resembles that of the mulattoes of the West Indies; but their features bespeak low cunning and cruelly, and their cres have a staring wildness. Their houses are buili of clay and stone. Many of them live in tents, and roam from place to place. The chief wealth of these consists of cameis, cattle, and goats, and their chief business is pasturage. They are all extremely indoient, but rigid taskmasturs 10 thcir slaves. Tires: country being nearer the Desert, is far hotter and less feruilc than that of the negrocs.
They are rigid Mahometans, bigoted, and superstitious, and intolcrant. All the males read and write. Their language is Ara
bic. Their women are taught nothing except voluptuousness and submission. Corpulency in their females is the first characicristic of beauty. Thcy are exiremely unkind to their slaves and to strangers. Park describes them as universally proud, ferocious, false, and treacherous.
Tombactvo, the capital of the kingdom of this name, is situated on a plain, 139 miles E. of Beroo, and 12 miles N. of the Niger ; in about lan. I 30 E. and 90 miles from the confines of the desert. It is a very large town; the Moors told Jackson, about 12 miles in circumfcrence. The houses are spacious, and of a square of one story, with a hollow open square in the centre. The goso ernment of inc town is in the hands of a divan of 12 Alemma, men learned in the Korun, appointed for 3 years. Its police is excellent. Kobra is its port on the Niger. The commcrce of Tom. bucion is very important. The articles brought by the Akkabaabs from Morocco to the capital, are sent from Kabra, both up and down the Niger. A caravan goes also to Fezzan, and another to Egypt. The soil is generally fertile. Rice, millet, and maize, are extensively cultivated; wheat and barley also in the plains. Coille and indigo grow wild. The cotton manufactures are su• perior. Great quantities of buncy are annually collected.
Houssa lies E. of Tombucioo, on both sides of the Niger. As extensive desert on the S. is said to separate it from Gotto. Houssay the ciiv, lies about 60 miles from the N. bank of the river, and is, according to Park, 11 days journey, or 330 miles below Kabra. It is said to be even larger than Tombucion, and is likewise a great commercial emporium. Horneman was informed, that the kingdom of Houssa reached eastward to the limits of Bournou, bryand lon. 15 E. and that it coin prehended several large provinces, of which Kashna, and Gana, or Kano, where the most east
Kashna, ilc capital of the first is said to be far the largest town in the country, and in the interior of Africa.
Bournou, is a very extensive country, E. of Houssa.
TUARICK. Horneman tells us, that, that part of the Desert, ly. ing N. of Houssa, and N. W. of Bournou, is occupied by the Tuarick, a very extensive nation, that rams over the whole desert, even to Morocco. They are divided into inany different cribes, who all speak the same language. They discover strong natural powers of mind. Their character is much esteemed. They are chiefly Mahometans, but the Tagama Tuarick, on the borders of Tombuctoo, are whites, and are Pagans. They carry on a commerce between Soudan, Fezzan, and Gadamis, ncar Tripoli
. Most of the Tuarick lead a wandering life. Some live in the small ouses in the Desert.
TIeloos, are an extensive nation, living E. of the Tuarick in the Desert.
Fezzax. This country limits the Tuarick on the N. E. Hornc. mun says that it is of an oval shape, about 300 miles from N. to S. and 200 froin E. 10 W. Rennel lays it down between lon. 14 and 17 E. and about 150 miles S. from the shore of the Greater Syriis. The religion is the Mahometan. It is governed by a sul
tan, a descendant from the family of the Sherreefe. The tradition is, that the ancestors of the reigning prince, coming from western Africa, invaded and conquered Fezzan, about 500 years since. The sultan is absolute ; but holds his dominions of the bashaw of Tripoli, to whom he pays 4000 dollars as a yearly tribute. Horneman estimates the population at 75,000. The revenue arises from taxes on gardens and cultivated lands; from arbitrary fines and requisitions ; from duties un foreign trade, paid by the several caravans; and from predatory excursions. The expenditure consists chiefly in the maintenance of the sultan, his court, and palace. The cadi and each one of the royal family has a district assigned for his support.
Mourzouk, the capital, is in lat. 27 23 N. and in lon. 15 40 E. 420 miles in a direct line S. S. E. of Tripoli. Zeula lies about 70 miles E. by N. of Mourzouk. The commerce of Fezzan is considerable. From October to February Mourzouk is the great emporium for the caravans from Cairo, Tripoli, Gadamis, Bengasi, a town on the N. coast, Soudan and various others. The inhabitants of Augila carry on the trade from Cairo ; those of Sockna, that of Tripoli; and the Kolluvian Tuaric, that of Soudan. Slaves, ostrich feathers, ribette, tiger skins, and gold come from Soudan; copper from Bornou ; siks, melayes, (striped blue and white calicoes,) woollens, glass, mock coral, beads, and East-India goods from Cairo ; tobacco, snuff, and sundry Turkish wares from Bengasi ; paper, mock coral, fire arms, sabres, knives, and red worsted caps are brought from Tripoli, and Gadamis; butter, oil, fat, and corn by the smaller Tuaric and Arab caravans from the W. and senna, ostrich feathers, and camels, by those from the S.
The climate is at no season temperate or agreeable.
AUGILA is a small, but celebrated territory, nearly midway between Egypt and l'ezzan. It is about 165 miles from the coast, in lat. 29 30 N. and lon. 23° E.; and is 450 miles, in a direct line E. N. E. of Mourzouk. It is án oasis, flat, well watered, fertile, and surrounded by arid deserts, either sandy or rocky. Its dates are celebrated. These and its gardens constitute the chief culture. There are three towns, Augila, Mojabra, and Meledila. Augila, well known in the time of hierodotus, covers a space of one mile in circumference. It is badly built. The streets are narrow and dirty. The houses are of one story, of limestone, with an open hollow square in the centre. Augila is governed by a vicegerent for the bashaw of Tripoli.
Siwan lies 210 miles a little S. of E. of Augila. It is 150 miles from the Mediterranean, and 260 W. S. W. of Cairo.
Siwah is a small independent state. The territory is of considerable extent; its principal and most fruitful district is a well watered valley, 50 miles in circuit, hemmed in by steep and barren rocks. It is supposed with great probability, to have been the ana cient Oasis of Ammon; and a pile of ruins on the W. of the capital are said to be the remains of the celebrated temple of Jupiter Ammon. They are all Mahometans. Siwah, the capital, is nearly