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their numbers were estimated by a factor who resided here 40 years, at 20,000.
Fishery. Greenland is valuable principally on account of its fisheries. In 1785 Great-Britain en ployeu 153 ships in this fishery, and the Dutch 65.
Character and Manners. The natives, in their appearance, resemble the Laplanders. They are vigorous and healthy; but short-lived; very quiet, orderly, and good-natured. They are extremely filthy in their mode of living. Their whole business is fishing and hunting.
Towns. There is a Danish settlement called Good Hopt, in lat. 64°, and another in Disco bay, called Disco, not far from 68o. New-Herrnhut, Lichtenfels, and Lichtenau are the principal Mo: ravian establishments. These places are the residence of the Moravian missionaries. The native inhabitants around the two first of these places have all been baptized, so that no trace of paganism is now left in that neighbourhood.*
Climate, Seasons, Face of the Country. Summer continues from the last of May to the middle of September. The sea coasts are often infested with fogs, that are alike disagreeable and unhealthy. Near the shore the low lands are clothed with verdure ; but the inland mountains are perpetually covered with snow. Above lat. 68°, the cold is prodigiously intense ; and, towards the end of August, the whole coast is covered with ice, which lasts till May. Greenland is generally mountainous. The mountains are barren, Some of them are visible 40 leagues at sea.
BRITISH PROVINCES IN NORTH AMERICA.
Extent. BRITISH North-America includes the vast extent of country, bounded S. by the United States; E. partly by the Atlantic and Davis's straits, and partly by Hudson bay; N. partly by Hudson Straits and bay, and, westward of that bay, by unexplored regions; W. by the territories occupied by the Chipewyans and the Kvisteneaux. The islands of Newfoundland, Cape Breton, St. John's, and several smaller islands in the gulf of St. Lawrence, belong also to the British.
Population. The population of these various territories, from the best estimate that can be made, amounts to about 400,000 or 420,000 souls.
Political Divisions. The countries which compose British
Upper Canada Cape Breton Isl.
St. John's Isl.
These eight territories are reduced to six separate independent provinces or governments.
* Periodical account of the brethren, 1804,
1. Lower Canada, which comprises New-Britain, Lower Cana. cla, properly so called, and Newfoundland.
ii. Upper Canada.
The four first of these provinces have their own legislatures, and are governed by their own laws; the two last by the laws of England.
The governor general of British America usually resides at Quebec, in Lower Canada. He is governor, for the time being, of that one of the six provinces in which he happens to be personally. present.
The governor general of Nova-Scotia, is governor, for the time being, of that one of the four last mentioned provinces in which he happens to be personally present. Ile usually resides at Halifax, in Nova-Scotia.
Each province has its own lieutenant governor, who acts as governor in the absence of the governor generals.
Extent, Divisions, and inhabitants. THIS extensive country comprises three distinct territories;
1. LABRADOR, or the country east of Hudson bay ; 2. New-South-Wales, or the country lying southwest and west of James bay;
3. New-North-Wales, or the country lying north of the preceding.
The whole country may be considered as reaching from lat. 50® to 63o N. and from lon. 56° to 110 30 W. Its length is not less than 1800 miles, from E. to W. its breadth is about 850. Labrador is 850 miles long, from N. to S. and 750 broad.
The Esquimaux Indians occupy the whole peninsula of Greenland, the coast of Labrador, and the whole northern coast of America. They are universally believed to be of European origin.
Religion. The great body of the inhabitants in these extensive and dreary regions are Pagans. The Moravians have missionaries stationed at Okkak, Nain, and Hopedale, wiiere, from accounts as late as 1805, it appears, that they are laboring with increasing suc
Population. At the forts there are small detachments of British troops ; at Nain, Okkak, and Hopedale, on the N. E. coast of Labrador, there are small settlements established by the Moravians. The country of the Knisteneaux is thinly, and that of the Esquimaux still more thinly, peopled.
Face of the Country. The country north of Churchill river, is a fat country, and has received the name of the Burren Grounds.
The country south of that river is level, also; but generally wooded with pines, birch, larch, and willows.
Both the eastern and western coasts of Labrador are bordered with innumerable islands. The country is every where uneven, rocky, or mountainous. The mountains are frequently very lofty, and almost devoid of every species of herbage. The vallies are sandy and unproductive.
Rivers. These are the Churchill, or Missinipi, whose general direction is about E. N. E. its length about 750 miles; the Scvern, Albany, and Moose rivers.
The rivers of Labrador are generally small.
Lakes. West of Hudson bay lie numerous lakes discovered by Mr. Hearne. The largest are Doobaunt lake, Yath-Kyed lake, and North-lined lake.
Èxtent. LOWER CANADA lies between 61o and 71° W. loni and between 45o and 52° N. lat. Its greatest length from E. to W. is 800 miles. Its greatest breadth is about 450 miles ; the average breadth is 250.
Boundaries. Bounded N. by New-Britain ; E. by New-Britain and the gulf of St. Lawrence ; S. by New-Brunswick, Maine, NewHampshire, Vermont, New-York and Upper Canada ; W. by Upper Canada.
Divisions. This province is divided into 21 counties, which are subdivided into parishes.
Historical Epochs. 1497. Discovered by John Cabot, a Venetian, in the service of the English.
1608. Champlain sailed up the St. Lawrence as far as a strait, called, by the Indians, Quebec, where, on the 3d of July, he began to build, and here he passed the following winter. At this time the settlement of Canada commenced.
1759. Sept. 13. An English army, under gen. Wolfe, made a successful attack on Quebec, which surrendered on the 18th.
1760. The whole province of Canada surrendered to gen. Amherst, and was confirmed to Great Britain by the treaty of 1763, under wbose dominion it has since continued.
1775. Canada was invaded by a body of provincial troops under gen. Montgomery ; Montreal was taken, and an unsuccessful attempt made upon Quebec, in which the general was slain and his troops routed.
1778.* An act was passed by the parliament of Great Britain, expressly restraining itself forever, from imposing any taxes or duties in the colonies, except for the regulation of trade, the produce of which taxes, or duties to be diposed of by the provincial assemblies.
. In the 18th year of George III.
1784. Canada was made the seat of a general government, to which the other provinces were, in a manner, made subject.
1791. Upper and Lower Canada were divided, and each constituted a distinct government independent of the other.
Religion. About nine tenths of the inhabitants are Roman Catholics. Of the remaining tenth the greater part are Episcopalians. A few are Presbyterians. There are 15 clergymen of the church of England in the province, with a bishop at their head, and about 140 Roman Catholic, who also have a bishop. The catholics have Il missionary stations in different parts of the British dominions, which are supplied with missionaries. There are 3 ministers of the church of Scotland, I at Quebec, 1 at Montreal, and I at NewOswegatchie.*
Government. The governor general of British America, is the ordinary governor. He is appointed by the crown, A lieutenant governor chosen in the province executes that office in his absence.
The legislature is made up of a legislative council and an assembly, who with the governor, have power to make laws. The legis lative council is composed of 15 members, who hold their seats for life ; unless forfeited by 4 years continual absence, or by swearing allegiance to some foreign power. They are appointed by the governor general with the approbation of the king. The house of assembly consists of 50 members in the several towns and counties.
The governor with some of the council selected by the crowng constitute the high court of appeals in the province.
Population. The number of inhabitants, in Lower Canada, in 1783, was by actual enumeration 113,012. The number, in 1806, was, according to Mr. Heriot, 150,000. In 1811, they were estimated at between 200,000 and 300,000.f The greater part of these are descendents of the original French colonists. We are not certain whether the aborigines are included in this estimation ; but believe they are not. Their number is probably about 20,000
Army. The militia of Lower Canada is organized in 30 divisions, with their proper officers. Eight of these divisions are within the district of Quebec, 3 in that of Three Rivers, 6 in that of the Eastorn townships, and 13 in that of Montreal.
Revenue. The only revenue to Great Britain arises from an advantageous commerce. The expenses of the civil list amount to 25,000l. sterling, one half paid by the province, the other by Great Britain; of the military establishments, with repairs of forts, to. 100,0001. of presents to the savages, and salaries to officers employed in trading with them, to 100,0001. more.
Language. The French is universally spoken. The English ise restricted to the few British and American settlers.
L'niversities. Of these there are two, one at Quebec, the other. at Montreal, both belonging to the Roman Catholics, and respectable institutions, well endowed, and furnished with learned profesa
Cities and Towns. Quebec is the capital of the province. It stands on a point of land on the northwest side of the river St. Lawrence, lat. 46 48 39 north, lon. 71 12 6 west, at its confluence with the river St. Charles and about 320 miles from the sea and 180 from Montreal The streets are irregular, uneven, narrow, and unpaved. The houses are almost universally of stone, small, ugly, and inconvenient. The fortifications are extensive but irregular. A large garrison is maintained, but 5000 soldiers would be necessary to man the works. The number of inhabitants, in 1806, was 15,000.f The St. Lawrence, opposite the town, is only a mile wide. A little below it widens to 4 or 5 leagues, and continues that width to the sea.
It forms here a safe and commodious bason for ships, and is from 20 10 25 fathoms deep.
MONTREAL, stands on the east side of an island in the river St. Lawrence, which is 30 miles long, and 12 broad. The town is 200 below lake Ontario, and 180 miles above Quebec, in lat. 43 35 north, lon. 73 11 west, at the head of ship navigation. The St. Lawrence is 3 miles wide at this place. The city forms an oblong square surrounded by a wall. The houses stand on a side hill, and may be seen at one view, from the harbor. The number of inhabitants in 1809 was estimated at 16,000. The distance of the town from the southeast bank of the river is half a league.
Trois RIVIERES is pleasantly situated on the northern side of the St. Lawrence, 50 miles southwest of Quebec.
La Prairie is a little village on the opposite side of the river to Montreal.
Sorcile lies 45 miles below Montreal, and contains 100 scattered houses. Its chief business is ship building.
Inland Navigation. There are two routes westward to fort Chepewyan, the great rendezvous of the western traders. The southern is up the St. Lawrence and the lakes to the falls of St. Mary. The other is up the Ottawas to the mouth of Little river, up that river 45 miles; thence by land to lake Nepisingui 10 miles ; thence down) that lake and French river, and across by the northern shore of lake Huron, to the falls of St. Mary. This last route is alone taken by the men employed in the fur trade. The other is taken to transport merchandize for the western country to Detroit and Michilimackinac.
The river Sorelle connects lake Champlain with the St. Law rence between Montreal and Quebec, and furnishes the former of these two towns an advantageous connection with the northern parts of New York and Vermont.
Manufactures and Commerce. Ship-building is carried on at Quebec and at Sorelle with considerable success. Flour, biscuit, and pot-ash, are extensively manufactured for exportation. The sugar consumed in the interior is all of it manufactured from the juice of the maple. A few coarse linen and woollen cloths are manufactured for hoinc consumption.
• Quebec Almanac for 1811,