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In 1802 the exports exceeded half a million sterling. Besides furs and fish there were exported in that year 1,010,000 bushels of wheat, 38,000 barrels of flour, 32,000 cwt. of biscuit, large quantities of potash, and considerable quantities of American ginseng. In the export of these articles 211 vessels were employed, amounting to 36,000 tons. The substantial articles of export in 1810 were peltries, lumber, flour, pork, and beef. The vessels cleared in that year were 661. Their tonnage amounted to 143,893; their seamch to 6,578.

The fur trade has become a very interesting object. The Northwest company was formed in 1783. They employ in the concern 50 clerks, 71 interpreters and clerks, 1120 canoe-men, 35 guides, and about 140 canoes. Each canoe will carry about 8,400 lbs. weight, and is navigated by 8 or 10 men.

The produce of 1810, consisted of the following furs and peltries. 98,523 Beaver skins

2,536 Fisher skins 10,751 Bear do.

59,521 Raccoon do. 2,645 Otter do.

19 Wolf do. 9,971 Musquash do.

534 Elk

do. 554 Martin do.

32,551 Deer

do. 169 Mink do.

2,428 Cased and open Cat do. 327 Lynx do.

1,833 Swan do. 517 Wolverine do.

2,684 Hare

Climate and Seasons. Winter commences early in Novem-
ber, and lasts till April. The ice on the rivers is usually two feet
thick, and that close to the banks of the St. Lawrence, is common-
ly 6 feet. The snow usually lies from 4 to 6 feet deep.

Face of the Country. Lower Canada is every where hilly, and
in many places mountainous. Far the greater part of the country
is still covered with forests.

Soil and Agriculture. The soil is generally a loose, blackish earth, ten or twelve inches thick, covering a bed of clay. It is very fertile. Marl is employed as a manure, and is found in great abundance on the banks of the St. Lawrence. Wheat is raised in large quantities for exportation. Barley, rye, and other sorts of grain are productive. A little tobacco is raised for private use. Culinary vegetables thrive very well. The meadows, which are well watered, yield excellent grass, and feed great numbers of large and small cattle.

Rivers. These are the St Lawrence, the Sorelle, the Saguenai, and Black rivers.

The Connecticut runs a little distance in this province. These rivers may be traced on the map.

Botany. The trees of New England, with the exception of the various species of oak, are found in both Canadas, but generally inferior in their size. Evergreens predominate in the forests.

Zoology. See this article under the head United States.

Natural Curiosities. The falls of Montmorency are situated upon a river of the same name, which empties into the St. Lawrence on its northeasterly side, in the district of Beaupour, about 3 leagues below Quebec. They are 20 rods from the confluence of the two

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rivers, and may be distinctly viewed as you sail down the St. Law. rence. The river is 50 yards wide, and so rapid, that the quantity of water is very great. About 50 feet above the perpendicular cascade, the water begins to tumble over rocks at an angle of 45°, till it arrives at its great leap; where it falls in one unbroken, uninterrupted sheet to the bottom. The height of the perpendicular fal} is 240 feet.

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Situation and Extent. NEWFOUNDLAND limits the northeastern side of the gulf of St. Lawrence. It is separated from New-Britain by the straits of Belleisle, and from Cape Breton by the principal mouth of the gulf. It lies between lat. 46 45 and 52 31 N. and between lon. 52 31 and 59 40 W. Its length is 381 miles, and its breadth varies from 40 to 287. Its shape is triangular.

Settlement. 1497. Sebastian Cabot discovered the island.

1504. Some French fishermen came upon the coast, and fished upon the banks.

1610. Mr. John Guy, with 39 others, began a settlement at Conception bay. "Guy was employed by the London and Bristol company. Previous to this time Placentia was settled by the French.

1613. By the treaty of Utrecht Newfoundland was acknowledged by the French to belong to England.

Government. The admiral on the coast is the governor of the island, under the governor general of the British provinces.

Population. The population in 1805, was 24,922, of whom 8000 were Roman Catholics. It is now not less than 30,000. The greater part of the men are employed in the fishery. The Indians are considerably numerous ; probably more than 1000:

Towns. Placentia stands on a large bay of the same name on the southern end, near the eastern side of the island. The bay is an excellent harbor, and is much resorted to by the fishing ships. The number of inhabitants is about 3000.

St. John's lies on the castern side, near the southern end of the island, in lat. 47 35 N. lon. 52 20 W. It is about the size of Placentia.

Bonavista stands on the eastern side, near the middle of the isl. and, on Bonavista bay, in lat. 49 20, lon. 53 25.

Fishing Banks. The Grand Bank lies 60 miles from the southeastern shore. It is 300 miles long and 75 broad. To the east of this lies False Bank. The next is Green Bank, 240 miles long and 120 broad; then Banquas, about the same size; then Sand Island Shoals, Whale Bank, and Bank of St. Peters, with several others of less note. These banks extend from lat. 41° to 49° N.

Harbors. There are about 20 bays and harbors on the coast. They are all complete anchoring places, being clear of rocks, and having a good bottom.

Fishery. There are two fishing seasons. That on the shora

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and in the harbors, commences about the 20th of April, and ends
about the 10th of October, The boats fish in from 4 to 20 fathoms
watcr. The other, the bank season, is the most important. It be-
gins the 10th of May, and continues till the last of September. The
boats fisti in from 30 to 45 fathoms water. The fishermen on an
average take each 7000 in a season. The greatest number ever
taken by one man was 12000, and the larg est cod-fishi

er caught
here measured 4 feet 3 inches long, and weighed 46 pounds.

Great Britain and the United States employ annually 3000 sail
of small craft in this fishery; on board of which, and on short 10
cure the fish, are upwards of 100,000 hands. Three quintals of
wet fish make one quintal of dry, and the livers of 100 quintals
make one hogshead of oil. The produce of the fishery will aver.
age 300,000 quintals of fish, and 3000 hogsheads of oil. The pro-
duce of the year 1799 was as follows:
453,337 quintals of dry cod-fish 202 barrels of herring
13,995 do. of core-fish 3,017 tons of oil
2,642 tierces of salmon

74,181 seal skins
Climate and Soil. In the winter the climate is severe. The
coasts are very subject to fogs, attended with almost continual
storms of snow and sleet, the sky being usually overcast. These
are attributed to the vapours of the Gulf Stream. The land near
the coast is rocky and barren. A few kitchen vegetables with
strawberries and raspberries are all its produce.

Face of the Couniry. The country, for 60 miles from the south,
ern coast, is hilly, but not mountainous. The coasts are high, and
the shores remarkably bold. The mountains on the S. W. side,
near the sca, are very high and terminate in lofty headlands.

Rivers. The rivers are all short and unfit for navigation.

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Extent. THE southern extremity, on lake Erie, is in lat. 42 30 N. the northern at Poplar river in lat. 52 30; the eastern on lake St. Francis in lon. 74° W. and the western on lake Winnipec in lon. 97o. The northern line generally, however, is believed to be considerably south of lat. 52 30. Its length from east to west is 1090 miles. Its greatest breadth from lake Erie to the northern linc is 525 miles; the average breadth is not more than 250 or 300.

Boundaries. Bounded N. by New-Britain; N. E. and E. by Lower Canada, and the river St Lawrence, lake Ontario, and Niagara river, which divide it from New-York ; S. by the lakes wbich divide it from New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan and Illinois Territories; W. by Detroit river, lake St. Clair, Huron river and Jake, Winnipec river, and lake Winnipec.

Religion. At Kingston, Newark, and a few other places, there are settled clergymen. Except these places the Methodists are almost the only preachers in the country. Methodism is the prevailing religion of the province.

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Government and Civil Divisions. Upper Canada has a lieutenant governor who acts as governor in the absence of the governor general.

The legislature is composed of a legislative council and house of assembly. The former contains not less than 7 members, the latter not less than 16. The manner of election and the tenure of office are the same as in Lower Canada.

The legislature meets annually in May, and has the sole power of taxation.

This province is divided into the following 19 counties, which are subdivided into townships ordinarily of 9 miles by 12.

The constitution, which guarantees to the people their political privleges, was receired from the British government in 1791. That government bears the whole expeuse of the civil estabiishment.

Population. The number of inhabitants, in 1783, was 10,000 in 1806, 80,000.* They are composed chiefly of emigrants from New-England and New Jersey.

Towns. York, the seat of government, stands on York harbor, in 43 35 N. directly opposite the mouth of Niagara river, which is 40 miles distant by water, and 100 byland. The town is projected to extend a mile and a half in length, from the bottom of the harbor, along the lake. Many houses are already completed, some of which display considerable taste. It was laid out in 1791. Vithin tine last 10 years its growth has been rapid.

Kingston is in lat. 44 8 N. lon. 75 41 W. It stands at the head of the St. Lawrence and occupies the site of fort Frontenac. It has an excellent harbor, in which the king's shipping on lake Ontario winter. It has an episcopal churchi, a hospital and a barrack for troops.

Newark stands on the west bank of Niagara river, at its mouth, in lat. 43°. It extends a mile along the lake. It contains two churches, one Episcopal, the other Presbyterian.

Queenstown stands on Niagara river, 7 miles above Newark. It contains an Episcopal church.

Chipawa is a little village, 3 miles above the Falls, and 6 above Queenstown.

Elizabethtown, in the district of Johnstown, near lake Ontario, was settled in 1784, chiefly by British people. The London missionary society have a missionary established here.

Militia. The militia embraces all the males, except the Friends, Tunkers, and Mennonists, from 16 to 45.

Climate. The climate is much milder than in the Lower province.

Face of the Country. This country is generally level, and, in many paris, little elevated above the lakes.

Soil and Agriculture. The soil is generally good. The agriculture is yet in its infancy. The whole country, which is cleared, produces goud whcat, Indian corn, fax, and grass in abundance. Jiops cf a good quality grow spontaneously; also plums, mulberries, blackberries, strawberrics, raspberries, and grapes. Orche

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ards begin to bear fruit. Peaches, cherries, and currants are abundank Good pork is often fattened entirely in the woods.

Rivers. These are the St. Lawrence, Ottawas, Moose, Albany, Trent, Thames, Chipawa, Holland, lake Nipissing, French, Michinicolen, and the Ninigon rivers.

Lakes. Half of lakes Ontario, Erie, St. Clair, Huron, Superiors Rainy lake, lake of the Woods, and lake Winnipec belong to Upper Canada. Lake Nipissing lies north of Huron, about 40 miles long and 15 wide, and lake Simcoe east of it, about as large. Lakes St. Anne. Sturgeon, St. Joseph, and several others lie N. and N. W. of lake Superior.

Bay. The bay of Quinti is a very long, narrow harbor, on the Dorthern shore of lake Ontario. It is navigable 50 miles for the Fessels of the lake.


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Extent. NOVA-SCOTIA is a large peninsula, stretching from the province of New-Brunswick into the Atlantic. It lies between lat. 43 30 and 48 4 N and between lon. 58 50 and 67' W. Its length is 307 miles, its breadth 154, and it contains about 14,000 square miles.

Boundaries. Bounded N. E. by the gulf of St. Lawrence, and the straits of Northumberland and Canceau ; E. S. and S. W. by the Atlantic ocean ; W. by the bays of Fundy and Verte and the province of New-Brunswick with which it is connected by an isthmus about 18 miles wide.

Historica! Epuchs. In the year 1594, one May, an Englishman, touched upon the ccasi.

1598 The Isle of Sable was peopled by a number of French convicts, left there by the Marquis de la Roche, who explored the west of Nova-Scotia, but made no settlement.

1605. Henry IV. of France granted the Sieur de Montz a patent of the American territories from lat. 40° to 48° N. In the following vear that adventurer made a settlement at Annapolis.

1613. Annapolis was destroyed by an English expedition from Virginia.

1621. James I. of Scotland granted sir William Alexander a patent of Nova Scotia.

1749. An expedition sailed from England under general Cornwallis, consisting of 2700 persons. Parliament devoted 40,0001. sterling to defray the expense, and 30,000 annually to support the settlement till 1755. The progress of the settlement for the firs 11 years was slow.

1760. The capture of Canada relieved the settlers of thcir dangers from the Indians and French.

1763, Nova Scotia by the treaty of Paris was finally ceded to Great Britain

Religion. The established religion is that of the church of

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