THE ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC, ORAL AND WRITTEN. BY ALBERT N. RAUB, A.M., PRESIDENT OF DELAWARE COLLEGE, NEWARK, DELAWARE, AND AUTHOR OF "THE COMPLETE ARITHMETIC." Edue T 118.94.723 MARWARD COLLEGE LOARY GIFT OF THE 21 F2 Copyright, 1877. by PORTER & COATES. PREFACE. BELIEVING that Oral and written Arithmetic form properly but a single study, and that they are best taught together, the author has in this, as in his Complete Arithmetic, combined both oral and written exercises in the same book. In the composition of the book two main objects have been steadily kept in view: first, that of teaching the elements of Arithmetic thoroughly; and, secondly, that of training the pupil to think for himself and apply his knowledge of the science to the actual business operations of life. In order that the pupil may understand the practical application of Arithmetic, and at the same time acquire a knowledge of the business use of the science as he proceeds, the problems given are almost wholly drawn from the actual business operations of life. Extended exercises are given in the application of the fundamental rules, because these are the basis of all the operations of Arithmetic. The definitions are brief and accurate, and it is believed they are all clothed in such language as the pupils can readily comprehend. Every effort has been put forth to make the book a desirable one, not only for the pupil in learning the elements of Arithmetic, but also for the teacher in presenting the principles to the mind of the learner. It is believed, and confidently hoped, that progressive teachers everywhere will find it well adapted to their wants. A. N. R. 3 PAG. ... 130 Decimal Fractions.............. 118 I. Notation and Numeration. 9 I. Notation and Numeration. 118 II. Addition....................... 19 II. Reduction of Decimals... 121 III. Subtraction..................... III. Addition of Decimals ...... 123 IV. Multiplication ............. | IV. Subtraction of Decimals. 124 V. Division .................. mals...... ................. 125 VI. Division of Decimals ...... 126 UNITED States MONEY............ 66 I. Definitions and Principles. 66 II. Reduction of U.S. Money. 68 DENOMINATE NUMBERS. .......... 128 III. Addition of U. S. Money. 69 I. Definitions.... .............. IV. Subtraction of U.S. Money 71 II. Tables and Measures...... Money ........................ 72 VI. Division of U. S. Money. 74 Extension ............... PROPERTIES OF NUMBERS......... 79 1. Factors and Multiples...... 79 Compound Numbers....... 146 1. Addition of Com- II. Greatest Common Divisor. 83 III. Least Common Multiple... 85 2. Subtraction of Com- pound Numbers... 148 inator ..................... 97 PERCENTAGE........................ 152 III. Addition of Fractions..... 98 I. Definitions and Principles 152 IV. Subtraction of Fractions..101 II. Interest ....................... 159 Simple Interest .......... 159 tions ..........................104 VI. Division of Fractions......110 Complex Fractions........115 | Review PROBLEMS......... ...... 162 PRIMARY ARITHMETIC. PART I. LESSONS IN NUMBERS. ORAL EXERCISE. 1. How many noses have you ? How many heads ? 2. Point to one boy; one book; one hand; one chair; one table; one window. 1. There was one bird on the bush and another has come; how many are on the bush now? 2. One bird and one bird are how many birds? 3. If there are two birds on the bush and one fly away, how many will remain ? 4. One bird from the two birds leaves how! many birds ? 1. There were two books on the table, but I have put another there; how many books are on the table now? |