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Papers for the Schoolmaster.

No. XXV.-NEW SERIES.

EDITORIAL.

JANUARY 1ST, 1867.

As custom marks the beginning of a New Year as an appropriate season for congratulation, we will congratulate-our Subscribers upon the privilege of being still our Subscribers, and ourselves upon continuing to have so intelligent a body of readers. Seriously, however, we do look back upon the past year with no little of self-gratulation. Our Magazine has, we believe, more than made good the promises with which it entered upon the year: the evidence whereof is not only the twelve numbers in repose before us, with their goodly contribution to the discussion of the Educational questions of the time, and their gifts in aid of the intellectual culture of those who read for instruction; but also the many letters we have privately received containing assurance that we are meeting the wishes of our Subscribers. In thanking them most cordially for this encouragement we again avow that our main object is to study and to advocate the true interests of Schoolmasters. In furtherance of this object, we again earnestly ask their assistance. We beg them to communicate to us all matters which may come to their knowledge bearing upon the objects and purposes of our publication. We shall readily receive communicated articles on the Educational topics of the day, and upon the position, works, and interests of Schoolmasters.

We shall hope to make our "Notes and Queries" bear more upon points of general interest to educated and thoughtful men: and to reserve more special matters for treatment in "Lecture Room Notes." We call our Subscribers' attention to the "Register of Appointments," which appears for the first time in our present number. We believe that it will prove a valuable and interesting feature of our periodical, and we beg the kind aid of our friends in helping us to render it both accurate and complete.

With a further assurance to our readers that we shall not relax in our endeavours to render "The Papers for the Schoolmaster" worthy of their increased favour and support, we greet them with our hearty wishes that the year 1867 may prove a season of honest and successful work and of true prosperity.

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS AND PROGRESS DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

Pestalozzianism-Home and Colonial School Society.

Continued from Vol. II.

On the treatment of obstinate children, we have the following remarks by Mr. Ogle :

"Avoid bringing the obstinacy into action. Every sentiment, faculty and habit is strengthened by exercise; consequently, whenever obstinacy is brought into exercise, it is strengthened. The Apostle Paul says, 'Fathers, provoke not your children to wrath,' showing us that children may be irritated till they do wrong, that the mischief may be begun, for instance, by the teacher. It may be asked, How can we avoid the provocation to obstinacy in a child? I answer, by habitually endeavouring to keep up in its mind that state of feeling which leaves it without inclination to come into collision with you. Endeavour by your own gentleness, kindness, good humour, and placidity to produce and promote the same feelings in the child. There is a kind of moral contagion among human beings; we catch the spirit and temper of others around us; we are subject to that involuntary entertainment of the feelings of others which is properly called sympathy. Teachers know this by experience. If you enter your schoolroom with a countenance betraying auxiety and sadness, though you say not a word, you will find that the buzz is hushed, inquiring looks meet you on every side, and soon a vague sense of distress is seen in almost every countenance. This peculiarity of our moral constitution God has ordained for wise and good ends. When the minds which act on each other are influenced by the Spirit of God, their mutual influence produces the most beneficial results. Exhibit, then, on all occasions towards your children the same dispositions which you would have them evince; and with respect to the obstinate child, in particular, strive to foster gentle and kindly feelings in him, by exhibiting them towards him.

F

Besides this, however, we must carefully cultivate all other sentiments which, being good in themselves, are opposed to an evil disposition. And here, too, let the beneficial influence of your example aid the force of your precepts. Establish a regard for authority, for authority in general, as such, not for your own merely; if you bring your pupil to respect and submit to authority in general, he will regard yours, in particular, as a necessary consequence. Especially let that intuitive sense of right and wrong with which man is endowed be constantly appealed to; let it be strengthened by exercise. We are too apt to forget that the moral feelings as well as the intellectual faculties and bodily powers may be, and need to be, systematically exercised; that whenever used, they become the more ready for use again; and that by performing acts we form habits. Thus conscience enlightened by the Word of God, may be so disciplined, in early life, as to become by the Divine blessing habitually tender and ready to act. If so cultivated, along with other moral feelings, the temptation to obstinacy will often be resisted, or the offence, when committed, will be repented of, and shunned thereafter.

But it will not be enough to cherish right feelings, which may counteract the obstinate disposition; we must aim to remove all occasion for its outbreak. To this end, let the rules of your school be evidently just and reasonable; as few as practicable; and easy to be understood: let your conduct be consistent and decided; let it be known habitually that your will must be done, or that the punishment you threaten will be inflicted; bear yourself as if you scarcely supposed that disobedience would occur, for if we seem to expect it we often call it forth. Acting thus you will leave little as opportunity and ground as possible for the occurrence of those scenes which most commonly lead to a display of obstinacy.

By all these means, then, avoid collision with an obstinate child. But if, in spite of all your precaution and provision for better things, collision is forced upon you, for the sake of the offender, and of the discipline of the school in general, you must enter on the struggle. In carrying it on, again take Scripture for your guide. The apostle who forbids fathers to provoke children to wrath, adds "be not bitter against them;" and in another place says to Christians, "let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, be put away from you." "Bitterness." Let the meaning of the word be weighed, and we shall surely not be slow to shun the thing it means. To abstain from it is certainly the duty of a Christian teacher, and never is he more to be on his guard against it than when endeavouring to overcome the obstinacy of a child. If a little offender withstand you, he must, on no account, become triumphant; you must be master. But let neither look nor tone nor word express bitterness; because it is both wrong in itself, and will hinder the

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accomplishment of your purpose. Remember once again your feelings will influence him; beware that his do not influence you. Let no bitterness on your part embitter his resentment. If you would control and conquer, you must show the dignity of a ruler, not the fury of a tyrant; and the calmness you manifest will actually tend to restore the quiet of the culprit.

This struggle ought not to take place in the presence of other children. Many, from a good moral bias, will sympathize with you; many, on the other hand, will feel with their class-fellow. You will see little lips compressed, and little bosoms swelling with emotions which none dare to utter; thus the order of the school is endangered. Whenever it is possible, therefore, withdraw on such an occasion to a separate room or to the playground."

Other modes of influencing children are by rewards and praise. Rewards are considered unnecessary and injurious. A reward may be considered as having a certain intrinsic value, and as being a badge of distinction and pre-eminence. Now a reward certainly ought not to be proposed for the sake of its intrinsic value. There is that in the heart of every child which if fully developed becomes covetousness. This sense of property and love of possession in general, need no increase; on the contrary, there is constant need to repress the greedy desire of gain, a desire which often becomes a ruling passion and the source of ruin to its subject. Nor should a reward be offered as a mark of superiority. Thus proposed the feeling which is appealed to is made the motive of exertion. Love of approbation is in itself a pleasurable feeling, but no one should seek it for that pleasure no more than he should eat simply for the gratification experienced in the act. Love of approbation is a natural feeling, and exists in sufficient force as an ordinary motive without being unduly strengthened by constant appeals to it. Injudiciously stimulated, it is apt to become a ruling motive, and when it is so the chances are that it will be a power for evil rather than good. For its power either way will depend on the character of the persons whose approval is sought. If that is frivolous or evil, it is likely that the acts done for the sake of their approbation will be of like kind. Besides there can be no steadiness of character or pursuit where this is the motive of conduct. For this will take its force and direction, not from any established conviction, but from the persons with whom the individual may happen to be associated.

It is further held that rewards are wrong in principle: They are of the nature of bribes. That which should be required and enforced as a duty is solicited for the sake of the reward. This consideration shows also that the only ground on which they can be bestowed is the doing of

something over and above what was the child's duty. It is also held that rewards make punishments necessary. As the prospect of rewards only influences those that are likely to be successful, the others, who would have worked from ordinary motives, these being cast aside, becoming careless and idle, need punishment to get them to work at all.

G.

Lecture-Room Notes.

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Complement to the Predicate.-Transitive Verbs with double Government.

ENGLISH SYNTAX.

Certain Transitive Verbs govern two Objective Cases. These may both represent Accusative Objects, or one may represent an Accusative and the other a Dative object. Sometimes but rarely one of them represents a Genitive object.

1. Two Accusatives :-Verbs of the following classes govern a double Accusative:

a. Verbs of calling.

Many do call me fool.

My father named me Antolycus.

b. Verbs of judging and accounting. For instance the verbs Hold, take, think, deem, reckon, believe, judge, account, consider, fancy, suppose, imagine, dream, conceive, own, confess, etc., and sometimes also know, find, design, suspect, deny, etc.

I count his friends my foes.

I profess myself your servant.
He has proved himself a man.

Imagine him a Frenchman, and thy foe.

They found it a barbarous jargon.

I warrant him a traitor tried.

Some of these before the second Accusative insert As; some allow the preposition For to be inserted to govern the second Accusative, or occasionally, though rarely, the preposition To.

I count his friends as my foes.
Know thou me for thy liege lord.
I have a King here to my flatterer.

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