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c. Verbs of making, choosing, electing, ctc.

They made him an admiral.
They chose him King.

They crowned him Emperor.

His temper rendered him a favourite.

d. Verbs of asking.

Ask him his name.
Demand me nothing.

e. Verbs of banishing.

We banish you our territories.

He debars me the place of a brother.

f. Verbs of teaching.

They taught their children courtesy to the aged.

He heard him his catechism.

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With verbs of calling, etc.; verbs of judging, etc.; and verbs of making in the widest sense, the second Accusative is often replaced by an adjective.

Call her divine.

Those that have known the earth so full of faults.

Even his countrymen thought him blunt.

I hold you responsible.

Herein I judge mine own wit good.

Some feigned themselves sick.

The fictions of Oates had driven the nation wild.

He spreads the clouds thin, fleecy, and white.

Can we boast ourselves republican?

It was essential to toast him brown while he was very new.

Or the second Accusative may be replaced by either the imperfect or the

perfect participle.

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When he shall see us rising in our throne the East.

I found the old gentleman sitting in his study.

We found the house gone to decay:

I have heard that story told before.

He has his carbine loaded.

The second Accusative is also often replaced by a verb in the Infinitive mood.

The Simple Infinitive is used with verbs of perception, such as See, behold, view, perceive, observe, mark, discern, think, find, hear, feel, etc.; and also with the verb make.

I saw a smith stand with his hammer thus.

Have I not heard lions roar?

He made the keel sink deep.

The usual construction is with the Prepositional infinitive.

He prayed him to write.

He orders him to be slain.

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He forbade his subjects to molest any religious assembly.

Either may be used with the verbs Hear, observe, know, find, bid, make, cause, have.

He bade his guests be seated.

He bade them to observe.

2. Accusative and Datives :-The verbs which take a Person-object in the Dative, and a Thing-object in the Accusative are very numerous. Such are the verbs Afford, allot, allow, bring, do, give, grant, intend, leave, lend, offer, owe, pardon, pay, permit, play, prescribe, reach, repeat, refuse, render, return, send, show, teach, tell, write, yield, etc. The Dative object generally stands first.

They gave them life.

The law I bear no malice for my death.

I mean you no harm.

He wrought the castle much annoy.

I'll procure this fat rogue a charge of foot.

He spared the hangman a halter.

I pay them a thousand thanks.

Let charity forgive me a mistake.
God sends a curst cow short horns.

The Dative object, instead of being expressed by the Objective case, is very often expressed by the Substantive governed by the preposition To, especially in cases where confusion might arise from our want of an inflection to mark the Dative object.

Free speech I to thee allow.

You gave no gold to me.

3. Accusative and Genitive :-With such verbs as Rob, free, clear, deprive, separate the Objective is sometimes, though very rarely, used to express a Genitive object.

Wherefor deprive all earth her wonder.

Notices of Books.

The Complete Reader. Book II. (Stevens and Hole's Series). Longmans and Co.-The second book of this series is carefully prepared, and the lessons judiciously ohosen, with a fair admixture of prose and poetry. It is well adapted to its

purpose.

The Palmerston Series of Copy-Books. By Vere Foster. Whittaker and Co. -It is a striking proof of the many-sidedness of the late Premier, that he issued a public manifesto on the subject of legible penmanship, and that he gave permission for the use of his name in connexion with this series of copy-books, having first of

all, with his own hand, made certain corrections. Mr. Foster thus states the characteristics of his series:-" 1. Its compactness, there being only eight numbers, whereas other sets have from twelve to twenty-four. 2. The combination in the greatest possible degree of freedom with legibility and elegance. The style of the free yet clear writer is therefore imitated rather than that of the stiff copper-plate engraver. 3. The banishment of large hand, because the most difficult to learn and the least required. Consequent economy of paper. 4. The analytical method of teaching the formation of capitals. 5. The introduction of more than a hundred Christian names. 6. Ample instructions. 7. The superiority of the paper both in quantity and quality." ." In justice to the constructor of this series, it may be said that the books fairly come up to the claims made for them. The fact that they are adopted by the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland, and that 850,000 of them have been supplied to their schools in fourteen months, is no mean recommendation.

Writing Charts. By Vere Foster. Whittaker and Co.-These two writing charts are printed on large sheets, each containing the elementary parts of letters, and the letters themselves. The characters are bold, so as to be seen by a class of children, whilst the teacher points out the peculiarities of shape and the proper proportions of each. The idea is a good one, and likely to prove serviceable.

The Universal Review; a Monthly Magazine. No. 1. Macintosh, 24, Paternoster Row. This new monthly is for the use of persons requiring a medium for the dissemination and discussion of opinion. In the present number, we have valuable articles on Reform, competitive examinations for the civil service, efficient church extension shown to be immediately possible, religion in schools, &c. Some of these articles show considerable ability, and are full of interest, but of the orthodoxy of one or more of them there will be a divided opinion.

The Excelsior Reading Books. Nos. 1 and 2. By Francis Young. Murby, 32, Bouverie-street, E.C.-These reading books are fully up to the average, and contain lessons of about the usual quality. The arrangement is very good, and so is the binding. That they should be written wholly in words of one syllable is said to be unique in school literature, which is a doubtful fact, and more doubtful is it that the plan is a sound one. We have some indistinct recollection that this very plan was reprobated by teachers thirty years ago.

The Standard Grammatical Spelling Book. Parts I. and II. By Henry Combes and Edwin Hines. Longmans and Co.-The first part of this series contains three thousand words and the second part more than that number. Words of the same grammatical class are arranged in short columns, under which short sentences are formed from them. The pupils are directed to write out each lesson, to spell and read it aloud, and to learn a part of it by heart. By this procedure, the editors intend to secure a more numerous vocabulary than children usually find in the ordinary reading books; and at the same time to give them, without much trouble, the power to distinguish between the different classes of Vocables. Upon the whole, we are disposed to think favorably of the scheme, and where children can be worked through the entire course, there must be obtained a good result. It is however, in our opinion, a useless eccentricity to call a preposition a to-name, a conjunction a tie-word, &c.

Papers for the Schoolmaster.

No. XXVI.-NEW SERIES.

FEBRUARY 1st, 1867.

EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS AND PROGRESS DURING THE

NINETEENTH CENTURY.

Pestalozzianism-Homo and Colonial Sohool Society.

Continued from p. 5.

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The cultivation of the intelligence, though " considered of minor importance ” as compared with physical and moral training, yet received more elaborate attention than either of the others. This, perhaps, was due to the nature of the case, as the defects in iufant training and in school education generally were more apparent in the department of intellect than in the others. It might also be owing partly to the forcing process which yet lingered in infants' schools,-a process, to which this Society may be said to have given a more legitimate direction rather than to have banished from infant culture.

Adopting the principles of Pestalozzi, this Society's work was rather to frame a method for their application than to expound them, examino their soundness, or ascertain their limits. Hence its largest gifts to infant training, aro its elaborate plans for the cultivation of the senses. It is true that they speak of the cultivation, not of one, but of all the intellectual faculties. But the provision by this Society is for their germ, or rudimentary condition only. Such powers as conception, memory, sense of relation and analogy, and judgment are brought into early rudimentary exercise in connection with the senses, and for their cultivation, so far, provision is made. A higher or more advanced cultureas that of the conceptive faculty and sense of analogy advocated by Isaac Taylor and practised by Stow-whether thought legitimate or not -is certainly not attempted. This claim to have provided for the cultivation of all the intellectual saculties, can be received only with this limited interpretation. In fact it is not always clear what is

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be

understood by “intellectual faculty." Sometimes it would seem as if meant to imply--with the Phrenologists—that a difference in the objeot or in the organ, indicates a different intellectual power. But this is not true. Lessons addressed to the touch, do not necessarily differ from lessons addressed to the eye, as to the intellectual faculty exercised. There is a difference of organ, not one necessarily of intellectual power. Every mental element in the one act may be precisely that in the other. Of course, with a variation of aim, even when employing the same organ, there

may a change in the nature of the mental act.

To give employment to the several senses, and to bring into activity each intellectual faculty in its rudimentary state, and recognizing that each has its own place in the order of development and activity, courses of instruction were prepared in a variety of things.

Besides common objects, plants, and animals, these courses embraced colour, form, size, weight and place, physical actions and employments, the human body, drawing and number. The following remarks indicate the method. The instruction should be carefully graduated, rising step by step from the simplest elements to as high a point of difficulty as may be presumed to be within the grasp of the infant mind. Principles and practices should be presented in immediate connection, so as to illustrate their mutual dependence. All details of practice should flow naturally from the first truths on which they are founded. The general object should be not the direct impartation of knowledge, but rather the cultivation of mental powers by bringing them into healthy exercise, and the formation thereby of valuable mental habits. It is also to be remembered that the subjects are to go on side by side. Variety will thus be given, and diverse powers of mind be simultaneously and progressively developed. The first step in mental tuition should be the education of the senses, and their organs. Where this is judiciously carried out, the mind will be furnished with clear and distinct ideas, without the risk of its being overstrained.

The office of the senses,” says Miss Mayo, “is to store the mind with ideas. The medium must be by real tangible objects. The first exercises should begin with miscellaneous objects, though not altogether without arrangement, as a definite aim ought to be proposed in every lesson.” Object lessons hence supply what is natural for the child to learn. An infant's first impressions are from objects, and its first knowledge about them. At first but a passive recipient of impressions, he soon comes to take an active part in learning their various qualities. This goes on in a desultory way all through infancy. In the object lesson this natural tendency is utilized, and the child is judiciously and systematically directed in the employment of its senses. Thus object lessons educate the senses,-they stimulate the power of observation, and

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