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And albeit the peace and union betwixt the kingdoms be a great bleffing of God unto both, and a bond which we are obliged to preferve unviolated,and to endeavour that justice may be done upon the opposers thereof; Yet fome in this land, who have come under the bond of the covenant, have made it their great study how to dissolve this union, and few or no endeavours have been used by any of us for purifing of fuch.

We have suffered many of our brethren, in several parts of the land, to be oppressed by the common enemy, without compafsion or relief: There hath been great murmuring and repining, becaufe of expence of means, and pains in doing of our duty: many, by perswalion or terror, have suffered themfelves to be divided and withdrawn, to make defection to the contrary part : many have turned off to a détestable in: differency and neutrality in this cause, which so much con cerneth the glory of God, and the good of these kingdoms; nay,many have made it their study to walk so, as they might comply with all times,and all the revolutions thereof. It hath not been our care to countenance,encourage,entrust and employ such only,as from their hearts did effect and mind God's work; but the hearts of such many times have been discour: aged, and their hands weakned, their fufferings neglected, and themselves flighted; and many, who were open ene mies, and always secret underminers countenanced and em. ployed : Nay, even those who had been looked upon as incendiaries, and upon whom the Lord had fet marks of de Spëráte malignancy, falshaad and deceit, were brought in,as fit to manage public affairs: many have been the lets and impediments that have been cast in the way, to retard and obftruct the Lord's work ; and some have kept secret,what of themselves they were not able to fupress and overcome.

Besides these and many other breaches of the articles of the
covenant in the matter thereof,which it concerneth

of us to search out and acknowledge before the Lord, as we
would wish his wrath to be turned away from us'; fo have
many of us failedexceedingly,in the manner of our following
and pursuing the duties contained therein, not only feeking
great things for ourselves and mixing of our private interests
and ends concerning our felves, and friends, and followers,
with those things which concern the public good ; but many

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times preferring such to the honour of God, and good of his cause, and retarding God's work, until we might carry along with us our own interests and designs. It hath been our way to trust in the means, and to rely upon the arm of flesh for success, albeit the Lord hath many times made us meet with dissappointment therein, and stained the pride of all our glory, by blasting every carnal confidence unto us: We have followed for the most part the counsels of flesh and blood, and walked more by the rules of policy than piety, and have hearkned more unto men than unto God.

Albeit we made folemn public profession before the world, of our unfeigned desires to be humbled before the Lord for our own fins, and the sins of these kingdoms, especially for our undervaluing of the inestimable benefit of the gospel, and that we have not laboured for the power thereof, and received Christ unto our hearts, and walked worthy of him in our lives; and of our true and únfeigned purpose, desire and endeavour for ourselves, and all others under our power and charge, both in public and private, in all the duties which we owe to God and man, to amend our lives, and each one to go before another in the example of a real reformation, that the Lord might turn away his wrath and heavy indignation, and establish these kirks and kingdoms in truth and peace : Yet we have refused to be reformed, and have walked proudly and obstinately against the Lord,, not valuing his gospel, nor submitting ourselves unto the obedience thereof; not seeking after Christ, nor studying to honour him in the excellency of his person, nor employ him in the virtue of his offices; nor making conscience of public ordinances, nor private nor secret duties; nor studying to edify one another in love. Ignorance of God, and of his Son Jesus Christ

, prevails exceedingly in the land; the greatest part of masters of families, amongst noblemen, bárons, gentlemen, burgesses and commons, neglect to seek GOD in their families, and to endeavour the reformation thereof; and albeit it hath been much pressed, yet few of our nobles and great ones, ever to this day, could be perswaded to perform family-duties themselves, and in their own persons; which makes fo necessary and useful a duty to be mifregarded by others of inferior rank : Nay, many of the nobiliry, gentry and burrotvs, who should have been examples

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of Godliness and fober walking unto others, have been ringleaders of excess and rioting. Albeit we be the Lord's people, engaged to him in a solemn way; yet, to this day we have not made it our study, that judicatories and armies should consist of, and places of power and trust be filled with men of a blameless and Christian conversation and of known integrity, and approven fidelity, affection and zeal unto the cause of God; but not only those who have been neutral and indifferent, but disaffected and malignant, and others who have been profane and scandalous, have been intrusted: by which it hath come to pass, that judicatories have been the feats of injustice and iniquity; and many in our armies,by their miscarriages, have become our plague, unto the great prejudice of the cause of God, the great fcandel of the Gospel, and the great increase of loofness and profanity throughout all the land. It were impossible to reckon up

ail the abominations that are in the land; but the blaspheming of the name of God, fwearing by the creatures, profanation of the Lords day, uncleaness, drunkenness, excess and rioting, vanity of apparel, lying and deceit, railing and cursing, arbitrary and uncontrouled oppression, and grinding of the faces of the poor by landlords, and others in place and power, are become ordinary and common sins: And, besides all these things, there be many other transgressions,where of the lands wherein we live are guilty. All which we desire to acknowledge and to be humbled for, that the world may bear witness with us, that righteousness belongeth unto God and shame and confusion of face unto us, as appears this day.

And because it is needful for those who find mercy, not only to confess, but also to forsake their fin; Therefore, that the reality and sincerityof our repentance may appear, we do resolve, and folemnly engage ourselves, before the Lord, carefully to avoid for the time to come, all these offences, whereof we have now made folemn public acknowledgment, and all the snares and tentations which tend thereunto, and to testify the integrity of our resolution herein, and that we may be the better enabled in the power of the Lord's strength to perform the same, we do again renew our solemn league and covenant, promising hereafter 'to make conscience of all the duties, whereunto we are obliged, in all the heads and articles thereof, particularly of these that follow.

1. Bea


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İ. Because religion is of all things the most excellent and precious, the advancing and promoving the power thereof against all ungodliness and profanity, the fecuring and preserving the purity thereof against all error heresy and schism; and namely, Independency, anabaptism, antinomianism, arminianism, and focinianifm; familifm, libertinism, sceptieism, and erastianism, and the carrying on the work of uniformity shall be studied and endeavoured by us before all worldy interests, whether concerning the king, ourselves, or any other whatsomever. 2. Because many have of late laboured to supplant the liberties of the kirk, we shall maintain and defend the kirk of Scotland, in all her liberties and privileges, against all who shall oppose or undermine the same, or encroach thereupon, under any pretext whatsomever. 3. We fhall vindicate and maintain the liberties of the subjects;in all these things which concern their consciences, persons and estates. 4. We shall carefully maintain and defend the union betwixt the kingdoms, and avoid every thing that may weaken the same, or involve us in any measure of accession unto the guilt of those,who have invaded the kingdom of England. 5. As we have been always loyal to our king, fo we shall still endeavour to give unto God that which is God's, and to Cesar the things which are Cesars, 6. We shall be so far from conniving at, complying with, or countenancing of malignancys injustice, iniquity, profanity and impiety, that we shall not only avoid and discountenance those things and cherifh and encourage these persons who are zealous for the cause of God, and walk according to the gospel; but also shall take a more effe&tual course than heretofore, in our respective places and callings,for punishing and suppressing these evils; and faithfully endeavour, that the best and fittest remedies may be applied for taking away the causes thereof,and advancing, the knowledge of God, and holiness and righteousness in the land. And therefore, in the last place, as we fhall earnestly pray unto God, that he would give us able men, fearing God. men of truth, and hating covetoufness,to judge and bear charge among his people ; so we shall, according to our places and callings, endeavour that judicatories and all places of power and truth both in kirk and state, may consist of, and be filled with, such men as are of known good affection to the cause of God, and-of a blameless and Christian conversation.


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And, because there be many,who heretofore have not made conscience of the oath of God, but some through fear, others by perswafion and upon base ends and human interefts, have entred thereinto, who have afterwards discovered themselves to have dealt deceitfully with the Lord, in fwearing fallly by his name; therefore we, who do now renew our covenant, in referrence to these duties, and all other danes, contained therein, do, in the fight of him who is the searcher of hearts, folemnly profess, that it is not upon any politic advantage or private interest, or by-end, or because of any terror or persuafion from men,or hypocritically and deceitfully,that we do again take uport us the oath of God, but honestly and sincerely, and from the sense of our duty; and that therefore, denying ourselves and our own things, and laying afide all felf interest and ends, we shall above all things seek the honour of God, the good of his cause, and the wealth of his people ; and that forsaking the counsels of flesh and blood, and not leaning uponi carnal confidences, we shall depend upon the Lord,walk by the rule of his word,and hearken to the voice of his servants, In all which, profesling our own weakness; we do earitestly pray to God, who is the Father of mercies, through his Son Jesus Christ, to be merciful unto us, and to enable us by the power of his might, that we may duty, unco the praise of his grace in the churches. Amen.

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