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propositions, reports, or other forms of business are listed, that the clerk may have the items arranged so that they will naturally take their turn and come up in their order. "Calendar" is from calendarium, or kalendarium, “an account book," and the parliamentary calendar is the account book of the items of business, or the lists kept by the clerk. In the United States House of Representatives there are three different calendars.
Every parliament may, and should, have its own order of business. Where no rule has been adopted, the condensed form already suggested may be used, or the order may be enlarged as follows:
1. Calling the House to Order.
2. Religious Service.
3. Calling of the Roll.
4. Reading and Approval of the Minutes.
5. Reception of Communications.
6. Reception of Reports
(1) from Standing Committees.
(2) from Special or Select Committees.
(b) for immediate action.
7. Unfinished Business.
8. New Business.
9. Miscellaneous Business.
Speaker Reed suggests the following:
"Calling to Order.
"Approval of the Journal.
"Introduction of Business for Reference.
"Reports of Committees for Reference to Calendars.
"Reports of Committees for Action.
"Action on Reports Already Made. "Other Business.
"Adjournment."—(Reed's Rules, p. 196.)
Again, the regular order of business may be modified from time to time by an order of the house that at a
certain time a particular matter shall be considered, and that mandate inserts that particular thing at the certain time or special place for the time being in the regular order.
But that is only a temporary displacement of the order, and, when it has been disposed of, the regular order resumes its place and is to be followed.
By Unfinished Business is meant business which has been under consideration, but which, at the last adjournment, had not been disposed of. New Business covers any new matter that a member may introduce.
Questions as to priority of business are to be decided without debate.
RIGHTS, DUTIES, AND POWERS
CHAPTER I. Rights and Duties of Members CHAPTER II. Powers of a Parliamentary Body
RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF MEMBERS
FIRST, the duties of members should be considered. The first duties are attendance, punctuality in attendance, and orderliness. The member's presence is demanded, he should be prompt in attendance and in the discharge of his various responsibilities which pertain to his membership, and as a member he should always be orderly.
In this country it is disorderly for the member to wear his hat in the room where the body meets. His head should be uncovered when he enters and while he remains in the room. His feet are to be kept on the floor, he is not to smoke when in the hall, he is not to pass between the presiding officer and a member who is speaking, and he is not to walk about or engage in other business while the body is in session. He is to be decorous in his conduct at all times. He is not to disturb others or to distract the attention of the house. He is to give respectful attention to the presiding officer, the business of the body, and to the member speaking from the floor. He is to be courteous, to observe the proprieties, and to promote harmony by avoiding altercations of every kind. He is not to obstruct others in the enjoyment of their rights or to come in conflict with other members who are seeking or struggling for their legitimate rights. In other words, the member is to observe the Golden Rule.
The member should both know and obey the rules and exercise mutual consideration and forbearance. When one is speaking he should not interrupt except by the consent of the one having the floor, and for something urgent. While another is speaking he should not make outcries or ejaculations from his seat or from any other place in the house. While debating, he should avoid improper expres