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The improvements

worn out and that new ones must be provided. asked for at Camp Lincoln and the Logan Rifle Range are indispensable for the interests of the service, and should be provided by the General Assembly.

The National Guard has increased in company organization from time to time, until the amounts for expenses for armory, rent, lights, fuel, insurance, postage, transportation, annual encampment, etc., formerly appropriated. are found to be insufficient to meet the actual needs of the service. I recommend an increase of the appropriation. for this purpose to the favorable consideration of the Senate and House.

The question of the lake front armory should receive that careful. consideration which the great interests involved demand. The opportunity to acquire such a strip of land, and the establishment of a creditable and permanent home for all the State military organizations in Chicago, ought not to be neglected.

The recommendation of the Adjutant General that Section 2, Article XI, Military Code, be amended so that the chief executive may, in his discretion, grant permission to schools and worthy private military organizations to drill and parade with arms, is concurred in. The law, as it now is, has proven to be unjust to many worthy citizens of our State.

I indorse the recommendation of the Adjutant General that the War Reports, 1861-1866, be revised and reprinted. Continued corrections of service, made at Washington, in the records of officers and men, should be embodied in these reports. Applications for the volumes containing the Illinois rosters in the civil war continue to come in from hundreds of applicants, and the new edition should be printed for distribution to libraries, Grand Army posts, old soldiers and citizens generally.

It is suggested that the rosters of the organizations in the American-Spanish war can be added to and embodied in the reprint of these reports.

It should be enacted that the colors, standards and guidons carried by Illinois troops in this, the American-Spanish war, be deposited in Memorial Hall for preservation, and that provision be made for a suitable receptacle for them.

It was most unfortunate for our patriotic soldier boys, who responded so promptly and assembled so quickly to the President's call for troops, that this State had no permanent structure designed for the accommodation of the National Guard when rendezvoused, and it was fortunate that the State possessed buildings, on the grounds devoted to the State Fair, which could be utilized in emergency as temporary shelter for troops. Without these buildings, who may say what greater hardships might not have been inflicted upon the flower of the youth of this State when those young men dropped the pen, the plow, the jackplane and the hammer, or even more humble means of earning a livelihood indoors, to grasp the

gun, the sabre or the swab and rush to their country's aid through any sort of trial or privation which the soldier's life might bring them?

In my opinion the group of buildings on the State Fair grounds at Springfield, which sheltered that band of noble boys through the most trying week of the most disagreeable Easter weather ever known in this region, rendered to them, their families, friends and well.wishers a service in time of need worth far more than every dollar of the tax-payers' money expended upon them by the State. I wish to express my gratitude here for the consideration which prompted the State Board of Agriculture to tender the use of the buildings to the State for this purpose. It was a public-spirited act

and the Board deserves credit for it.

During the severe, raw weather of that inhospitable Easter week, which was made notorious by seven days of continuous rain and drizzle, when it was impossible to maintain or even secure comfort in the best-appointed and most luxurious homes of our cities the National Guard was quartered in the Dome Building, the main Exposition Building, the Machinery Building, and other structures on the Fair Grounds, with such comforts and conveniences as could be gotten together in haste for a large body of men. After the unavoidable confusion of the first few days the troops found nothing to complain of in their temporary quarters, and the surgical staff was able to make reports later which placed the record of sickness and mortality at Camp Tanner in much more favorable language than it was possible to use in reporting the conditions in the government camps.

The fact that not a single case of typhoid fever, dysentery or diarrhoea originated in this camp among 15,000 men on duty there, was matter of comment at the time as affording an excellent illustration of the purity of the water supply and the excellence of the general sanitary conditions. Less than one-half of one per cent of the enrollment was confined in the camp hospitals, even during May, when the weather conditions were unprecedentedly bad, and at the time when the highest percentage known in the history of the camp was reached. This record was so good for raw, untrained troops as to invite direct comparison even with the records made later in the government camps after the men had learned by experience in army life how to prepare their food and take care of themselves. Probably we could improve in many ways upon our first efforts if there should be another occasion to muster and prepare a force of raw recruits upon short notice, but I doubt if the record then made could be greatly surpassed with similar conditions to contend with.

OUR EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS.

The State University is the crown of our educational system. Its continued growth in influence and efficiency is a proper subject of pride and congratulation. The colleges of science and of the liberal arts are rapidly attaining the highest reputation. Its college and engineering is almost without a rival. The University of Illinois. may and should be made the greatest educational institution in this

or any other country. To that end I recommend a continuance of the same liberal treatment it has received at the hands of the last two General Assemblies. I desire to direct your special attention to the imperative needs of the College of Agriculture, the growth of which does not seem to be commensurate with that of other departments. An independent building, especially adapted to the needs of that college, as well as a building providing needed accommodations for the young women in attendance, is among the apparent and immediate needs of the institution.

The necessity for well-trained, thoroughly prepared teachers is apparent to every thoughful citizen. During the existence of the Illinois Normal University and the Southern Illinois Normal University thousands of persons have been prepared in them to become. teachers, especially in our elementary schools. For the year ending June 30, 1898, the sum of $10,792,300 was paid for the item of instruction alone in the public schools of the State. The money expended for the purpose of making that instruction more skillful and effective was wisely and usefully employed. I recommend that liberal appropriations be made for the maintenance of the two Normal Universities which have been in existence for so many years, and for the running expenses of the new Normal Schools at DeKalb and Charleston, and to provide for the equipment of both of them, and for the completion of the unfinished building at the former place.

The justification of the existence of all these higher institutions is the service which they perform directly and indirectly in the improvement of the common school system maintained in the interest of all the people. I most cordially and earnestly commend to your careful attention all proposed measures looking to the betterment and efficiency of the common schools, which are the foundation of all permanent progress in the development and growth of our free institutions.

STREET RAILWAY LEGISLATION.

I desire to call your especial attention to the urgent necessity for street railway legislation. Only two such statutes were ever enacted in Illinois-one dates back to 1874, and was virtually repealed long ago by the inventive genius of the American people. Horses and dummies, as the motive power in this branch of the common-carrier business, are now as obsolete as the stage coach and the ferry boat. It was not until two years ago that the fact that the State had no legislation upon its statute books specifically applying to one of the greatest and most necessary branches of business of a semipublic and semi-private character, was recognized. The 40th General Assembly deserves credit, instead of censure, for attempting to supply that defect, but the act passed in 1897, and known as the Allen Law, fell far short of meeting the full requirements of the situation. It deserves to be remembered that the first railroad and warehouse act, passed in 1871, also failed of its purpose. It was repealed by a substitute, and that substitute worked so well that no

material change has ever been made in its provisions. It is to be hoped that the year 1899 will be remarkable in the legislative annals of Illinois as the date of the enactment of a street railway law fully meeting the just demands of the people in the cities of Illinois in connection with this branch of common-carrier service. Having achieved great and indisputable success as the pioneer in the line of steam railway legislation, Illinois should now also blaze the way to such legislation for city railways as shall give the people who patronize them the lowest possible fare consistent with the property rights involved.

The act of 1897 was based, first of all, upon the principle that no car tracks could be laid on a street without the consent of the owners of the abutting property. This is a recognition of "home rule" which should always obtain. Its second leading feature was that the permit, or franchise, should be limited to fifty years, and might be as much shorter as the city council or town board, as the case might be, saw fit to make it. In my opinion, fifty years is not too long However, the necessity for granting and the duration of a franchise should be left to the common council of the city. The usual length of street railway franchises in the cities of this country is fifty years, independent of state legislation, but in some cases it is perpetual, and in others as low as twenty years. The third leading feature of this act fixes a maximum charge of five cents for each ride, but limits the time this fare may be charged to twenty years. This five cent fare was allowed upon the supposition that a certain per cent of the gross earnings of the line should be paid into the municipal treasury. Right here is the really objectionable feature of the law. After mature consideration of the subject I am firmly convinced that the true way is to give the patrons of the line the benefit of the reduced cost of building and operating street railroads.

The principle of railway control, embodied in the present Constitution of the State and applied through what is known as the railroad and warehouse act, should be extended to street railways. The necessity for this must be apparent to all reasonable minds. The loss of life at grade crossings of steam and street railways in the entire State in the last year has been appalling and far in excess of the loss of life on steam railroads. I suggest that the Railroad and Warehouse Commission be empowered to regulate the crossing of steam railroads with street railways, and be given full authority to specify the place, manner and mode of such crossings, as well as the appliances and regulations for preserving life and preventing accidents at such crossings. The same reasons also that exist for requiring the various steam railroads in the State of Illinois to make annual reports to the Railroad and Warehouse Commission, showing the physical condition of such railroads, the amount of their indebtedness, their gross earnings, operating expenses, etc., apply equally to street railways. I would, therefore, suggest that street railways be required to make reports to the Railroad and Warehouse Commission of like character as these steam railroads are now required by law to make.

It is also necessary to secure to the patrons of these street railways such reduction in fares as the reduced cost of construction and operation, also of interest charges, justify.

It is within the scope of the State Constitution and the law to fix reasonable maximum rates of compensation for the services rendered, the same to be prima facie evidence of fairness. There should be a reasonable and equitable reduction in street car fares. In my opinion, from the investigation which I have been able to make, the reasonable maximum charge for tickets entitling the holder to twenty-five rides should not exceed one dollar, being equal to four cents per ride, and tickets for six rides should be sold for twenty-five cents. It would seem, at present, that a maximum rate of five cents for a single ride would not be unreasonable, but it must be remembered that, if such legislation should be adopted, such further reduction of street car fares could be made by the Railroad and Warehouse Commission, from time to time, as conditions might justify. Or, if, on a full investigation of the subject, it should be found that a lower maximum rate than five cents for a single ride could be adopted-after paying a just remuneration for the services rendered and a fair rate of interest on the capital actually invested - then such lower maximum rate should be made.

I am aware that it is insisted in certain quarters that instead of a reduction of fares the traction companies should be required to pay a fixed per cent of their gross earnings into the municipal treasury. However much they may differ as to the percentage, they all agree in denying to the people who ride in street cars the benefit of the economics introduced in this line of common carrier business, insisting that all of the benefit should go to the tax-payers instead of to the patrons of the road. Bitter as has been the discussion, there has been entire agreement in this assumption.

The right of the General Assembly to pass such a measure as I recommend is beyond reasonable dispute. The constitution expressly provides that the General Assembly shall, from time to time, pass laws establishing reasonable rates of charges for the transportation. of passengers and freight, not only on steam, but "on the different railroads of the State." The so-called "Granger decisions" of both the Supreme Court of Illinois and of the United States uphold this provision of the Constitution, and the legislation based on it was also upheld. The Supreme Court of the United States laid down. this proposition in the decision rendered at the October term, 1876:

"Under the powers inherent in every sovereignty, a government may regulate the conduct of its citizens toward each other, and when necessary for the public good the manner in which each shall use his own property. It has in the exercise of those powers been customary in England, from time immemorial, and in this country from its first colonization, to regulate common carriers, hackmen, bakers, millers, wharfingers, inn-keepers, etc., and in so doing to fix a maximum of charge to be made for services rendered, accommodations furnished and articles sold."

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