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Perion. however, comparatively few porisms so simple in their is contained in bis Opera Reliqua, published after his first
origin, or that arise from problems where the conditions death at the sole expence of the earl of Stanhope. We
ever, have been demonstrated by the late Dr R. 8mall,
, curred in astronomy. Sir Isaac Newton, in bis Prin or for the precept given to the Jews respecting it
, mpia, has considered a small part of the orbit of a comet though unquestionably there was some good one for it. as a straight line described with an uniform motion. The Greeks gave great commendations to this food; From this hypothesis, by means of four observations and Galen, though indeed that is suspected to be from a made at proper intervals of time, the determination of particular fondness, is everywhere full of it. The Rethe path of the comet is reduced to this geometrical mans considered it as one of their delicacies; and if problem: Four straight lines being in position, it is re some of the inhabitants of the northern climates have quired to draw a fifth line across them, so as to be cut taken an aversion to it, that probably arose from the unby them into three parts, having given ratios to one an cultivated state of their country not being able to rear it. other. Now this problem had been constructed by Dr Pork is of a very tender structure; increased perhaps Wallis and Sir Christopher Wren, and also in three dif- from a peculiaritý in its economy, viz. taking on fat more ferent ways by Sir Isaac himself in different parts of his readily than any other animal
. Pork is a white meat works; yet none of these geometers observed that there even in its adult state, and then gives out a jelly in very was a particular situation of the lines in which the pro- great quantity. On account of its little perspirability blem admitted of innumerable solutions : and this hap- and tenderness it is very nutritious, and was given for pens to be the very case in which the problem is appli- that intention to the athletæ. With regard to its alka. cable to the determination of the comet's path, as was lescency, no proper experiments have yet been made; first discovered by the abbé Boscovich, who was led to but as it is of a gelatinous and succulent nature, it is it by finding, that in this way he could never deter- probably less so than many others. Upon the whole, Chit mine the path of a comet with any degree of cer it appears to be a very valuable nutriment; and the rea-Mu tainty.
son is not very obvious why it was in some countries Besides the geometrical there is also an algebraical forbid. It is said that this animal is apt to be diseased; Analysis belonging to porisms; which, however, does not but why were not inconveniences felt on that account belong to this place, because we give this account of in Greece ? Again, it has been alleged, that as Pale. them merely as an article of ancient geometry; and the stine would not rear these animals, and as the Jews bad ancients never employed algebra in their investigations. learned the use of them in Egypt, it was necessary they Mr Playfair, formerly professor of mathematics, and should bave a precept to avoid them. But the Egyp now of natural philosophy in the university of Edin tians themselves did not use the meat ; and this reliburgh, has written a paper on the origin and geometri gious precept, indeed, as well as many others, seems to cal investigation of porisms, which is published in the have been borrowed from them. Possibly, as pork is third volume of the Transactions of the Royal Society of not very perspirable, it might increase the leprosy, which Edinburgh, from which this account of the subject is was said to be epidemic in Palestine; though this is far taken. He has there promised a second part to his pa from being certain. per, in which the algebraical investigation of porisms is PORLOCK, in the county of Somerset in Engto be considered. This will no doubt throw consider Jand, is a small sea-port town six miles west from able light upon the subject, as we may readily judge Minehead. This whole parish, including bamlets
, from that gentleman's known abilities, and from the contained 633 inbabitants in 1811. The situation of 1 specimen he has already given us in the first part. the town is very romantic, being nearly surrounded on
Such as are desirous of knowing more of this subject all sides, except towards the sea, by steep and lofty may consult Dr Simson'streatise De Porismatibus, which bills, intersected by deep vales and hollow glens. Sobre
Porlock of the hills are beautifully wooded, and contain numbers Upper Egypt; and in separate nodules in Germany, Porpliyry.
of wild deer. The valleys are very deep and picturesque; England, and Irelar
ed with woods and forest shrubs. Some of them are well of black porphyry in a church at Rome. In Egypt
ancient buildings in Rome. One of the most consider-
PORPHYRIUS, a famous Platonic philosopher, was emperor Constantine's daughter. It is in the church of born at Tyre in 233, in the reign of Alexander Seve St Agnes, and is commonly called the tomb of Bacchus. rus, He was the disciple of Longinus, and became In the palace of the Thuilleries there is also a bust of the ornament of his school at Athens; from thence he Apollo and of twelve emperors, all in porphyry. Some went to Rome, and attended Plotinus, with whom he ancient pieces seem to have been wrought with the chislived six years. After Plotinus's death he taught phi- sel, others with the saw, others with wheels, and others losophy at Rome with great applause; and became well gradually.ground down with emery. Yet modern tools skilled in polite literature, geography, astronomy, and will scarcely touch porphyry. Dr Lister therefore music, He lived till the end of the third century, and thinks *, that the ancients had the secret of tempering * Philos. died in the reign of Dioclesian. There are still extant steel better thau we; and not, as some imagine, that Transact. his book on the Categories of Aristotle ; a Treatise on they had the art of softening the porphyry; though it is N303. or Abstinence from Flesh; and several other pieces in probable that time and air have contributed to increase
Many persons have endeavoured to retrieve the ancient
distilled a water from certain herbs, with which his sculp-
Porphyry undertake to cut or polish it. See bis Works abr. vol.i. is prevented from entering the lower decks in a terbu
The lower and upper edges of the ports are Pony Da Costa supposes, and perhaps with reason, that always parallel to the deck, so that the guns, when lethe method used by the ancients in cutting and engra relied in their carriages, are all equally high above the ving porplıyry was extremeiy simple, and that it was pero lower extremity of the ports, which is called the portformed without the aid of
scientific means that are aills. now lost. Ile imagines, that, by un wearied diligence, PORT, is also a strong wine bronght from Port-a-port, and with numbers of common tools at great expence,
and also called Porto and Oporto. they radely hewerl or broke the stone into the intended Pont of the Voice, in Alusic, the faculty or babit of figure, and by continued application reduced them into making the shakes, passages, and diminutions, in which more regular designs; and that they completed the the beauty of a song or piece of music consists. work by polishing it with great labour, by the aid of Port-Crayon, a pencil case, which is usually four or particular hard sands found in Egypt. And be thinks, five inches long, and contrived so as that the pencil may that in the porphyry quarries there were layers of grit slide up and down. Its inside is round, and its outside or loose disunited particles, analogous to the porphyry, is sometimes filed into eight sides or faces, on which are which they carefully sought for, and used for this work. drawn the sector-lines; sometimes it is made round both See Hist. Niit. of Fossils, p. 285.
frith-side and within, and has its length divided into PORPHYRY-Shell. See MUREX, Conchology Index. inches and parts of inches.
PORPITES, the HAIR-BUTTON STONE, in Natural Pont-Fire, 2 composition for setting fire to pewder, History, a name given by some authors to a small species &c. Port-fires are frequently used by artillery people of fossil coral; which is usually of a rounded figure con in preference to matches; and they are distinguished siderably flattened, and striated from the centre to the into wet and dry port-fires. The composition of the circumference. These are of different sizes and of dif former is salt petre four, sulphur one, and mcaled powder ferent colours, as grayish, wbitishi, brownish, or bluish, four. When these materials are thoroughly mixed and and are usually found immersed in stone.
sifted, the whole is to be moistened with a little linseed PORRUM, the LEEK; a species of plants belong oil, and rubbed between the lands till all the oil is iming to the genus of Allium. See ALLIUM, BOTANY bibed by the composition. The preparation for dry portInder; and for an account of the method of cultiva fires is salt petre four, sulphur one, mealed powder tiro, tion, see GARDENING.
and antimony one. These compositions are driven into PORT, a barbour, river, or haven, formed either by small paper cases, to be used when necessary. nature or art to receive and shelter shipping from the Port-aux-Prune, so called by the French, is a counstorms and waves of the open sea.
try on the coast of Africa, to the north of the island Artificial ports are those which are either formed by of Madagascar. It is a rich country, and fertile in rice throwing a strong mound or rampire across the har. and pastures; it is inhabited only by the negroes, who bour's mouth to some island or rock, or erecting two are an industrious good sort of people, but very superlong barriers, which stretch from the land on each side stitious. There are no towns, but several villages, and like arms or the horns of a crescent, and nearly inclose they bave some customs which seem to incline to Juthe haven; the former of these are called mole-heads daism. and the latter piers.
Port-Jackson, in New Holland. See New HOLLAND, Port, is also a name given on some oecasions to the No 7, &c. larboard or left side of the ship, as in the following in Port-Royal, a sea-port town in the island of Jamaica. stances. Thus it is said, “ the ship heels to port," i.e. It was once a place of the greatest riches and importance stoops or inclines to the larboard-side.“ Top the yard in the West Indies; but in 1692 it was destroyed by an to port?" the order to make the larboard extremity of earthquake, in 1702 by fire, in 1722 by an inundation a yard higher than the other. 16 Port the helm !" the of the sea, and in 1744 it suffered greatly by a hurriorder to put the helm over to the larboard-side of the
It is now reduced to three streets, a few lanes, vessel. In all these senses this phrase appears intended and about 200 houses. It contains the royal pavy-yard to prevent any mistakes happening from the similarity for heaving down and refitting the king's ships ; the of sounds in the words starboard and larboard, particu- navy-hospital, and barracks for a regiment of soldiers. larly when they relate to the helm, where a misappre. The fortifications, which are very extensive, being in hension might be attended with very dangerous conse excellent order, and having been lately strengthened quences.
with many additional works, it may be said to vie in Ports, the embrasures or openings in the side of a point of strength with any fortress in the king's domiship of war, wherein the artillery is ranged in battery nions. The harbour is one of the best in the world, upon the decks above and below.
and 1000 ships may ride therein, secure from every The ports are formed of a sufficient extent to point wind that can blow. It is six miles east of Spanisliand fire the cannon, without injuring the ship's side by town, and as much by water south-east of Kingston. the recoil; and as it serves no end to enlarge them be W. Long. 76. 40. N. Lat. 18. o. yond what is necessary for that purpose, the shipwrights Port-Royal, an island in North America, on the coast have established certain dimensions, by which they are of South Carolina, which, with the neighbouring concut in proportion to the size of the cannon,
tinent, forms one of the most commodious harbours in
N. Lat. 31. 40.
Port Royal tian nuns in the diocese of Paris ;- the one near Chev- and tripods, there is scarcely an article used by the an Portici
reuse, at the distance of five leagues from Paris, called cients of which a specimen may not be seen in this mu U Portici
Port Royal of the Fields; and the other in Paris, in seum. “ But the most valuable room is the library,
from the numerous manuscript rolls which it contains.
Ilaikin's The nuns of the former of these monasteries proving What a field is here for conjecture! what room for Travels refractory were dispersed; when many ecclesiastics, and hope ! Among this inestimable collection, how many throvgh others, who were of the same sentiments as these reli- great works are there, of which even the names are now
land, Italy, gious, retired to Port-Royal, took apartments there, unknown ! how many unbroken volumes, whose very
&c. and printed many books. Hence the name of Port- fragments, preserved in the writings of the ancient Royalists was given to all their party, and their books scholiasts, convey to us moral improvement, informawere called books of Port-Royal: from hence we say tion, and delight! perhaps, all the dramatic pieces of the writers of Port-Royal, Messieurs de Port-Royal, Menander and Philemon; perhaps, nay, certainly, the and the translations and grammars of Port-Royal. lost Decades of Livy; for it is impossible to suppose,
PORTA, or Vena Porta, in Anatomy, a large vein that among so many rolls, the most admired history of distributed tbrough the liver in the manner of an ar the people who possessed them is not to be found: what tery. See ANATOMY, N° 96.
private library in Britain is without the best histories PORTA-Augusta, in Ancient Geography, mentioned of England ? But how I tremble for their situation, as only by Ptolemy; a town of the Vaccæi in the Hither Portici is built on the lava that overwhelmed HerculaSpain ; thought by some to be Torre Quemada, in Old neum! How I tremble too for the indillerence of the Castile ; by others Los Valvases, a village between king of Naples towards this invaluable treasure, in Burgos and Torre Quemada.
which all the most enlightened people of Europe are PORTÆ-ROMANÆ, in Ancient Geography. Accord deeply interested! When I first saw them, I had no ing to Pliny, Romulus left but three, or at most four, idea of what they were, as they resemble wooden trun. gates of Rome : afterwards, on enlarging the Pomeria, cheons burnt almost to charcoal
. They are so hard and or compass of the city, they amounted to 37.
brittle, that the greatest caution must be used in rePORTAL, in Architecture, a little gate where there moving them, lest they crumble to dust ; nevertheless, are two gates of a different bigness; also a little square an ingenious friar of Genoa, named Raggi, undertook corner of a room cut off from the rest by the wainscot, to unroll them; and by a most curious, though tedious and forming a short passage into the room.
process, so far succeeded, as to transcribe three Greek game is also sometimes given to a kind of arch of join. Treatises on Philosophy and Music; but finding (as I ers work before a door.
hear) no other encouragement than his salary, which
cret to the world.” See PompeII.
derived from porta, "gate, door ;" yet it is applied
most celebrated porticoes of antiquity were, those of SoPORT-GLASGOW. See Glasgow, No 12. lomon's temple, which formed the atrium or court, and
PORTGREVE, or PORTGRAVE, was anciently the encompassed the sanctuary ; that of Athens, built for the principal magistrate in ports and other maritime towns. people to divert themselves in, and wherein the philosoThe word is formed from the Saxon port, “ a port or phers held their disputes and conversations, (see Porch); other town ;” and geref, “ a governor.”—It is some and that of Pompey at Rome, raised merely for magnitimes also written port-reve.
ficence, consisting of several rows of columns support-
London, the work of Inigo Jones, is also much ada
The museum consists of 16 rooms, in which the dif- there is a strong castle, called Portland castle, built byg
Partland. ployed in London, and other parts of England, for great strictness, never to admit a plurality of lovers at Pertas
building the finest structures. St Paul's church, in par one time, their honour is noway tarnished : she just as ticular, is built of this stone. W. Long. 2. 35. N. Lat. soon (after the affair is declared to be broke oft) gets ·50. 30.
another suitor, as if she had been left a widow, or that The following custom at Portland is worthy of no nothing had ever happened, but that she had remained tice. “While I was looking over the quarries at Port an immaculate virgin.' But pray, Sir, did nothing parland (says Mr Smeaton), and attentively considering the ticular happen upon your men coming down from Lonoperations, observing how soon the quarrymen would don? Yes (says he) our men were much struck, and cut half a ton of spawls from an unformed block, and mightily pleased with the facility of the Portland ladies, what large pieces flew off at every stroke; how speedily and it was not long before several of the women proved their blows followed one another, and how incessantly with child; but the men being called upon to marry they pursued this labour with a tool of from 18 to 20 them, this part of the lesson they were uninstructed is; pound weight; I was naturally led to view and consider and on their refusal, the Portland women arost to stone the figure of the operative agent; and after having ob them out of the island ; insomuch, that those few who served, that by far the greatest number of the quarry, did not choose to take their sweethearts for better or for men were of a very robust hardy form, in whose bands worse, after so fair a trial, were in reality obliged to dethe tool I have mentioned seemed a mere play-thing, camp ; and on this occasion some few bastarde were I at last broke out with surprise, and inquired of my born : but since then matters have gone on according to guide, Mr Roper, where they could possibly pick up the ancient custom." such a set of stout fellows to handle the kevel, which in PORTLAND VASE, a celebrated funeral vase which their hands seemed nothing? for I observed, that in the was long in possession of the Barberini fanily; but u bich space of 15 minutes, they would knock off as much was lately purchased for 1000 guineas by the duke of waste matter from a mass of stone, as any of that occu Portland, from whom it has derived its present name. pation 1 bad ever seen before would do in an hour. Says Its beight is about ten inches, and its diameter where Roper, we do not go to fetch those men from a distance, broadest six. There are a variety of figures upon it of they are all born upon the island, and many of them most exquisite workmanship, in bas relief of white opake have never been farther upon the main land than to glass, raised on a ground of deep blue glass, which ap. Weymouth.' I told him, I thought the air of that pears black except when held against the light. It apisland must be very propitious, to furnish a breed of pears to have been the work of many years, and there men so particularly formed for the business they follow are antiquarians who date its production severalcenturies ed. “The air ( he replied), though very sharp from our before the Christian era ; since, as has been said, sculpelevated situation, is certainly very healthy to working ture was declining in excellence in the time of Alexanmen; yet if you knew how these men are produced, ber the Great you would wonder the less; for all our marriages here Respecting the purpose of this vase, and what the fi. are productive of children. On desiring an explana- gures on it were meant to represent, there hase been a tion how this happened, he proceeded : Our people variety of conjectures, which it is not our business to here, as they are bred to hard labour, are very early in enumerate. We think with Dr Darwin * that it was net • Leiter a condition to marry and provide for a family; they in made for the ashes of any particular person deceased; the fee termarry with one another, very rarely going to the and therefore that the subject of its embellishments is main-land to seek a wife; and it has been the custom of not a private history, but of a general nature. But we the island, from time immemorial, that they never mar are not sure that he is right in conjecturing it to reprery till the woman is pregnant.' But pray (said I) does sent a part of the Eleusinian mysteries; because that connot this subject you to a great number of bastards ? jecture depends on Warburton's explanation of the sixth Have not your Portlanders the same kind of fickleness book of the Æneid, which does not now command that in their attachments that Englishman are subject to ? respect which it did when it was first proposed. We and, in consequence, does not this produce many incon- shall therefore give a short account of the several figures, veniences ? None at all (replies Roper), for previous to without noticing any of the theories or conjectures that my arrival here, there was but one child on record of bave been made about them. the parish register that had been born a bastard in the In one compartment three exquisite figures are placed compass
of 150 years. The mode of courtship here is, on a ruined column, the capital of which is fallen, and that a young woman never admits of the serious ad- lies at their feet among other disjointed stones: they sit dresses of a young man, but on supposition of a tho under a tree on loose piles of stone. The middle figure rough probation. When she becomes with child, she is a female in a reclining and dying attitude, with an tells her mother, the mother tells her father, her father inverted torch in her left hand, the elbow of which suptells his father, and he tells his son, that it is then pro- ports her as she sinks, while the right hand is raised and per time to be married.' But suppose, Mr Roper, she tbrown over the drooping head. The figure on her right does not prove to be with child, what happens then ? Do hand is a man, and that on the left a woman, both upthey live together without marriage? or, if they sepa- porting themselves on their arms, and apparently think. rate, is not this such an inputation upon her, as to pre- ing intensely. Their backs are to the dying figure, and vent her getting another suitor? • The case is thus ma. their faces are turned to her, hut without an attempt to naged (answered my friend), if the woman does not assist ber. On another compartment of the vase is a prove with child after a competent time of courtship, figure coming through a portal, and going down with they conclude they are not destined by Providence for great timidity into a darker region, where he is received each other; they therefore separate ; and as it is an esta- by a beautiful female, who stretches forth her hand to blished maxin, which the Portland women observe with help him : between her knees is a large and playful ser