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Portugal. parently relinquished for some time, but finally carried from the convention of Cintra, were of the most beres. Perten
into execution on the 29th of November, when 15 per cial nature. The whole country was not only in a state Emigration
sons belonging to the house of Braganza embarked at of subordination, but the effects of the energy displayed of the royal Lisbon, for the Brasils, under the escort of a British
by the government began to be felt all over the king. family to fleet. In consequence of this measure, the emperor of dom. The disa flected and suspected were everywhere the Brasils. France declared that the throne was abdicated, and that taken into custody; and the people were making the
the kingdom should henceforth be considered as a consti most active exertions for their own defence, and for the tuent part of the French dominions. He dissolved the common cause.
regency formed by the prince, sequestered all the pro The Portuguese government issued a proclamation 48
perty belonging to the crown, and that of all the nobles calling upon the whole nation, from 15 to 60, to rise The French who followed him into exile. General Junot, who en masse for the defence of their country, and to oppose enter Lisbon.
soon after this, entered Lisbon at the head of 14,000 an insurmountable barrier against the French. This
The army of Sir Arthur Wellesley, sent by Great Bri the existing government. Some of the ringleaders were
of 10,000 men, under the command of General Jones. breezes ; but in the northern, it is much cooler, and French de- The British and French had a desperate action near Vi the weather more subject to rains. The spring is exfeated at
miera on the 21st of August 1808, which terminated in tremely delightful here; and the air, in general more the battle of Vimicra. the total defeat of the French forces, who were to eva temperate than in Spain. Lisbon bas been much resort
cuate Portugal on certain conditions, the chief of which ed to of late by valetudinarians and consumptive persons was, that they were to be carried home with all their from Great Britain, on account of its air. The soil is plunder, in vessels belonging to Great Britain. Sir Hew very fruitful in wine, oil, Icmons, oranges, pomegra
Dalrymple, who succeeded Sir Arthur Wellesley as com nates, figs, raisins, almonds, chesnuts, and other fine 50 mander in chief of the British forces, agreed to what is fruits ; but there is a want of corn, owing, it is said, Convention called the convention of Cintra, by which indeed the in a great measure to the neglect of agriculture. There of Cintra. kingdom of Portugal was freed in the mean time from is plenty of excellent honey here ; and also of sea and
the ravages of an unfeeling enemy; but it has been sup river fish, and sea salt. The horses in Portugal are brisk
mountainous : but the mountains contain all kinds of bated in Britain ; a board of general officers was ap ores; particularly of silver, copper, tin, and iron, with pointed by his majesty to form a court for the purpose of a variety of gems, beautifully variegated marble, millinquiring into the circumstances which led to it; and
stones, and many curious fossils. Not far from Lisboa the result of the investigation was a decision, by a ma is a mine of salt petre ; but none of the metal mines are jority of the court, that the armistice and convention here worked, the inhabitants being supplied with metals were necessary, and that nothing dishonourable or im- of all kinds from their foreign settlements. The principroper attached to any of the officers concerned in it. pal rivers are the Minho, in Latin Minius; the Limia,
Every thing at the Brasils proceeded in a tranquil anciently the fomed Lethe , the Cavado ; the Donro ; and prosperous manner under the auspices of the new the Guadiana, anciently Anas; and the Tajo, or Tagus, government. The highest veneration was shewn by the which is the largest river in the kingdom, carrying some colonists of all descriptions for the prince regent, and gold in its sands, and falling into the sea a little beprompt obedience paid to his ordinances and commercial low Lisbon. There are several mineral springs in regulations. The most enthusiastic attachment prevailed the kingdom, both hot and cold, which are much frein Rio Janeiro and Bahia towards the English settlers; quented. and the happiest consequences were expected to result The only religion tolerated in Portugal is that of the Religiosa from the enterprises of their new friends in South Anie. church of Rome ; yet there are many concealed Jews, rica. The consequences resulting to the Portuguese, and those too even among the nobility, bishops, pre
Portugal. bends, monks, and nuns, and the very inquisitors them- sterling. Lisbon is the greatest port in Europe next to Portugal.
selves.. If a Jew pretend to be a Christian and a Ro London and Amsterdam.
Constitą. mass, confession, &c. or if after being converted, or gal was an absolute hereditary monarchy. For the ad
tion and pretending to be converted and pardoned, he relapses ministration of the civil government, there was a coon-governinto Judaism and is discovered, the inquisition lays cil of state, and several secretaries ; for military affairs, ment. hold of him. In the first case, if he renounce Judaism, a council of war; for the finances, a treasury court; he is only condemoed to some corporal punishment or and for the distribution of justice several high tribunals, pnblic shame, and then ordered to be instructed in the with others subordinate to them, in the several districts Christian religion. In the second, he is condemned to into which the kingdom is divided. The cities bave the flames without mercy. Besides Jews and heretics, their particular magistracy. The proceedings of the who broach or maintain any doctrines contrary to the courts are regulated by the Roman law, the royal religion of the country, the inquisition punishes all so edicts, the canon law, and the pope's mandates. Like domites, pretenders to sorcery and the black art, a po the Spaniards, they transact most of their business in states, blasphemers, perjured persons, impostors, and the mornings and evenings, and sleep at noon. The hypocrites. The burning of those condemned by the nobility are very numerous, and many of them are deinquisition, is called an auto da fe, or “ act of faith." scended from natural sons of the royal family. They There are several tribunals of the inquisition, one of are divided into high and low. The high consists of which is at Goa in the East Indies ; but there are none the dukes, marquises, counts, viscounts, and barons, in Brasil. The number of convents in Portugal is said who are also grandees, but of different classes, being to be 900. The order of Jesuits hath been suppressed suffered to be covered in the king's presence, and hain this country, as they have been in others. Here is ving the title of Dons, with a pension from the royal * patriarcb, several archbishops and bishops : the pa. treasury, to enable them the better to support their triarch is always a cardinal, and of the royal family. dignity: the king styles them Illustrious in his letters, Tbe archbishops rank with marquises, and the bishops and treats them as princes. A duke's sons are also with counts. The Portuguese have archbishops and bi- grandees, and his daughters rank as marchionesses. shops in the other quarters of the world as well as in The inferior nobility or gentry are termed Hidalgos, Europe. The sums raised by the popes here, by vir i. e. gentlemen : they cannot assume the title of Don tue of their prerogatives, are thought to exceed the without the king's license.
55 revenues of the crown, and the nuncios never fail of ac The revenues of the crown, since the discovery of Revenues quiring vast forlunes in a short time. Though there the Brasil mines, are very considerable ; but the real of the king,
&c. are two universities and several academies, yet while amount can only be guessed at. Some have said that it the papal power, and that of the ecclesiastics, continues amounts, clear of all salaries and pensions, to upwards at such a height, true learning is like to make but a of 3,000,000l. sterling ; others make it a great deal small progress. The langnage of the Portuguese does less. Besides the royal demesnes, the hereditary estates not differ much from that of Spain: Latin is the ground of the house of Braganza, the monopoly of Brasil snuff, work of both ; but the former is more remote from it, the coinage, the money arising from the sale of induland harsher to the ear, than the latter. The Portu gences granted by the pope, the fifth of the gold brought guese tongue is spoken on all the coast of Africa and from Brasil, the farm of the Brasil diamonds, the mas
Asia as far as China, but mixed with the languages of terships of the orders of knighthood, and other sources, S5 the several nations in those discant regions.
yield very large sums. The population of Portugal in Mapefac.
With regard to manufactures, there are very few in 1815, was estimated at 3,680,000; the army at 25,000, terss.
Portogal, and those chiefly coarse silks, woollen cloth, besides 33,000 militia ; the navy, 8 ships of the line
56 able, especially with England, which takes a great deal There are several orders of knighthood here, viz. the Orders of of their wine, salt, foreign commodities, and fruits, in order of Christ, the badge of wbich is a red cross within knight
hood. return for its woollen manufactures, with which the a white one, and the number of the commanderies 454. Portuguese furnish their colonies and subjects in Asia, 2. The order of St James, the badge of which is a red Africa, and America. Their plantations in Brasil are sword in the shape of a cross.
A great number of
liberty to marry. 4. The order of St Jobn, which has
Portugal issatisfied with their government, and seem really to of an ancient castle. There is also a garrison for a troop Parties
have had many serious grievances. After the removal of horse and two companies of foot. The town is seated ! Portumna. of the court to Brasil, the mother-country had sunk on the river Shannon, where it falle into Lough Derg.
Poruku to the condition of a colony, whose interests, on ac POSE, in Heraldry, denotes a lion, horse, or other count of its distance from the seat of government, were beast, standing still, with all his four seet on the ground. often neglected or exposed to injury, from the arro POSITIVE, a term of relation.opposed to negative. gance and corruption of subordinate functionaries. It is also used in opposition to relative or arbitrary : The pride of the natives was hort by the preference thus we say, Beauty is no positive thing, but depends shewn to the English, who beld many places of trust on the different tastes of people. and power. Besides, the great changes the Portuguese Positive Degree, in Grammar, is the adjective in had witnessed during the last ten years, and their free its simple signification, without any comparison. intercourse with foreigners during that period, had Positire Electricity. In the Franklinian system awakened political feelings which made themi ardently all bodies supposed to contain more than their natural wish for some alteration in their political institutions. quantity of electric matter are said to be positively elecThe revolution in Spain gave increased force to these trified; and those from whom some part of their elecfeelings, and rendered an explosion unavoidable. Ac. tricity is supposed to be taken away are said to be eleccordingly, on the 24th August 1820, about five months trihed negatively. These two electricities being first after the completion of the Spanish revolution, a num produced, one from glass, the other from amber or rober of the leading men in Oporto, including some of sin, the former was called vitreous, the other resinous, the highest military officers, having previously satisfied electricity. themselves of the favourable disposition of the troops, POSPOLITE, in the former military establishment
, assembled publicly, called out the military, and pro- of Poland, is the name given to a kind of militia. It claimed the Spanish constitution, amidst the enthusias was the most numerous and the most useless of the Potic acclamations of the people. A provisional govern lish armies, consisting of the gentry at large, who, in ment was formed, and a deputation, supported by a case of invasion, were assembled by a regular summons strong body of troops, immediately set out towards from the king, with consent of the diet. Every palatiLisbon. The regency in the capital at first seemed nate was divided into districts, over each of which pro. disposed to resist; but finding that both the citizens per officers were appointed; and every person possessing and the army were decidedly favourable to the revolu- free and puble tenures was bound to military service, eition, they yielded to the torrent, and in the name of ther singly or at the head of a certain number of his reJolin VI. issued a proclamation on the 2d September tainers, according to the extent and nature of his possesfor assembling a cortes. This proceeding completed sions. The troops thus assembled were obliged only to the revolution without one drop of blood being shed, serve for a limited time, and were not under the neces. and produced unbounded joy, both in the capital and sity of marching beyond the limits of their country. the provinces. Some distrust, however, naturally at: They submitted to no discipline but such as they liked tached to the agents of the former government; and themselves; and were very apt to mutiny if detained after some negotiation these persons found it necessary more than a fortnight in the place appointed for their 'to lay down their powers.
The cortes has since met, meeting without marching. The mode of levying and and has been actively engaged in making many great maintaining this army was exactly similar to that pracand salutary reforms in the laws and interior police of tised under the feudal system. Although unfit for the the country. The constitution of this legislative as purposes of repelling a foreign enemy, it was considered sembly is pretty nearly the same with that of Spain ; a powerful instrument in the hands of domestic faction: but in one very important point an alteration bas been for the expedition with which it was raised under the introduced. The deputies to the Portuguese cortes are feudal regulations facilitated the formation of those danchosen directly by the people; whereas in Spain there gerous confederacies which suddenly started up on the are three consecutive stages of election,-a mode of contested election of a sovereign, or whenever the noproceeding which offers great opportunities for corrup bles were at variance with each other. tion, and loosens the tie between the representative and POSSE COMITATUS, in Law, signifies the power of the represented. The revolution in Spain was followed the county, or the aid and assistance of all the knights
, by a revolution in Brasil, and this led to the return of genilemen, yeomen, labourers, servants, apprentices
, the Portuguese court to Europe. The leaders of the &c. and all others within the county that are above the Portuguese revolution have conducted themselves hi age of 15, except women, ecclesiastical persons, and tberto with great firmness and moderation, correcting such as are decrepit and infirm. manifest evils, without innovating rashly; and avoid This posse comitatus is to be raised where a riot is ing all unnecessary rigour towards the agents of the committed, a possession kept upon a forcible entry, or former government.
any force of rescue used contrary to the king's writ, PORTUGALLICA TERRA, earth of Portugal; the or in opposition to the executiou of justice ; and it is name of a fine astringent bole, dug in great plenty in the duty of all sheriffs to assist justices of the peace in 'the northern part of Portugal.
the suppression of riots, &c. and to raise the posse coPORTULACA, PURSLANE; a genus of plants be mitatus, or to charge any number of men for that porlonging to the dodecandria class. See Botany Inder. pose.
PORTUMNA, a town of Ireland, in the county of POSSESSION, in Law, is either actual, where & Galway and province of Connaught, is 74 miles from person actually enters into lands or tenements descendDublin. The castle of Portumna, the seat of the earl ed or conveyed to him; or where lands are descended of Clanricarde, is at this place, and near it are the ruins to a person, and he has not yet entered into them. A
"Possession long possession is much favoured by the law as an ar easily do ;' that he was detected in an imposture with Possession
gument of right, even though no deed can be shown, respect to the clenching of his hands; that after money
that he never had any fits while he was at St George's If he that is out of possession of land brings an ac Hospital in London ; nor when visitors were excluded IX
tion, he must prove an undeniable title to it; and when from his lodgings, by desire of the author of the Nar
a person would recover any thing of another, it is not rative; and that he was particularly careful never to 1
sufficient to destroy the title of the person in possession, hurt himself by his exertions during the paroxysm.
bungling an imposture should deceive seven clergymen,
visible support, or the use of different languages, un-
POSSESSIVE, in Grammar, a term applied to pro-
does not exist, yet may exist; as a new star.
-5. A conveyance for letters or dispatches ; 6. A parti-
jy relied upon. For the various uses to which posts
and means any place or situation where soldiers are sta- whom transactions are carried on, and frequently for pot
were willing to pay an allowance to the sovereign. Thus Post, an office or employment. This use of the a post-office, of some kind or other, gradually came to word is probably derived immediately from the idea of be established in every civilized country. Without tak. a military station ; a post being used to express such ing notice of the different means of carrying on corresoffices or employments as are supposed either to ex- pondence said to have been attempted by pigeons, dogs, pose the holder to attack and opposition, or to require and other animals, we can at least trace with certainty the abilities and exertion to fill them. Hence the term invention of something like regular posts as far back as is used only for public offices and employments under the ancient Persians. Xenophon assures us, that they the government; and were strict propriety of speech als were invented by Cyrus on bis Scythian expedition
, ways attended to, posts would denote those stations only about soo years before Christ; that the houses at the in which duty must be performed. In common language, several stations were sumptuously built, and large however, every public office or appointment, even though enough to contain a number of men and horses ; and nominal and sinecure, goes under the name of a post. that every courier on his arrival was obliged to commu
Post, an operation in book-keeping. Posting in book- nicate his dispatches to the postmaster, by whom they keeping means simply the transferring an article to the were immediately forwarded. From the shore of the place in which it should be put, and arranging each under Ægean sea to Susa the capital, there were, according its proper bead. It is opon this that the whole theory Herodotus, u I stages for posts, each a day's journey of book-keeping is founded. The Waste-book, which distant from the preceding. is the ground work of all subsequent operations, records In what manner posts were established and conduct. every transaction exactly in the order in which it oc ed among the Greeks does not clearly appear; but from
From this the several articles are posted, or the extended commerce carried on, and the frequent transferred into the Journal, which in fact is but a kind communications enjoyed among the different states,
there can be no doubt that a regular conveyance, of supplementary book to the Waste-book. From the
in Journal they are posted anew into the Ledger; in which some form or other, was established. a separate place is appropriated for each person with Though posts were well known among the Romans