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Priessin. drawn towards the frontiers of Silesia. Prince Henry that a battle was unavoidable; and therefore, on the
immediately took advantage of this opening, and on i żth of August, with this inferiority of number, the
the 15th of April entered Bohemia with his army di- king attacked his enemies strongly intrenched, and deBohemin vided into two columns. One, commanded by him fended by a prodigious number of cannon. In this acinvaded by Prince
self, marched towards Peterswade; the other, under tion, his principal effort was against the left wing of the Heory.
General Hulsen, passed by the towns of Pasberg and Russian army. He began the attack, according to cu-
amassed in these parts. The body under General Hul of canuon were taken. Bat still there was a deble to 48 sen had a more active employment. A strong pass at be passed, and several redoubts which covered the vilA body of Pasberg was defended by a considerable body of Aus lage of Cunnersdorf to be mastered. These were attack-Center Austrians tria.s. General Hulsen, baving conducted bis cavalry ed with the same resolution, and taken one after another. dori. defeated by by another way in such a manner as to fall directly on The enemy made another stand at the village, and enHulsen. their rear, attacked them in front with his infantry, deavoured to preserve their ground there by pusbing
drove them out of their intrenchments, and totally de forward several battalions of borse and foot : but this feated them with the loss of a great number killed, and also proved unsuccessful ; they were driven from post 2000 taken prisoners, while that of the Prussians did to post quite to the last redoubts. For opwards of six not exceed 70 in killed and wounded. After this ex hours the Prussians were successful, and everywhere ploit they returned into Saxony, with hostages for the bruke the enemy with prodigious slaughter; drove contributions which they had largely exacted during them from almost all the ground they had occupied bethe course of their expedition.
fore the battle, took more than half their artillery, and Some other saccesses obtained by Prince Henry clear scarce any thing seemed wanting to make the victory ed the country of Franconia of his enemies ; but now complete. In these circumstances, the king wrote the the approach of the Russians seemed once more to bring following billet to the queen : “ Madan, we bave the affairs of the king of Prussia to a crisis. Notwith beat the Russians from their intrenchments. In two standing the destruction of their magazines, they had hours expect to hear of a glorious victory.” Of this continued to advance into Silesia, where they were op victory, however, he deprived himself, by an excessive posed by Count Dohna ; but as the troops he had with eagerness for conquest. The enemy, defcated almost bim were very far inferior to his enemies, he found it in every quarter, found their left wing, shattered as it impossible to do more, at least with any appearance of wao, to be more entire than any other part of their success, than to observe their motions and harass them
army. Count Soltikoff, the Russian general, therefore, on their march. But this was so displeasing to the assembled the remains of his right wing, and, gathering king, that he disgraced his general, and appointed We as many as he could from bis centre, reinforced the left, del to succeed him, with orders to attack the Russians and made a stand at a redoubt which had been crected at all events. To enable him, however, in some mea. on an advantageous eminence in a placed called the Jews sure to comply with this desperate order, he sent him burying-ground. All the king's generals are said to some reinforcements, which brought his army up to have been of opinion that be ought to allow the Rusnear 30,000. With these, on the 23d of July 1759, sians the peaceable possession of this post. Their army General Wedel attacked 70,000 Russians posted in the had already suffered so much, that it would bave been
most advantageous manner at Zulichau, and defended impossible for them to have attempted any enterprise Prussians by a numerous artillery. Though the Prussians march of consequence after the battle ; but their artillery was deseated ated on to certain destruction and disgrace, they sustain- still numerous, the post very strong, and the Prossian Zulichau. ed the attack for a long time with unparalleled resolu troops greatly fatigued. These reasons for a few mo
tion. At last, however, they gave way, and were obli ments had some weight with the king ; but the natuged to retire with the loss of 4700 killed or taken pri- ral impetuosity of his temper getting the better of soners, and 3000 wounded.
his reason, he led on his wearied troops again and The Rus The consequences of this victory were, that the Rus- again ; till at last, when their strength was in a manBians take sians penetrated into the king's territories, and took ner totally exhausted, they were attacked and utterly Crossen and possession of the towns of Crossen and Frankfort on the routed by the Austrian and Russian cavalry, the former Frankfort
Oder, which made it absolutely necessary for the king of which had hitherto remained quite inactive, and on the Oder. to come in person to oppose them. Accordingly, on were therefore quite fresh, and irresistible by the en
the 4th of August, he joined Wedel with a considerable feebled Prussians. The night, and the prudent use
Prussia. camp. He replaced his artillery from Berlin ; recalled possess, and though he undoubtedly exerted them to the Prussia.
General Kliest with sooo men from Pomerania ; de utmost, it seemed only to be contending against fate,
Landshut notwithstanding their victory, obliged them to return situation M. Fouquet, one of the Prussian generals, to Poland without accomplishing any thing besides the with a strong body of forces. Perceiving it impossible carnage at Cunnersdorff.
for them to escape, Laudohn then made a violent at. The misfortunes of the Prussian monarch, however, tack on their entrenchments in the dead of the night were not at an end, Prince Henry, indeed, by a most of June 23d. The Prussians made a gallant defence, extraordinary and well-conducted march, entered Sax. but at last were all killed or taken prisoners except ony, which was now totally overrun by the armies of about 300. Of the Prussians were killed 4000, and the enemy. At the same time, strong detachments ba- 7000 taken prisoners ; 58 pieces of cannon, and a great ving been sent into that country under generals Finck number of colours, were also lost. The victory, howand Wunsch, the whole was in a short time recovered ever, was dear bought ; for the Austrians lost above except Dresden. Towards this place Marshal Daun 12,000 men in killed and wounded; whom, however, retired, and in all probability would soon have been they could better spare thau the Prussians, on account obliged to leave Saxony entirely. But the king's im of their numbers. This action was called the battle of patience could not be satisfied without cutting off his Landshut.
55 retreat, and forcing him to a battle; for which purpose Baron Landohn failed not to improve this victory Glatz ia. lie sent General Finck with upwards of 12,000 men to the utmost. He instantly turned back from Land- ken by the according to the Prussian account, but 20,000 accord shut, and fell upon the city of Glatz; which he took
Austrians. ing to the Austrians, to seize some passes through which in a very short time, with the garrison who defended
M. Daun could only take his route towards Bohemia. it, consisting of 2000 men. In this place were found eneral
This commission was executed with great exactness ; 101 pieces of brass cannon, with immense quantities nck with but the Prussian general, having probably advanced too of provisions and military stores. From thence he
far into these defiles, and neglected to preserve a com marched against Breslau, and immediately invested it.
and his whole army to surrender prisoners of war. This in Saxony, marched with his usual rapidity towards
of Dresdenbe. of boats, a thaw supervened, when they attempted to
this M. Daun soon received intelligence, and returned without
sieged, but lay a bridge of pontoons, so that they were again obli also. In the mean time, however, the buildings of success, by ged to have recourse to their boats. In this situation, the city were terribly shattered by the king's cannon the king of their rear-guard was attacked with great fury by the and bombs which continually played on it. His
Prussia Austrians, and all the soldiers who composed it killed deavours, however, proved ineffectual to reduce it or taken. The loss of the Prussians on this occasion before the arrival of M. Daun. The siege bad was computed at 3000 men.
been begun on the 13th of July, and on the 19th M. The year 1760 showed the Prussian monarch in a more Daun appeared within a league of Dresden. The
dangerous situation than he had ever yet experienced. Prussians then redoubled their efforts. They had that 53 Indeed his affairs now seemed to be altogether desperate. day received reinforcements of heavy cannon and morsperate His losses were not to be measured by the number of tars, with which they battered the place incessantly. *king of
the killed or prisoners, but by armies destroyed or ta The cathedral church, New Square, several principal issia. ken. Forty generals had died or been killed in his ser streets and some palaces, and the noble manufactory
vice sin ce the beginning of October 1756, exclusive of of porcelain, were entirely destroyed. The siege was
ing it impossible for him to carry on a defensive war,
Prussia. pidity, that before the middle of August he had ad a great scene, the dreadful front of the Prussian army Prasia
vanced 200 miles, leaving Marshal Daun with bis army regularly embattled, and advantageously posted. Lau 57 far behind him. Three Au
This expedition he undertook in dohn, though surprised, made the best dispositions that strian order to engage General Laudohn before he could
circumstances would admit of, and an obstinate engage-Geserial nerals join have time to effect a junction with Daun and Lacy, ment ensued ; in wbich, however, he was at last obliged Lando, heir forces another Austrian general; which triple union seemed to yield to the superior skill of his adversary, with the and intisi against
to threaten him with unavoidable destruction at once. bim.
Joss of 10,000 killed, wounded, and prisoners, 82 pieces detes tàu This, however, he found it impossible to prevent: and
of cannon, and 23 pair of colours. the three armies, when joined, formed a most tre The victory, though complete, gave but a partial remendous line of encampments, extending no less than lief to the king of Prussia. The most essential service 30 English miles; at the same time that every one of it did was the preventing of the Russians from joining their posts was strong, and the communication be those enemies which he already had. Count Czernitween them easy. The king was strongly encamped chew had been advancing with 24,000 men, and bad at Lignitz; and for several days employed all his mi even passed the Oder; but was so intimidated by this litary skill in attempting to induce one of the bodies news, that he instantly repassed that river on the same to detach itself from the rest, or to attack them at bridges which he had lately built, even though M. Daun some disadvantage ; but without effect. At last, the sent him a strong body of troops in order to encourage Austrian generals, having maturely weighed all circum him to advance. Soon after this battle, the king joinetances, resolved to attack the king's camp itself, ed his brother Prince Henry at New Marche, and strong as it was; and Marsbal Daun, remembering the marched against Daun, who had begun to form the advantage he had gained at Hochkirchen by an at blockade of Schweidnitz; fell upon a corps under Genetack in the night-time, resolved to follow the same ral Beck, made two battalions of Croats prisoners, and plan now. The plan therefore was laid in the follow dispersed the rest, which obliged the enemy to abandon ing manner. The whole army, as soon as it should the enterprise they had just undertaken. About the begin to grow dark, was to march from their several same time, General Hulsen gained a considerable advan. posts to such situations as were marked out for each tage over the Imperial army in Saxony, with very trifling corps : they were to strike their tents, but yet to keep loss on his part, by which he effectually prevented them up the fires in their camps, and to have the drums fnom cutting off his communication with the city of Torbeat the tattoo as usual, by which means they had gau. a probability of surprising the enemy; or if not, they By these successes the affairs of bis Prussian majesty judged it absolutely impossible for him to escape them, seemed to revive: but there was no end of his enemies. though he should be ever so much on his guard. In The late manœuvres had drawn bim se far into Silesia, what manner the king of Prussia became acquainted that his communication with Brandenburg was almost with this plan, is not known. His friends attributed wholly cut off. The Russian army, which after it had it to his own penetration and knowledge of the stra repassed the Oder began to move out of Silesia, sent tagems of war; the Austrians, to intelligence given forward a powerful detachment under Count Czerohim by deserters. But, in whatever way he became ac chew towards the marche of Brandenburg. A body quainted with this design, it is certain that be took of 15,000 Austrians, under the generals Lacy and the most effectual methods of preventing it. As the Brentano, and the wbole united body of Austrians and Austrian plan was to surround his camp, and this Imperialists which acted in Saxony, began their march could not be done without the division of their army in concert with the Russians, and proposed to unite at which he bad so long desired, be resolved to intercept the gates of Berlin. These armies amounted to one of the parties; and if that should be disabled from
40,000 men. To oppose this formidable power, Geacting, he could then more easily deal with the other neral Hulsen called to his assistance General Werner, two. Therefore, in the very evening calculated for who bad been sent with a body of troops into Pomethe decisive attack on bis camp, he quitted it with rania ; but, after being joined by him, their united forthe utmost privacy, and took an advantageous post ces were found not to exceed 15,000 or 16,000 men. on the road through which General Laudolin was to To attempt a defence of the capital with this force would pass. The nature of this post was such, that at the have been little short of madness : and therefore these same time that it stopped the progress of Laudohn in commanders were obliged to leave Berlin to its fate ; Berlin to front, Daun would lie under great difficulties if he which indeed, considering the barbarity of the Russians ken by the should attempt bis rear; at the same time that, for his and the animosity of the Austrians, seemed to be a further security, the king strengthened the rear with dreadful one. However, by the powerful mediation siads. several batteries.
As soon as
army was drawn up, of several foreign ministers, the town obtained ternis he divided it ; leaving his right on the ground where which were not altogether intolerable ; but the magait had been formed, to observe Marshal Daun, and to zines, arsenals, and founderies were destroyed, and an maintain that post; whilst with his left he turned in or immense quantity of military stores seized, with a dumder to fall on the corps under General Laudohn. In ber of cannon and other arms. The city was first oblithe mean time, that commander, ignorant of the fate ged to pay 800,000 guilders, after which a contribution which was awaiting him, advanced with the utmost ex of 1,900,000 crowns was laid on: yet, notwithstanding pedition towards the place which had been assigned him, this, many violences were committed, and the king's in order to share in the glory of destroying the Prus palace was plundered and the furniture abused in a scansian monarch ; when, at three in the morning, on the 15th of August, a thick fog which covered the ground, The combined armies staid in Berlin only four days; suddenly cleacing up, discovered, like the opening of dreading the severe vengeance of the king of Prussia
Austrians and Ros
Prussia. who they heard was advancing towards that place with on to the attack; but were every time repulsed and Prussia.
great expedition. But so great were the embarrass broken with terrible slaughter. The king at length 60
ments which now attended that monarch, that it seem commanded a fresh body of cavalry to advance, which Extreme
ed almost beyond human power to retrieve his affairs. at first compelled the Austrians to retire ; but new
The Imperialists, on their return from Berlin, baving reinforcements continually coming in, this cavalry was the king. no army to oppose them, made themselves masters of in its turn obliged to fall back, and the Prussians main
Leipsic, Torgau, Meissen, and Wirtemberg; in which tained themselves with extreme difficulty, until Gene-
distress and embarrassment, the king himself was at and the battalions with a blind rage discharged at 1
tended at every step by Count Daun with a superior one another without distinguishing friend from foe.
M. Daun received a dangerous wound in the thigh,
four generals. that he was now to lead them to a most desperate at The
consequence of the victory of Torgau was, that All Saxtempt, that his affairs required it, and that he was de the king recovered all Saxony except Dresden ; and in ony except termined to conquer or die. His soldiers unanimously the mean time General Werner having marched into Dresden
recovered. 361 declared that they would die with him.
Pomerania, the Russians raised the siege of Colberg, e defeats The 3d of November 1760 was the day on which and retired into Poland, without having effected any unt this important affair was decided. The king divided thing further than wasting' the open country. Werner uun at his forces into three columns. General Hulsen was to then flew to the assistance of Western Pomerania, where orgau.
take post with one in a wood that lay on the left of he defeated a body of Swedes, and at last drove them
3 P 2
Prussia. expected that the Russian operations would be more brisk rialists from some important poste in Saxony, by which Proses this than formerly.
he secured all that part which the Prussians possessed ; The king continued strongly encamped near Schweid and though the Austrians frequently attempted to renitz; where he was so closely watched by generals Daun cover these posts, they were constantly repulsed with and Laudohn, that he could attempt nothing. How great slaughter. The king was not joined by his new ever, he defeated the designs of the Russians against Bre allies till the latter end of June; atter which he drove slau, by sending General Platen to destroy their maga M. Daun before him to the extremity of Silesia, leaving zines; which lie accomplished with great success, at the the town of Schweidnitz entirely uncovered, and which same time cutting off a body of 4000 of their troops. the king immediately prepared to invest. In the mean But this only brought the more sure destruction upon time, different detachments of Prussians, some on the Colberg; to which place that body of Russians imme side of Saxony, and others on that of Silesia, penetrated diately marched, cruelly wasting the country as they deep into Bohemia, laid many parts of the country unwent along. The king of Prussia could do nothing but der contribution, and spread an universal alarm. A consend detachments of small parties, which, though they siderable body of Russian irregulars also made an irrupcould not oppose their enemies in the field, yet he ho tion into Bohemia, where they practised on the Austriped, by cutting off the convoys of the enemy, might ans the same cruelties which they had long been accusdistress them to such a degree as to oblige them to tomed to practise on the Prussians. abandon the siege, or at least protract it till the severity But while the king was thus making the best use of 4 pet re
of the winter should render it impossible for them to his time, he was all at once threatened with a fatal re- folution is Schweid carry on their operations. This he weakened his own verse of fortune by a new revolution in Russia. The nitz and
army so much, that it was found reqnisite to draw emperor was deposed, and his deposition was soon after Colberg retaken.
4000 men out of Schweidnitz in order to reinforce it; followed by his death. The empress, who succeeded and no sooner was this dove, than General Laudohn him, suspected that her husband had been misled by the suddenly attacked and took that fortress by a coup de counsels of his Prussian majesty, against whom, there main. Colberg made a brave defence; but the troops fore, she entertained a morial enmity. She could not, sent to its relief being totally unable to cope with the however, in the very beginning of her reign, undertake Russian army, consisting of 50,000 men, it was obliged again a war of so much importance as that which had to surrender on the 3d of December; and thus the been just concluded. She therefore declared her intenfate of the Prussian monarch seemed to be decided, and tion of observing the peace concluded by the late em
almost every part of his dominions lay open to the in peror; but, at the same time, of recalling her armies 64 vaders.
from Silesia, Prussia, and Pomerania ; which indeed the Empress of In the midst of these gloomy appearances the em unsettled state of the kingdom now made in some degree Russia dies. press of Russia, the king's most inveterate and inflex necessary. At the same time a discovery was made
ible enemy, died on the 2d of January 1762. Her suc with regard to the king of Prussia himself, which turncessor, Peter III. instead of being the king's enemy, ed the scale greatly in his favour. The Russian senate, was his most sanguine friend. As early as the 23d of flaming with resentment against this monarch, and February, in a memorial delivered to the ministers of against their late unfortunate sovereign ; and the emthe allied courts, he declared, that, “in order to the press, full of suspicion, that the conduct of the latter establishment of peace, he was ready to sacrifice all the might bave been influenced by the counsels of the forconquests made in this war by the arms of Russia, in mer, searched eagerly amongst the papers of the late hopes that the allied courts will on their parts equally emperor for an elucidation or proofs of this point. prefer the restoration of peace and tranquillity, to the They found indeed many letters from the Prussian moadvantages which they might expect from the continue narch, but in a strain absolutely different from what ance of the war, but which they cannot obtain but by they had expected. The king had, as far as prudence a continuance of the effusion of human blood.”—This would permit, kept a reserve and distance with regard address was not so well relished by the allies : however, to the too rash advances of this unhappy ally; and, in they were very willing to make peace, provided it was particular, counselled him to undertake nothing against for their own interest; but they recommended to his the empress his consort. The bearing of these letters
attention fidelity to treaties, which constitutes a no less read is said to have had such an effect upon the empress, 65
valuable part of the royal character, than humanity and that she burst into tears, and expressed her gratitude Peace be. disinterestedness. This answer made no impression on towards the Prussian monarch in the warmest terms. tween Rus- the czar; a suspension of hostilities took place on the Still, however, the Russian army was ordered to separate sin, Swe.
16th of March, which was followed by a treaty of alli from tlie Prussians; but all the important places wbich den, and Frussia.
ance on the 5th May. In this treaty the czar stipu. the former bad taken during the whole war were faith-
from some eminences and villages where they were adIt is not to be supposed that the king of Prussia vantageously posted ; by which means be entirely cut Successes of the king
would remain long inactive after such an unexpected off their communication with Schweidnitz, so tbat noof Prussia. turn in his favour. His arms were now everywhere thing could be attempted for its relief. Prince Henry
attended with success. Prince Henry drove the Impe- kept them in continual alarms for Bohemia ; and a