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Pogg

Poggy the Sumatra stock, and look for some affinity in their ances in the entrails of the victim. But they have no islands. language and manners; but, to our no small surprise, form of religioue worship, nor do they appear to bave islands we find a race of men, whose language is totally differ the most distant idea of a future state of rewards and

Point. ent, and whose customs and habits of life indicate a punishments. They do not practise circumcision." very distinct origin, and bear a striking resemblance to Asiatic Researches. those of the inhabitants of the late discovered islands in POGO, is the name by which the inhabitants of the the great Pacific ocean.”

Philippine islands distinguish their quail, which, though
There is safe riding for ships of any size in the straits, smaller than ours, is in every other respect very like it.
which have no other defect as a harbour than the depth POICTIERS, an ancient, large, and considerable
of the water (25 fathoms close in shore). The face of town of France, capital of the department of Vienne.
the country, and its vegetable and animal productions, It was a bishop's see, and contained four abbeys, a mint,
are described in the following words:

an university famous for law, 22 parishes, 9 convenis
“ The mountains are covered with trees to their sum for men, and 12 nunneries. There are here several
mits, among which are found species of excellent tim Roman antiquities, and particularly an amphitheatre,
ber; the tree, called by the Malays, bintangoor, and but partly demolished, and hid by the houses. There
which, in the hither India, is called pohoon, abounds is also a triumphal arch, which serves as a gate to the
here. Of this tree are made masts, and some are found great street. It is not peopled in proportion to its ex-
of sufficient dimensions for the lower mast of a first-rate tent. Near this place Edward the Black Prince gained
ship of war. During my stay here I did not discover a a decisive victory over the French, taking King John
single plant which we have not on Sumatra. The sago and his son Philip prisoners, in 1356, whom he after-
trees grows in plenty, and constitutes the chief article wards brought over into England. See France, N° 71,
of food to the inhabitants, who do not cultivate rice ; &c.—It is seated on a hill, on the river Clain, 52 miles
the cocoa-nut tree and the bamboo, two most useful south-west of Tours, and 120 north by east of Bons.
plants, are found here in great plenty. They bave a deaux. E. Long. 0. 25. N. Lat. 46. 35.
variety of fruits, common in these climates, such as POICTOU, a province of France, lying south of the
mangosteens, pine-apples, plantains, buah, chupah, &c. Loire, and comprehending the present departments of
The woods, in their present state, are impervious to Vendee, Deux Sevres and Vienne. The principal rivers
man ; the species of wild animals which inhabit them are the Vienne, the Deux Sevres, the Gartempe, and
are but few; the large red deer, some hogs, and several the Lay. It is divided into the Upper and Lower ;
kinds of monkeys are to be found here, but neither buf and is fertile in corn and wine, and feeds a great num-
faloes, nor goats ; nor are these forests infested, like ber of cattle, particularly mules. It was in possession
those of Sumatra, with tigers or any other beast of prey.

of the kings of England for a considerable tinie, till it
Of domestic poultry, there is only the common fowl, was lost hy the unfortunate Henry VI. Poictiers is
which probably has been originally brought from Suma- the capital town.
tra ; but pork and fish constitute the favourite animal Colic of Porcrou. See MEDICINE, N° 303.
food of the natives, Fish are found here in consider POINCIANA, BARBADOES FLOWER FENCE ; a.
able plenty, and very good.”

genus of plants belonging to the decandria class; and
The stature of the inhabitants of these islands seldom in the natural method ranking under the 33d order, Lo-
exceeds five feet and a half; their colour is like that of mentaceæ. See Botany IndexOf this genus there
the Malays; they practise tattooing, and file their teeth is only one species, the pulcherrima, which is a native
to a point ; and though of a mild disposition, they have of both Indies, and grows to the height of 10 or 12
some of the filthy customs of savages, particularly that feet, producing flowers of a very agreeable odour. In
of picking vermin from their heads and eating them. Barbadoes it is planted in hedges to divide the lands,

Their mode of tattooing, as well as the treatment of whence it has the name of flower-fence. In the West
their dead, is represented to be very similar to the prac. Indies, its leaves are made use of as a purgative instead.
tices of the Otaheitans.

of senna ; and in Jamaica it is called senna.
The religion of this people, (says Mr Crisp), if it POINT, a term used in various arts.
can be said that they have any, may truly be called the Point, in Grammar, a character used to mark the
religion of nature. A belief of the existence of some divisions of discourse. See COMMA, COLON, &c. A
powers more than human cannot fail to be excited among point proper is what we otherwise call a full stop or
che most uncultivated of mankind, from the observations period. See PunctUATION.
of various striking natural phenomena, such as the diur Point, in Geometry, according to Euclid, is that
nal revolution of the sun and moon; thunder and light- which has neither parts nor magnitude.
ning ; earthquakes, &c. &c.: nor will there ever be Point, in Music, a mark or note anciently used to
wanting among them some, of superior talents and cun. distinguish the tones or sounds ; hence we still call it
ping, who will acquire an influence over weak minds, simple counter-point, when a note of the lower part an-
by assuming to themselves an interest with, or a power swers exactly to that of an upper; and figurative coun-
of controuling those super-human agents; and such no ter-point, when any note is syncopated, and one of the
tions constitute the religion of the inhabitants of the parts makes several notes or inflexions of the voice,
Poggys. Sometimes a fowl, and sometimes a hog, is while the other holds on one.
sacrificed to avert sickness, to appease the wrath of the We still use a point, to raise the value of a note, and
offended power, or to render it propitious to some pro- prolong its time by one half, e. g. a point added to a
jected enterprise ; and Mr Best was informed that omens semibreve, instead of two minims, makes it equal to
of good or ill fortuné were drawn from certain appear- three; and so of the otber potes. See the article Time.

POINT,

SPECTIVE.

VING, &c.

Point Point, in Astronomy, a tern applied to certain of an excutchenn, denoting the local positions of any fo- Points, # points or places marked in the heavens, and distin gure. See HERALDRY.

Poison. Points. guished by proper epithets.

Points, in Electricity, are those acute terminations
The four grand points or divisions of the horizon, of bodies which facilitate the passage of the electrical
viz. the east, west, north, and south, are called the car fluid from or to such bodies. See ELECTRICITY.
dinal points.

Points, or Vowel Points, in the Hebrew language.
The zenith and nadir are the vertical points; the See Philology, Sect. 1. N° 31, &c.
points wherein the orbits of the planets cut the plane of POISON, is any substance which proves destructive
the ecliptic are called the nodes: the points wherein the to the life of animals in a small quantity, either taken
equator and ecliptic intersect are called the equinoctial by the mouth, mixed with the blood, or applied to the
points: particularly, that whence the sun ascends towards nerves. See MEDICINE, No 261, 269, 303, 322, 408,
the north pole, is called the vernal point; and that by &c. &c.
which 'he descends to the south pole, the autumnal point. Of poisons there are many different kinds, which are
The points of the ecliptic, where the sun's ascent above exceedingly various in their operations. The mineral
the equator, and descent below it, terminate, are called poisons, as arsenic and corrosive mercury, seem to at-
the solstitial points ; particularly the former of them, tack the solid parts of the stomach, and to produce
the estival or summer point; the latter, the brumal or death by eroding its substance : the antimonial scem
winter point.

rather to attack the nerves, and to kill by throwing the
Point is also used for a cape or headland jutting out whole system into convulsions; and in this manner also
into the sea : thus seamen say, two points of land are in most of the vegetable poisons seem to operate. All of
one another, when they are so in a right line, against these, however, seem to be inferior in strength to the
each other, as that the innermost is bindered from be- poisons of some of the more deadly kinds of serpents,
ing seen by the outermost.

which operate so suddenly that the animal bit by them Point, in Perspective, is used for various poles or will be dead before another that had swallowed arsenic places, with regard to the perspective plane. See Per would be affected.

Much bas been written concerning a poison made use Point is also an iron or steel instrument, used with of by the African negroes, by the Americans, and by some variety in several arts. Engravers, etchers, cut the East Indians. To this very strange effects have ters in wood, &c. lise points to trace their designs on been ascribed. It has been said, that by this poison, a the copper, wood, stone, &c. See the articles ENGRA man might be killed at any certain time ; as, for in

stance, after the interval of a day, a week, a month, a Point, in the Manufactories, is a general term, used year, or even several years. These wonderful effects, for all kinds of laces wrought with the needle; such are however, do not seem worthy of credit ; as the Abbé the point de Venice, point de France, point de Genoa, Fontana has given a particular account of an American &c. which are distinguished by the particular economy poison called ticunas, which in all probability is the and arrangement of their points.— Point is sometimes same with that used in Africa and the East Indies ; used for lace woven with bobbins ; as English point, and from his account it is extremely improbable that point de Malines, point d'Havre, &c.

any such effects could be produced with certainty.
Point, in Poetry, denotes a lively brisk turn or con With this poison the Abbé was furnished by Dr He.
ceit, usually found or expected at the close of an epi. berden. It was closed and sealed up in an earthen pot
gram. See POETRY, N° 169.

inclosed in a tin-case. Within the tin-case was a note
Point-Blank, in Gunnery, denotes the shot of a gun containing the following words: “ Indian poison, brought
levelled horizontally, without either mounting or sink from the banks of the river of the Amazons by Don
ing the muzzle of the piece.--In shooting point-blank, Pedro Maldonado. It is one of the sorts mentioned
the shot or bullet is supposed to go directly forward in in the Pbilosophical Transactions, vol. xlvii. N° 1 2.”
a straight line to the mark; and not to move in a curve, In the volume of the Philosophical Transactions here
as bombs and highly elevated random-shots do.— When quoted, mention is made of two poisons little different in
a piece stands upon a level plane, and is laid level, the their activity; the one called the poison of lamas, and
distance between the piece and the point where the shot the other of ticunas. The poison in the earthen ves-
touches the ground first, is called the point-blank range sel used by the Abbé Fontana was that of the ticunas;
of that piece; but as the same piece ranges more or less, he was also furnished with a number of American ara
according to a greater or less charge, the point blank rows dipped in poison, but whether that of the lamas or
range is taken from that of a piece loaded with such a ticunas he could not tell.
charge as is used commonly in action. It is therefore Our author begins bis account of the nature of this
necessary that these ranges of all pieces should be known, poison with detecting some of the mistakes which had
since the gunner judges from thence what elevation he been propagated concerning it.-It had been asserted,
is to give to his piece when he is either farther from or that the ticunas poison proves noxious by the mere ef-
nearer to the object to be fired at; and this he can do fluvia, but much more by the steam which exhales from
pretty nearly by sight, after considerable practice. it in boiling or burning : that, among the Indians, it is

POINTING, in Grammar, the art of dividing a dis- prepared only by women condemned to die ; and that
course by points, into periods and members of periods, the mark of its being sufficiently prepared, is when the
in order to show the proper pauses to be made in read. attendant is killed by its steam. All these assertions are
ing, and to facilitate the pronunciation and understand by the Abbé refuted in the clearest manner.

He exing thereof. See the article PunctuATION.

posed a young pigeon to the smell of the poison whes. POINTS, in Heraldry, are the several different parts the vessel was opened, to the steam of it when boiling,

and.

G 2

avy fear.

Poison, and to the vapour of it when burning to the sides of the So far, indeed, was this from being the case, that the ap- Poison.

vessel, without the animal's being the least injured ; on plication of nitrous acid to the wounded muscle of a
which, concluding that the vapours of this poison were pigeon, killed the animal in a short time without any
not to be dreaded, he exposed himself to them without poison at all.—The effects of the arrows were equally

fatal with those of the poison itself (A).
This poison dissolves very readily even in cold water, The poison of the viper is analogous in its effects
and likewise in the vegetable and mineral acids. With to that of ticunas, but inferior in strength ; the lat-
oil of vitriol it becomes as black as ink, but not with the ter killing more instantaneously when injected into a
rest of the acids. In oil of vitriol it also dissolves more vein than even the poison of the most venomous rattle
slowly than in any of the rest. It does not effervesce snake.
with acids or alkalies; neither does it alter milk, nor The Abbé has, however, observed a difference in the
tinge it, except with the natural colour of the poison; action of the two poisons upon blood taken out of the
por does it tinge the vegetable juices either red or green. body. He cut off the bead of a pigeon, and received
When examined by the microscope, there is no appear its blood into warm conical glasses, to the amount of
ance of regularity or crystallization; but it for the most about 80 drops into each. Into the blood contained in
part appears made up of very small, irregular, roundish one porringer, he put four drops of water; and into the

odies, like vegetable juices. It dries without making other four drops of the poison dissolved in water as usual,
any noise, and has an extremely bitter taste when put The event of this experiment was, that the blood, with
upon the tongue.

which the water only was mixed, coagulated in a short
The ticunas poison is harmless when put into the eyes ; time ; but that in which the poison was mixed did not
nor is it fatal when taken by the mouth, unless the quan coagulate at all. The poison of the viper also binders
tity is considerable. Six grains of the solid poison, dis the blood from coagulating, but gives it a much blacker
solved in water, killed a young pigeon which drank it tinge than the poison of the ticunas. The poison of
in less than 20 minutes. Five grains killed a small Gui the viper also proves certainly fatal when injected into
nea-pig in 25 minutes. Eight grains killed a rabbit in the veins, even in very small quantity ; but it produces
an hour and eight minutes, &c. In those experiments a kind of grumous coagulation and blackness in the blood
it was observed, that much less poison was required to when drawn from a vein, though it prevents the proper
kill an animal whose stomach was empty than one that coagulation of that fluid, and its separation into crassa-
had a full stomach. Three rabbits and two pigeons were mentum and serum as usual.
killed in less than 35 minutes, by taking a dose of three In the Philosophical Transactions, No 335. we have
grains each on an empty stomach; but when the expe a number of experiments which show the eflects of ma-
riment was repeated on five animals with full stomachs, ny dillerent poisons upon animals ; from whence it ap-
only one of them died.

pears, that many substances which are not at all account-
The most fatal operation of this poison is when mixed ed poisonous, yet prove as certainly fatal when mixed
with the blood. The smallest quantity, injected into the with the blood as even the poison of rattlesnakes, or the
jugular vein, killed the animal as if by a stroke of light ticunas itself.—An ounce of emetic wine, being inject-
ning. When applied to wounds in such a manner that ed into the jugular vein of a large dog, produced no
the flowing of the blood could not wash it away, the ani effect for a quarter of an honr. At the expiration of
mal fell into convulsions and a train of fatal nervous that space he became sick, had a continual vomiting,
symptoms, which put an end to its life in a few minutes. and evacuation of some hard excrements by stool. By
Yet, notwithstanding these seeming affections of the these evacuations he seemed to be somewhat relieved;
nerves, the poison proved harmless when applied to the but soon grew uneasy, moved from place to place, and
naked nerves themselves, or even to the medullary sub vomited again. After this he laid bimself down on the
stance of them slit open.

ground pretty quietly ; but his rest was disturbed by a The strength of this poison seems to be diminished, return of bis vomiting, and his strength greatly decreaand even destroyed, by mineral acids, but not at all by.sed. An hour and a half after the operation he apalkalies or ardent spirits; but if the fresh poison was peared balf dead, but was greatly revived by having applied to a wound, the application of mineral acids im some warm broth poured down his throat with a funnel. mediately after could not remove the pernicious effects. This, however, proved only a temporary relief; for in

(A) Mr Paterson, in his travels in Africa, in the years 1777-8-9, fell in with an European woman who had been wounded with a poisoned arrow. Great pains bad been taken to cure her, but in vain ; for at different periods of the year an inflammation came on which was succeeded by a partial mortification. She told him that the wound was easily healed up; but in two months afterwards there was a certainty of its breaking out again, and this had been the case for many years. The Hottentots poison their arrows with a species of euphorbia. The amaryllis disticha, a large bulbous plant growing about the Cape of Good Hope, called mad poison, is used for the same purpose. The natives take the bulbs when they are putting out their leaves, cut them transversely, extract a thick fluid, and keep it in the sun till it acquires the consistence of gum, when it is fit for use.

With arrows poisoned with this gum, they kill antelopes and other small animals intended for food. After they are wounded, the animals generally run for several miles, and are frequently not found till next day. When the leaves of this plant are young, the cattle are very fond of them, though they occasion instant death. Mr Paterson mentions another shrubby plant producing a nut, called by the Dutch woolf gift or wolf poison, the only poison useful to the European inhabitants. The nuts are roasted like coffee, pulverized, and stuffed into some pieces of meat or a dead dog, which are thrown into the fields. By this means the voracious hyenas are generally killed.

out.

Poison. a short time the vomiting returned, he made urine in coction of tobacco injected into a vein killed a dog in Poison.

great quantity, howled miserably, and died in convul a very short time in terrible convulsions. Ten drops of
sions. A dram and a half of sal ammoniac dissolved oil of sage rubbed with half a dram of sugar, and thus
in an ounce and a half of water, and injected into the dissolved in water, did no harm by being injected into
jugular vein of a dog, killed him with convulsions al the blood.
most instantly.—The same effect followed from inject Mercury, though seemingly void of all acrimony,
ing a dram of salt of tartar dissolved in an ounce of proves also fatal when injected into the blood. Soon
warm water; but a dram and a half of common salt after the injection of half an ounce of this mineral into
injected into the jugular produced little otber bad conse the jugular vein of a dog, he was seized with a dry
quences than a temporary thirst.–A dram of purified short cough which came by intervals. About two days
wbite vitriol, injected into the crural vein of a dog, after, he was troubled with a great difficulty of breath-
killed him immediately:--Fifteen grains of salt of urine ing, and made a noise like that of a broken-winded
dissolved in an ounce of water, and injected into the horse. There was no tumour about the root of the
crural vein of a dog, threw him into such violent con tongue or the parotid glands, nor any appearance of a
vulsions that he seemed to be dying; nevertheless he re salivation. In four days he died; having been for two
covered from a second dose, though not without a great days before so much troubled with an orthopnea, that
deal of difficulty: but an ounce of urine made by a he could sleep only when he leaned his head against
man fasting produced no bad effect. Diluted aqua- something. When opened, about a pint of bloody se-
fortis injected into the jugular and crural vein of a dog rum was found in the thorax, and the outside of the
killed him immediately by coagulating the blood. Oil lungs in most places was blistered. Some of the blisters
of sulphur (containing some quantity of the volatile vi were larger and others smaller than a pea, but most of
triolic aid) did not kill a dog after repeated trials. On them contained mercurial globules. Several of them
the contrary, as soon as he was let go, he ran into all were broken ; and upon being pressed a little, the mer-
the corners of the room searching for meat; and hav cury ran out with a mixture of a little sanies ; but upon
ing found some bones, he fell a gnawing them with stronger pressure, a considerable quantity of sanies issued
strange avidity, as if the acid, by injection into bis veins, In the right ventricle of the heart some particles
had given him a better appetite.-Another dog, whó of quicksilver were found in the

very

middle of the coahad oil of tartar injected into his veins, swelled and gulated blood lodged there, and the same thing also was died, after suffering great torment. His blood was observed in the pulmonary artery. Some blood also was found florid and not coagulated.-A dram and a half found coagulated in a very strange and unusual manner of spirit of salt diluted with water, and injected into the between the columnæ of the right ventricle of the heart, jugular vein of a dog, killed him immediately. In the and in this a greater quantity of quicksilver than anyright ventricle of the heart the blood was found partly where else. In the left ventricle was found a very tenagrumous and concreted into barder clots than ordinary, cious blood coagulated, and sticking to the great valve, and partly frothy. Warm vinegar was injected with including the tendons of it

, and a little resembling a poout doing any manifest harm.— Two drams of sugar lypus. No mercury could be found in this ventricle by dissolved in an ounce of water were injected into the the most diligent search; whence it appears that the jagular vein of a dog without any hurt.

mercury had passed no farther than the extremities of These are the results of the experiments where saline the pulmonary artery, where it had stuck, and occasionsubstances were injected into the veins. Many acrids ed fatal obstructions.-In another dog, which had merproved equally fatal. A decoction of two drams of cury injected into the jugular, it appears to have passed white heltebore, injected into the jugular vein of a dog, the pulmonary artery, as part of it was found in the cakilled him like a stroke of lightning. Another dog vity of the abdomen, and part also in some other cawas killed in a moment by an injection of an onnce of vities of the body. All the glandules were very turrectified spirit of wine in which a dram of camphor was gid and full of liquor, especially in the ventricles of dissolved. --Ten drams of highly rectified spirit of wine, the brain, and all around there was a great quantity of injected into the crural vein of a dog, killed him in a serum.

short time: he died quietly, and licking his jaws In like manner, oil of olives proves certainly fatal with his tongue, as if with pleasure. In the vena cava when injected into the blood. Half an ounce of this and right ventricle of the heart the blood was coagula- injected into the crural vein of a dog, produced no efted into a great many little clots.- Three drams of rec. fect in half a quarter of an bour: but after that, the tified spirit of wine, injected into the crural vein of a animal barked, cried, looked dejected, and fell into a small dog made him a poplectic, and as it were half dead. deep apoplexy; so that his limbs were deprived of all In a little time he recovered from the apoplexy, and be sense and motion, and were flexible any way at pleacame giddy; and when he endeavoured to go, reeled His respiration continued very strong, with a and fell down. Though his strength increased by de- snorting and wheezing, and a thick humour sonietimes grees, yet his drunkenness continued. His eyes were mixed with blood flowing out of his mouth. He lost red and fiery; and his sight so dull that he scarce seem all external sense : the eyes, though they continued open, ed to take notice of any thing: and when he was beat, were not sensible of any objects that were put to them ; he would scarce move. However, in four hours he be and even the cornea could be touched and rubbed, gan to recover, and would eat bread when offered him; without his being the least sensible of it; his eyelids, the next day he was out of danger.-Five ounces of however, bad a convulsive motion. The hearing was strong white wine injected into the crural vein of a dog quite lost; and in a short time the feeling became so made bim very drunk for a few hours, but did not pro- dull, that his claws and ears could be bored with redduce any other consequences. An ounce of strong de- hot pincers without his expressing the least sense of pain.

Sometimes

very

sure.

Poison.

Poisos,

as ever.

success.

Sometimes he was seized with a convulsive motion of a noise, and walk a little when beat. Howerer, le
the diaphragm and muscles subservient to respiration; died in four days, after having voided a quantity of fe-
upon which he would bark strongly, as if he had been tid excrements, in colour resembling the diluted opium
a wake : but this waking was only in appearance ; for he had swallowed.
all the time of this barking he continued as insensible The oil of tobacco bas generally been reckoned a

In three hours be died; and on opening his very violent poison when introduced into the blood;
body, the bronchiæ were filled with a thick froth. but from the abbé Fontana's experiments, it appears
An ounce of oil of olives injected into the jugular of to be far inferior in strength to the poison of ticu.
another dog killed him in a moment; but a third nas, or to the bite of a viper. A drop of oil of to-
lived an hour after it. He was seized with great sleepi bacco was put into a small incision in the right thigh
ness, snorting, and wheezing, but did not bark like the of a pigeon, and in two minutes the animal could not
first. In all of them a great quantity of thick froth stand on its right foot. The same experiment was
was found in the lungs.

repeated on another pigeon, and produced exactly the
We come now to speak of those poisons which prove same effect. In another case, the oil was applied to a
mortal (B) when taken by the mouth. The principal slight wound in the breast; three minutes after which,
of these are, arsenic, corrosive sublimate or muriate of the animal could not stand on the left foot. This expe-
mercury, glass of antimony, and lead. What the ef riment was also repeated a second time, with the same
fects of these substances are when injected into the blood,

A tooth-pick, steeped in oil of tobacco, and
cannot be related, as no experiments seem to have been introduced into the muscles of the breast, made the
made with them in that way, excepting antimony, whose animal fall down in a few seconds as if dead. Ap-
effects have been already mentioned. The effects of plied to two others, they threw up several times all the
opium, when injected into the veins, seem to be similar food they bad eaten. Two others treated in the same
to its effects when taken by the mouth. Fifty, grains of manner, but with empty stomachs, made many efforts
opium, dissolved in an ounce of water, were injected into to vomit.-In general, the vomiting was found to be
the crural vein of a cat. Immediately after the operation a constant effect of this poison : but the loss of motion
she seemed much dejected, but did not cry; only made in the part to which the poison is applied, was found
a low, interrupted, and complaining noise. This was to be only accidental. None of the animals died by the
succeeded by trembling of the limbs, convulsive motions application of oil of tobacco. Dr Leake, however, as-
of the eyes, ears, lips, and almost all parts of the body, serts the contrary ; saying, that this oil, which is used
with violent convulsions of the breast. Sometimes she by the Indians in poisoning arrows, when infused into
would raise up her head, and seem to look about her ; a fresh wound, besides sickness and vomiting, occasions
but her eyes were very dull, and looked dead. Though convulsions and death. See Practical Essay on Dis-
she was let loose, and bad nothing tied about her neck, eases of the Viscera, p. 67.
yet her mouth was so filled with froth, that she was The pernicious effects of laurel-water are taken no-
almost strangled. At last, her convulsive motions con tice of under the article MEDICINE, N° 261. The ac

.
tinuing, and being seized with stretching of her limbs, count is confirmed by the experiments of the Abbé
she died in a quarter of an hour. Upon opening the Fontana; who tells us, that it not only kills in a short
body, the blood was found not to be much altered from time, when taken by the mouth, but that, when given
its natural state. -A dram and a balf of opium was in small doses, the animal writhes so that the head joins
dissolved in an ounce and a balf of water, and then in the tail, and the vertebræ arch out in such a manner as
jected into the crural vein of a lusty strong dog. He to strike with horror every one who sees it. In order
struggled violently; made a loud noise, though bis to ascertain the effects of this water when taken into
jaws were tied; had a great difficulty of breathing, the blood, our author opened the skin of the lower belly
and palpitation of the heart, with convulsive motions of of a pretty large rabbit, and make a wound in it about
almost all parts of his body. These symptoms were an inch long; and having slightly wounded the muscles
succeeded by a profound and apoplectic sleep. Having under it in many parts, applied two or three tea spoon-
untied him, be lay upon the ground without moving fuls of laurel-water. The animal fell down convulsed
or making any noise, though severely beaten. About in less than three minutes, and died soon after. The
half an hour after he began to recover some sense, and experiment was repeated with similar success in other
would move a little when veaten. The sleepiness still animals : but was always found to act most powerfully,
decreased d; so that in an hour and a half lie would make and in the shortest time, wben taken by the mouth, or

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* See

(B) Of all poisons * those which may be called culinary are perhaps the most destructive, because they are Leake's

generally the least suspected. All copper + vessels, therefore, and vessels of bell metal, which contains copper, + See Pos Practical Treatise on

should be laid aside. Even the common earthen ware, when they contain acids, as in pickling, become very per- son of con Diseases of nicious, as they are glazed with lead, which in the smallest quantity, when dissolved, is very fatal; and even tin, per. the Viscera. the least exceptionable of the metals for culinary purposes except iron, is not always quite free of poisonous quali

ties, it having been found to contain a small portion of arsenic. Mushrooms and the common laurel are also very
fatal.

The bitter almond contains a poison and its antidote likewise. The cordial dram ratafia, much used in
France, is a slow poison, its flavour being procured from the kernels of peach, black cherry stones, &c.— The
spirit of lauro-cerasus is peculiarly fatal. The adulteration of bread, beer, wine, porter, &c. produces very fatal
consequences, and merits exemplary punishment. Next to culinary poisons, the abuse of medicines deserves

particular attention.

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