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29.

Pythagoras,

Soon after his appearance at these games, Pythago idleness, bodily exercises also made a considerable part Pythagoras ras commenced his travels in quest of knowledge. He of bis discipline. first visited Egypt, where, through the interest of Poly At Crotona be had a public school for the general crates tyravt of Samos, he obtained the patronage of benefit of the people, in which he taught them their Amasis king of Egypt, by whose influence, combined duty, praising virtue and condemning vice; and partiwith his own assiduity, patience, and perseverance, he cularly instructing them in the duties of social life. at length gained the confidence of the priests ; from Besides this, he bad a college in his own house, which whom he learned their sacred mysteries, theology, and he denominated xoivossos, in which there were two classes the whole system of symbolical learning. In Egypt, of students, viz. etwrigixos, who were also called auscultoo, he became acquainted with geometry and the true tantes, and soutiqixos. The former of these were probasolar system; and, before he left that country, made tioners, and were kept under a long examen. A si. himself master of all the learning for which it was so lence of five years was imposed upon them; which Afamed among the nations of antiquity.

puleius thinks was intended to teach them modesty and He alterwards visited Persia and Chaldea, where attention; but Clemens Alexandrinus thinks it was for from the Magi he learnt divination, the interpreting of the purpose of abstracting their minds from sensible dreams, and astronomy. He is likewise said to have objects, and inuring them to the pure contemplation of travelled into India, to have conversed with the Gym the Deity. The latter class of scholars were called nosophists, and to bave acquired from them a knowledge genuini, perfecti, ma: hematici, and, by way of eminence, of the philosophy and literature of the east ; and such Pythagoreans. They alone were admitted to the know

was his ardour in the pursuit of science, that in quest of ledge of the arcana and depths of Pythagoric discipline, * De Fini-it, we are told by Cicero *, he crossed many seas, and and were taught the use of ciphers and hieroglyphic bus, lib. iv. travelled on foot through many barbarous nations. writings.

After Pythagoras had spent many years in gathering Clemeus observes, that these orders corresponded very information on every subject, especially respecting the exactly to those among the Hebrews: for in the schools nature of the gods, the rites of religion, and the immor of the prophets, there were two classes, viz. the soos of tality of the human soul, he returned to his native island, the prophets, who were the scholars, and the doctors or and attempted to make his knowledge useful by institu- masters, who were also called perfecti; and among the ting a school for the instruction of his countrymen. Levites, the novices or tyros, who had their quinquenFailing of success in this laudable undertaking, he re nial exercises, by way of preparation, Lastly, even paired to Delos, where he pretended to receive moral among the proselytes there were two orders; esoterisci, dogmas from the priestess of Apolio. He also visited or proselytes of the yote; and intrinseci or perfecti, Crete, where he was initiated into the most sacred my. proselytes of the covenant. He adds, it is highly prosteries of Greece. He went likewise to Sparta and bable, that Pythagoras himself had been a proselyte of Elis, and again assisted at the Olympic games ; where the gate, if not of the covenant. Gale endeavours to in the public assembly he was saluted with the title of prove that Pythagoras borrowed his philosophy from sophist or wise man, which he declined for one more that of the Jews; to this end producing the authorities humble. See PhiloLOGY, No 1, and Philosophy, of many of the fathers and ancient authors, and even N° 1.

pointing out the tracks and footsteps of Moses in several He returned to Samos enriched with mythological parts of Pythagoras's doctrine. But we believe the learning and mysterious rites, and again instituted a learned author was misled by the Christian Platonists. · school. His mysterious symbols and oracular precepts The authority of Pythagoras among his pupils was

made this attempt more successful than the former had so great, that it was even deemed a crime to dispute been ; but meeting with some opposition, or being de his word; and their arguments were considered as intected in some pious frauds, he suddenly lest Samos, re fallibly convincing, if they could enforce them by addtired to Magna Grecia, and settled at Crotona. ing, that “ the master said so;" an expression which af

Here be founded the Italic sect (see Philosophy, terwards became proverbial in jurare in verba magistri. N° 20.); and his mental and personal accomplishments. This influence over bis school was soon extended to the the fame of his distant travels, and his Olympic crown, world, and even his pupils themselves divided the apsoon procured bim numerous pupils. His bold and plause and approbation of the people with their master; manly eloquence and graceful delivery attracted the and the rulers and legislators of all the principal towns most dissolute, and produced a remarkable change in of Greece, Sicily, and Italy, boasted of being the disthe morals of the people of Crotona. His influence ciples of Pythagoras. To give more weight to his was increased by the regularity of his own example, exhortations, as some writers mention, Pythagoras reand its conformity to his precepts. He punctually at tired into a subterraneous cave, where his mother sent tended the temples of the gods, and paid bis devotions him intelligence of every thing which happened during at an early hour; be lived upon the purest and most bis absence. After a certain number of months he innocent food, clothed himself like the priests of Egypt, again re-appeared on the earth with a grim and ghastly and by his continual purifications and regular offerings countenance, and declared in the assembly of the people appeared to be superior in sanctity to the rest of man that he was returned from hell. From similar exagkind. He endeavoured to assuage the passions of bis gerations it has been asserted that he appeared at the scholars with verses and numbers, and made a practice of Olympic games with a golden thigh, and that he could composing his own mind every morning, by playing on write in letters of blood whatever he pleased on a lookhis harp, and singing along with it the pæans of Thales. ing-glass; and that by setting it opposite to the moon, To avoid the temptations of ease and the seductions of when full, all the characters which were on the glass

became

* History

agoras

became legible on the moon's disc. They also relate, and Decad, various explanations have been given by Pythagoras that by some magical werds he tamed a bear, stopped various authors; but nothing certain or important is the flight of an eagle, and appeared on the same day known of them. In all probability, numbers were used and at the same instant in the cities of Crotona and by Pythagoras as symbolical representations of the first Metapontum, &c.

principles and forms of nature, and especially of those At length his singular doctrines, and perhaps his eternal and immutable essences which Plato denominastrenuously asserting the rights of the people against ted ideas; and in this case the Monad was the simple their tyrannical governors, excited a spirit of jealousy, root from which he conceived numbers to proceed, and and raised a powerful party against him ; which soon as such, analogous to the simple essence of deity; from became so outrageous as to oblige him to fly for his life. whence, according to his system, the various properties His friends fled to Rhegium ; and he himself, after of nature proceed. being refused protection by the Locrians, fled to Me Music followed numbers, and was useful in raising tapontum, where he was obliged to take refuge in the the mind above the dominion of the passions. Pytbatemple of the muses, and where it is said he died of goras considered it as a science to be reduced to mathehunger about 497 years before Christ. Respecting the matical principles and proportions, and is said to bave the time, place, and manner of his death, however, discovered the musical chords from the circumstance of there are various opinions, and many think it uncertain several men successively striking with hammers a piece when, where, or in what manner be ended his days. of heated iron upon an anvil. This story Dr Burney After his death bis followers paid the same respect to discredits; but allows, from the uniform testimony of of Music, him as was paid to the immortal gods; they erected writers ancient and modern, that he invented the har- vol. i. statues in honour of him, converted his house at Cro- monical canon or monochord, (see MonOCHORD). The P. 441. tona into a temple to Ceres, appealed to him as a deity, music of the spheres, of which every one has heard, was and swore by his name.

a most fanciful doctrine of Pythagoras. It was proPythagoras married Theano of Crotona, or, accord- duced, he imagined, by the planets striking on the etber ing to others, of Crete, by whom he had two sons, Te- through which in their motion they passed; and he conlauges and Mnesarchus, who, after bis death, took care sidered their musical proportions as exact, and their harof his school. He is said also to have had a daughter mony perfect. called Dumo.

Pythagoras, as we have already seen, learned geonieWhether he left any writings behind him is disputed. try in Egypt; but by investigating many new theorems, It seems probable, however, that he left none, and that and by digesting its principles, he reduced it to a more such as went under bis name were written by some of regular science. A geometrical point, which he defines his followers. The golden verses which Hierocles illus to be a monad, or unity with position, be says corretrated with a commentary, have been ascribed to Epi- sponds to unity in arithmetic, a line to two, a superficharmus or Empedocles, and contain a brief summary cies to three, and a solid to four. He discovered seof his popular doctrines. From this circumstance, and veral of the propositions of Euclid; and on discovering from the mysterious secrecy with which he taught, our the 47th of book ist, he is said to have offered a hecajoformation concerning his doctrine and philosophy is tomb to the gods ; but as he was averse to animal savery uncertain, and cannot always be depended on. crifices, this assertion is surely false. His great pro

' l'he purpose of philosophy, according to the system gress in astronomical science has been mentioned elseof Pytbagoras, is to free the mind from incumbrances, where. See ASTRONOMY, No 11, 22. and Philosophy, and to raise it to the contemplation of inmutable truth N° 15, 16. and the knowledge of divine and spiritual objects. To Wisdom, according to Pythagoras, is conversant with bring the mind to this state of perfection is a work of those objects which are naturally immutable, eternal, some difficulty, and requires a variety of intermediate and incorruptible; and its end is to assimilate the husteps. Mathematical science was with him the first man mind to the divine, and to qual.fy us to join the step to wisdom, because it inures the mind to contem assembly of the gods. Active and moral philosophy plation, and takes a middle course between corporeal prescribes rules and precepts for the conduct of life, and and incorporeal beings. The whole science he divided leads us to the practice of public and private virtue.into two parts, numbers and magnitude; and each of these On these heads many of bis precepts were excellent, and he subdivided into two others, the former into arithme some of them were whimsical and useless. Theoretitic and music, and the latter into magnitude at rest and in cal philosophy treats of nature and its origin, and is, motion; the former of which comprehends geometry, and according to Pythagoras, the highest object of study. the latter astronomy. Arithmetic he considered as the It included all the profound mysteries which he taught, noblest science, and an acquaintance with numbers as of which but little is now known. God be considers the highest good. He considered numbers as the princi- as the universal mind, dillused through all thing®, and ples of every tbing; and divided them into scientific and the self-moving principle of all things (UTOMATIONLOS Tây intelligible. Scientific number is the production of the martão), and of whom every human soul is a portion *.

* Cicero de

Senect, powers involved in unity, and its return to the same; It is very probable, that he conceived of the Deity as a

$ 21. number is not infinite, but is the source of that infinité subtle fire, eternal, active, and intelligent; which is not divisibility into equal parts which is the property of all inconsistent with the idea of incorporeality, as the anbodies. Intelligible numbers are those which existed cients understood that term. This Deity was primarily in the divine mind before all things. They are the mo

combined with the chaotic mass of passive matter, but del or archetype of the world, and the cause of the es. he had the power of separating himself, and since the sence of beings. Of the Monad, Duad, Triad, Tetrad, separation he has remained distinct. The learned Cud

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Pythagoras. Worth contends, that Pythagoras maintained a trinity of Et tibi quæ Samios diduxit litera ramos,

hypostases in the divine nature, similar to the Platonic Surgentem dextro monstı avit limite collem.
triad (see PLATONIS.J). We cannot say that his

There has the Samian Y's instructive make
ments appear to have much force ; but we think the con-
clusion which he wishes to establish extremely probable,

Pointed the road thy doubtful foot should take; as Plato certainly drew his doctrine from some of the

There warn’d thy raw and yet unpractis'd youth, countries which Pythagoras had visited before him.

To tread the rising right-hand path of truth. Subordinate to the Deity there were in the Pytha The scantiness and uncertainty of our informatica gorean creed three orders of intelligences, gods, demons, respecting Pythagoras, renders a regular and complete and heroes, of different degrees of excellence and digni- account of his life and doctrines impossible. A moty. These, together with the human soul, were consi dern author † of profound erudition, pronounces bimo dered as emanations from the Deity, the particles of to have been unquestionably the wisest man that ever subtle ether assuming a grosser clothing the farther they lived, if his masters the Egyptian priests must not be receded from the fountain. Hierocles defines a hero excepted. This is saying a great deal too much; but to be a rational mind united with a luminous body that he was one of the most distinguished philosophers God himself was represented under the notion of mo of antiquity, or, as Cicero expresses it, vir præstanti nad, and the subordinate intelligences as numbers de- sapientia, appears very evident; and his moral charaerived from and included in unity. Man is considered ter has never been impeached. The mysterious air as consisting of an elementary nature and a divine or which he threw over his doctrines, and the apparent rational soul. His soul, it self moving principle, is con inanity of some of his symbols, have indeed subjected posed of two parts; the rational, seated in the brain; and bim to the charge of imposture, and perhaps the charge the irrational, including the pa3-ions, in the heart. In is not wholly groundless; but when we consider the both these respects he participates with the brutes, age in which he lived, and the nature of the people whom the temperament of their body, &c. allows not with whom he had to deal, who would in all probabito act rationally. The sensitive soul perishes; the other lity have resisted more open innovations, even this will assumes an ethereal vehicle, and passes to the region of not appear so blameable as at first sight we are apt to the dead, till sent back to the earth to inhabit sone think it ; and it is worily of notice, that the worst stoother body, brutal or human. See METEMYSYCHOSIS. ries of this kind have come down to us in a very queIt was unquestion:bly this notion which led Pythago. stionable shape, and with much probability appear to be ras and his followers to deny themselves the use of flesh, false. and to be so peculiarly merciful to animals of every de PYTHAGOREANS, a sect of ancient philosophers scription. Some authors, however, say, that flesh and so called from being the followers of Pythagoras. Set beans, the use of which he also forbade, were prohibited, the preceding article. because he supposed them to bave been produced from PYTHIA, the priestess of Apollo at Delphi, by the same putrified matter, from which, at the creation whom he delivered oracles. She was so called from of the world, man was formed.

Pythius, a name of that god, which is said to have been Of the symbols of Pythagoras little is known. They given him on account of his victory over the serpent bave been religiously concealed; and though they have Python. awakened much curiosity, and occasioned many ingeni The Pythia was at first required to be a young girl, ous conjectures, they still appear to us dark and tri but in latter times she was a woman or 50 years of age. fling. As a specimen we give the following : “ Allore The first and most famous Pythia was Phemonöe. 0. the sound of the whispering wind. Stir not the fire racles were at first delivered by her in hexameter verse. with a sword. Turn aside from an edged tool. Pass All the pythias were to be pure virgins, and all of ibem not over a balance. Setting out on a journey, turn not delivered their oracles with gr: at enthusiasm and violent back, for the furies will return with you.

agitations. See Oracle and Delphi. thing that bath crooked talous. Receive not a swal PYTHIAN GAMES, in Grecian antiquity, sports low into your house. Look not in a mirror by the instituted near Delphos in honour of Apolio, on account light of a candle.

At a sacrifice pare not your nails. of his slaying the serpent Python. See APOLLOEat not the heart or brain. Taste not that which hath These games, at their first institution, were celebrated fallen from the table. Break not bread. Sleep not at only once in nine years ; but afterwards erery birth

When it thunders touch the earth. Pluck not year, from the number of the Parnassian nymphis who a crow. Roast not that which has been boiled. Sail came to congratulate A pollo, and to make bim pet not on the ground. Plant not a palm. Breed a cock, sents on his victory. The victor was crowned with gar but do not sacrifice it, for it is sacred to the sun and lands.

Plant mallows in tliy garden, but eat them not. PYTHON, in fabulous history, a monstrous serpest, Abstain from beans."

produced by the earth after Deucalion's deloce. Jane The following precepts are more important : “ Dis- being exasperated at Latona, who was beloved by Jopicourse not of Pythagorean doctrines without light. ter, commanded this serpent to destroy ber; but fying Above all things govern your tongue. Engrave not from the pursuit of the monster, she escaped to Deles, the image of God in a ring. Quit not your station with where she was delivered of Diana and A pollo; the latter out the command of your general. Remember that the of whom at length destroyed Python with his arrows, is

paths of virtue and of vice resemble the letter Y. To memory of which victory the Pythian games were insi• Sat. üi. this symbol Persius refers ", when he says,

tuted. See APOLLO.

Breed no

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to the south-east of the mountains of Bohemia, on the Quadi or q, the 16th letter and 12th consonant of Q Q, our alphabet; but is not to be found either in banks of the Danube, and extending as far as the river

Quadrant.
Quadi. the Greek, old Latin, or Saxon alphabets ; and in Marus, or March, running by Moravia, which country

deed some would entirely exclude it, pretending that they occupied.
k ought to be used wherever this occurs. However, as QUADRAGESIMA, a denomination given to lent,
it is formed in the voice in a different manner, it is un from its consisting of 40 days. See LENT.
doubtedly a distinct letter : for, in expressing this QUADRANGLE, in Geometry, the same with a
sound, the cheeks are contracted, and the lips, particu- quadrilateral figure, or one consisting of four sides and
larly the under one, are put into a canular form, for

four angles.
the passage of the breath.

QUADRANS, the quarter or fourth part of any
The 9 is never sounded alone, but in conjunction thing, particularly the as, or pound.
with u, as in quility, question, quite, quote, &c. and QUADRANS, in English money, the fourth part of a
never ends any English word.

penny. Before the reign of Edward I. the smallest
As a numeral, Q stands for 500; and with a dash coin was a sterling, or penny, marked with a cross; by
over it, thus ā, for 500,000.

the guidance of which a penny might be cut into halves
Used as an abbreviatare q signifies quantity, or quan for a hallpenny, or into quarters or four parts for far-
tum. Thus, among physicians, q. pl. is quantum plucet, things; till, to avoid the fraud of unequal cuttings, that

as much as you please” of a thing; and q. s. is king coined halfpence and farthings in distinct round
quantum sufficit, i.e. “as much as is necessary.” Q.E.D. pieces.
among mathematicians, is quod erat demonstrandum, i. e. QUADRANT, in Geometry, the arch of a circle,
“ which was to be demonstrated :" and Q. E. F. is containing 90°, or the fourth part of the entire peri-
quod erat faciendum, i. e. " which was to be done."

pbery.
Q. D. among granımarians is quasi dictum, i.

Sometimes also the space or area, included between
it were said;" or, “ as who should say." In the notes this arch and two radii drawn from the centre to eachi
of the ancients, Q stands for Quintus, or Quintius ; extremity thereof, is called a quadrant, or, more pro-
Q. B. V. for quod bene vertat; Q. S. S. S. for

perly, a quadrantal space, as being a quarter of an en-
pra scripta sunt ; Q. M. for Quintus Aiutius, or quomo tire circle.
do; Quint. for Quintilius ; and Quæs, for quæstor. QUADRANT, also denotes a mathematical instrument,

QUAB, in Ichthyology, the name of a Russian fish, of great use in astronomy and navigation, for taking the
which is said to be at first a tadpole, then a frog, and altitudes of the sun and stars, as also for taking angles
at last a fish. Dr Mounsey, who made many inquiries in surveying, &c.
concerning the-e pretended changes, considers them all This mstrument is variously contrived, and furnished
as fabulous. He had opportunity of seeing the fish it with different apparatus, according to the various uses
self, and found that they spawned like other fishes, and it is intended for; but they all have this in common,
grew in size, without any appearances to justify the re that they consist of a quarter of a circle, whose limb is
port. He adds, that they delight in very clear water, divided into 9oo. Some have a plummet suspended
in rivers with sandy or stony bottoms, and are never from the centre, and are furnished with sights to look
found in standing lakes, or in rivers passing through through.
marshes or mossy grounds, where frogs choose most to be. The principal and most useful quadrants are the

QUABES, are a free people of Africa, inhabiting common surveying quadrant, astronomical quadrant,
the southern banks of the river Sestos, and between that Adams's quadrant, Cole's quadrant, Gunter's quadrant,
and Sierra Leona. They are under the protection of Hadley's quadrant, horodictical quadrant, Sutton's or
the emperor of Manow.

Collins's quadrant, and the sinical quadrant, &c. Of
QUACHA, or QUAGGA. See Equus, MAMMALIA each of which in order.
Inder.

1. The common surveying quadrant, is made of brass, QUACHILTO, in Ornithology, is the name of a wood, or any other solid substance; the limb of which ive's very beautiful Brasilian bird, called also yacazintli and is divided into 90°, and each of these farther divided st. Bra

porphyrio Americanus. It is of a fine blackish purple into as many equal parts as the space will allow, either
colour, variegated with white; its beak is white while diagonally or otherwise. On one of the semidiameters
young, but becomes red as it grows older, and has are fitted two moveable sights; and to the centre is
naked space at its basis, resembling in some sort the sometimes also fixed a label, or moveable index, bearing
coot ; its legs are of a yellowish green; it lives about two other sights; but in lieu of these last sights there
the waters, and feeds on fish, yet is a very well tasted is sometimes fitted a telescope : also from the centre
bird. It imitates the crowing of a common cock, and there is hung a thread with a plummet; and on the
makes its music early in the morning.

under side or face of the instrument is fitted a ball and
QUACK, among physicians, the same with empiric. socket, by means of which it may be put into any po-
See EMPIRIC.

sition. The general use of it is for taking angles in a QUADI, (Tacitus); a people of Germany, situated vertical plane, comprehended under right lines going

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Quadrant. from the centre of the instrument, one of which is ho cast by a convex lens placed therein. And, because the Qasdiast

rizontal, and the other is directed to some visible point. wood-work is often apt to warp or twist, therefore this
But besides the parts already described, there is fre vane may be rectified by the help of a screw, so that the
quently added to the face, near the centre, a kind of warping of the instrument may occasion no error in the
compartment, called the quadrat, or geometrical square. observation, which is performed in the following man-
See QUADRAT.

ner: Set the line G on a vernier against a degree on
This quadrant may be used in different situations: the upper limb of the quadrant, and torn a screw on
for observing heights or depths, its plane must be dispo- the backside of the limb furward or backward, till the
sed perpendicularly to the borizon ; but to take hori- bole in the sight-vane, the centre of the glass, and the
zontal distances, its plane is disposed parallel thereto. sunk spot in the horizon-vane, lie in a right line.
Again, heights and distances may be taken two ways, To find the sun's altitude by this instrument: Turn
viz. by means of the fixed sights and plummet, or by your back to the sun, holding the instrument by the
the label: As to which, and the manner of measuring staff with your right hand, so that it be in a vertical
angles, see GEOMETRY and MENSURATION.

plane passing through the sun; apply your eye to the
2. The astronomical quadrant is a large one, usually sight-vane, looking through that and the horizon-vane
made of brass, or wooden bars faced with iron plates ; till you see the horizon ; with the left hand slide the
having its limb nicely divided, either diagonally or quadrantal arch upwards, until the solar spot or shade,
otherwise, into degrees, minutes, and seconds; and fur. cast by the shade-vane, fall directly on the spot or slit
nished with two telescopes, one fixed on the side of the in the horizon-vane; then will that part of the quad-
quadrant, and the other moveable about the centre, by rantal arch, which is raised above G or S (according
means of the screw. There are also dented wheels as the observation respected either the solar spot or
which serve to direct the instrument to any object or shade) show the altitude of the sun at that time. But if
phenomenon.— The use of this curious instrument, in the meridian altitude be required, the observation must
taking observations of the sun, planets, and fixed stars, be continued; and as the sun approaches the meridian,
is obvious; for being turned horizontally upon its axis, the sea will appear through the horizon-vane, and then
by means of the telescope, till the object is seen through is the observation finished; and the degrees and mi-
the moveable telescope, then the degrees, &c. cut by nutes, counted as before, will give the sun's meridian
the index give the altitude required. See ASTRONOMY altitude : or the degrees counted from the lower limb
Inder.

upwards will give the zenith.distance.
3. Cole's quadrant is a very useful instrument invent 4. Adams's quadrant differs only from Cole's qua-

ed by Mr Benjamin Cole. It consists of six parts, viz. drant in having an horizontal vane, with the upper Plate

the staff AB (fig. 1.); the quadrantal arch DE; three part of the limb lengthened; so that the glass, which CCCCLVIII.

vanes A, B, C; and the vernier FG. The staff is a casts the solar spot on the horizon-vane, is at the same fig. 1.

bar of wood about two feet long, an inch and a quarter distance from the horizon-vane as the sight-vane at the
broad, and of a sufficient thickness to prevent it from end of the index.
bending or warping. The quadrantal arch is also of 5. Gunter's quadrant, so called from its inventor Ed.
wood; and is divided into degrees, and third-parts of mund Gunter, besides the usual apparatus of other
a degree, to a radius of about nine inches; to its ex- quadrants, has a stereographical projection of the
tremities are fitted two radii, which meet in the centre sphere on the plane of the equinoctial. It has also
of the quadrant by a pin, round which it easily moves. a kalendar of the months, next to the divisions of the
The sight-vane A' is a thin piece of brass, almost two limh.
inches in height and one broad, placed perpendicularly Use of Gunter's quadrant. 1. To find the sun's me-
on the end of the staff A, by the help of two screws ridian altitude for any given day, or the day of the
passing through its foot. Through the middle of this month for any given meridian altitude. Lay the thread
vane is drilled a small hole, through which the coinci to the day of the month in the scale next the limb; and
dence or meeting of the horizon and solar spot is to be the degree it cuts in the limb is the sun's meridian
viewed. The horizon vane B is about an inch broad, altitude. Thus the thread, being laid on the 15th of
and two inches and a half high, having a slit cut through May, cuts 59° 30', the altitude sought; and, contrari-
it of near an inch long and a quarter of an inch broad; ly, the thread, being set to the meridian altitude, shows
this vane is fixed in the centre-pin of the instrument, in the day of the month. 2. To find the hour of the day.
a perpendicular position, by the help of two screws pas- Having put the bead, which slides on the thread, to
sing through its foot, whereby its position with respect the sun's place in the ecliptic, observe the sun's alti-
to the sight-vane is always the same, their angles of in tude by the quadrant; then, if the thread be laid over
clination being equal to 45 degrees. The shade-vane the same in the limb, the bead will fall upon the hour
C is composed of two brass plates. The one, which required. Thus suppose on the roth of April, the
serves as an arm, is about four inches and a half long, sun being then in the beginning of Taurus, I observe
and three quarters of an inch broad, being pinned at the sun's altitude by the quadrant to be 36° ; I place
one end to the upper limb of the quadrant by a screw, the bead to the beginning of Taurus in the ecliptic,
about which it has a small motion; the other end lies and lay the thread over 36° of the limb; and find the
in the arch, and the lower edge of the arm is directed bead to fall on the bour-line marked three and pine ; ac-
to the middle of the centre-pin : the other plate, which cordingiy the hour is either nine in the morving or tbree
is properly the vane, is about two inches long, being in the afternoon. Again, laying the bead on the hour
fixed perpendicularly to the other plate, at about half given, having first rectified or put it to the sun's place,
an inch distance from that end next the arch; this vane the degree cut by the thread on the limb gives the alti-
may be used either by its shade or by the solar spot tude. Note, the bead may be rectified otherwise, by

bringing

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