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Each person

Quadratos QUADRATUS, in Anatomy, a name given to seve he that has manill or basto only is obliged to play it ; Quadrillo.

ral muscles on account of their square figure. See it is the same of manill basto, with respect to the supe-
Quadrille.
ANATOMY, Table of the Muscles.

rior matadore always forcing the inferior. Though there
QUADREL, in Building, a kind of artificial stone, are properly but three matadores, nevertheless all those
so called from its being perfectly square. The quad- trumps which follow the three first without interruption,
rels are made of a chalky earth, &c. and dried in the are likewise called matadores ; but the three first only
shade for two years. These were formerly in great re- enjoy the privilege above mentioned.
quest among the Italian architects,

is to play as he judges most convenient
QUADRIGA, in Antiquity, a car or chariot drawn for his own game. He is not to encourage his friend
by four horses. On the reverses of medals, we fre to play ; but each person ought to know what to do
quently see the emperor or Victory in a quadriga, hold when it is his turn to play. The stakes consist of seven
ing the reins of thie borses; whence these coins are, equal mils or contrats, as they are sometimes called,
among the curious, called nummi quadrigati, and vic- comprising the ten counters and fishes, which are given
toriuti.

to each player. A mil is equal to ten fish, and each fish
QUADRILATERAL, in Geometry, a figure whose to ten counters: the value of the fish is according to the
perimeter consists of four sides and four angles; whence players agreement, as also the number of tours, which
it is also called a quadrangular figure.

are generally fixed at ten, and marked by turning the
QUADRILLE, a little troop or company of cava corners of a card.
Jiers, pomponsly dressed, and mounted for the perform If the cards should happen not to be dealt right, or
ance of carou
rousalz, justs, tournaments, runnings at the

that there should be two cards of the same sort, as
ring, and other gallant divertisements.

two dences of spades, for example, there must be a
QUADRILLE, a game played by four persons, with new deal; provided it is discovered before the cards
40 cards; which are the remains of a pack after the are all played. The cards must likewise be dealt over
four tens, nines, and eights are discarded ; these are again in case a card is turned in dealing, as it might
dealt three and three, and one round four, to the right be of prejudice to bim who should have it, and of
hand player; and the trump is made by him that plays course if there should be several cards turned. There
with or without calling, by naming spades, clubs, dia is no 'penalty for dealing wrong, he who does so must
monds, or hearts, and the suit named is trumps. If the only deal again.
person who names the trump should mistake, and say When each player has got his ten cards, he that is
spades instead of clulis, or if bie name two suite, the

on the right band of the dealer, after examining his
first named is the trump.

game, and finding his band fit to play, asks if they In this game the order of the cards, according to their play; or if be has not a good hand, be passes, and so natural value, is as follows : of hearts and diamonds, the second, third, and fourth. All the four may pass ; king, queen, knave, uce, deuce, three, four, five, sir, but he that has spadill, after having shown or named seven ; in all 10: of spades and clubs, king, queen, it, is obliged to play by calling a king. Whether the knave, seven, sir, five, four, three, deuce ; in all 9. deal is played in this manner, or that one of the playThe reason why the ace of spades and ace of clubs are ers has asked leave, nobody choosing to play without not mentioned, is, because they are always trumps in calling, the eldest hand must begin ihe play, first nawhatever suit that is played. The ace of spades being ming the suit, and the king which he calls; he who always the first, and the ace of clubs the third trump, wins the trick plays another card, and so of the rest till for the cards ranked according to their value when the game is finished. The tricks then are counted; and trumps stand in the following order.

if the ombre, that is, he who stands the game, has toHearts and diamonds, SPADILL, or the acc of spades; gether with bim who is the king called, six tricks, they MANILL, the seventh of the two red suits ; Basto, the bave won and are paid the game, the consolation, and ace of clubs ; PONTO, the ace of hearts and diamonds; the matadores, if they have them, and divide what is upking, queen, knave, deuce, three, four, five, sir; in all on the game, and the beasts if there are any. But if 12. Spades and clubs, SPADILL, the ace of spades, they make only five tricks, it is a remise, and they are MANILL, the deuce of spades and clubs, Basto the ace beasted, what goes upon the game, paying to the other of clubs, king, qucen, knave, seven, sir, five, four, players the consolation and the matadores. If the tricks three; in all 11. It is here to be observed, that the are equally divided betwixt them, they are likewise beastcard which is munill and the second trump, is always ed; and if they make only four tricks between them, the lowest in its suit when not tromps; and that the it is a remise ; if they make less they lose codill (A), ace of hearts or diamonds, which when trump is above and in that case they pay to their adversaries what they the king, is below the knave when not trump.

should have received if they had won; that is, the There are three matadores ; spadill, manill, and ba game, the consolation, and the matadores, if they have sto; the privilege of which is, that when the player them, and are beasted what is upon the game : they has no other trumps but them, and trumps are led, he who win codill, divide the stakes. The beast and every is not obliged to play them, but may play what card thing else that is paid, is paid equally betwixt the two he thinks proper, provided, however, that the trump Josers ; one half by him that calls

, and the other half led is of an inferior rank ; but if spadill should be led, by him that is called, as well in case of codill as a re

mise ;

(1) Codill is when those who defend the pool make more tricks than they who stand the game ; which is called winning the codill.

Ing.

Quadrille. mise ; unless the ombre does not make three tricks, in is the same with regard to him who calls one of his ova Qu.

which case he that is called is not only exempted from kings ; be wins alone or loses alone as in the other case,
paying balf the beast, but also the game, the consolation, except the sans appeller, which he does not pay if he
and the matadores if there are any, which the ombre loses, or receive if he wins, although he plays alone.
in that case pays alone; and as well in case of a codill If he plays sans appeller, though he may have a sur
as a remise. This is done in order to oblige players game, he is obliged to name his suit; which if he e-
not to play games that are unreasonable. There is ne- glects to do, and shows his cards, and says “ I play sa
vertheless, one case in which if the ombre makes only appeller ;” in that case neither of the other players can
dne trick, he is not beasted alone, and that is, when oblige him to play in what suit he pleases, although be
not having a good hand he passes, and all the other should not have one trump in that suit.
players have passed likewise; he having spadillis obliged He who has asked leave is not permitted to play sa
to play. Here it would be unjust to oblige him to make appeller, unless he is forced ; in wbich case, as 13
three or four tricks; in this case, therefore, he that is said before, be bas the preference of the other that
called pays one half of the losings. For which reason forces him.
he that has spadill with a bad hand, should pass, that A player is not obliged to trump when he has done
if he is afterwards obliged to play by calling a king of the suit led, nor play a bigher card in that suit f
(which is called forced spadill), he may not be beasted he has it, being at his option although he is the las
alone. He that has once passed cannot be admitted player, and the trick should belong to the ombre; bat
to play ; and he that has asked leave cannot refuse to he is obliged to play in the suit led if he can, other-
play, unless any one should offer to play without call wise he renounces. If be separates a card from bi

game and shows it, he is obliged to play it, if by not He that has four kings, may call a queen to one of doing it the game may be prejudiced, or if he can give his kings, except that which is trump. He that wants any intelligence to his friend ; but especially if it should one or more kings; may call one of those kings ; but be a matadore.-He that plays sans appeller, or by in that case, he must make six tricks alone, and conse calling bimself, is not subject to this law. He may quently he wins or loses alone. The king of that suit turn the tricks made by the other players, and coon in which he plays cannot be called. No one should wbat has been played as often as it is his turn to play, play out of his turn, although he is not beasted for so but not otherwise. If instead of turning a player's tricks

, doing. If he who is not the eldest hand has the king he turns and see his game, or shows it to the other called, and plays spadill, manill, or basto, or even the players, he is beasted, together with him whose cards king called in order to show that he is the friend, ha he turned ; and each of them must pay one half of the ving other kings that he fears the ombre should trump, beast. he is not to be allowed to go for the vole ; he is even If any one renounces, he is beasted as often as be "heasted, if it appears to be done with that intent. It has renounced and it is detected; but a renounce is mi is not permitted to show a hand though codill may al- made till the trick is turned. If the renounce is discs"ready be won; that it may be seen whether the ombre vered before the deal is finished, and has been detrimetis beasted alone. If the ombre or his friend shows tal to the game, the cards must be taken up again, and their cards before they bave made six tricks, thinking the game replayed from that trick where the renounce that they have made them, and there appears a possi was made; but if the cards are all played, the beast is bility of preventing their making them, the other still made, and the cards must not be replayed; except players can oblige them to play their cards as they think there should be several renounces in the same deal: tben proper.

they are to be played again, unless the cards should be A player need only name his suit when he plays, mixed. If several beasts are made in the sane deal, without calling a king. He who plays without calling they all go together, unless it is otherwise agreed at the must make six tricks alone to win; for all the other beginning of the party; and wben there are several players are united against him, and they are to do what beasts, the greatest always goes first. they can to prevent his winning. He who plays with A great advantage accrues from being eldest hand at out calling, is admitted to play in preference to him quadrille, which often renders it very disagreeable to the who would play with calling; however, if he that has rest of the players, being obliged 'to pass with a good asked leave will play without calling, he has the

pre band unless they choose to play alone; and when it bap ference of the other who would force him. These are pens that the eldest hand having asked leave, the second the two methods of play without calling that are called player has three matadores, several trumps in back, and "forced.

all small cards, be cannot then even play alone ; and As he who plays without calling does not divide the having no chance of being called, he must pass with this winnings with any person, le consequently, when he good hand. On account of whicls, this method has loses, pays all by bimselt : if he loses by remise he is been thought expedient to remedy this defect of the beasted, and pays

each of the other players the conso game; each player having an opportunity of availing lation, the sans appeller (which is commonly, but im- himself of the goodness of his game, by adding to tbe properly, called the sans prendre), and the matadores usoal method of playing the game that of the medias if there are any ; if he loses codill he is likewise beast teur, and the favourite suit. ed and pays to each player what he would bave re The first thing to be observed is that of drawing for ceived from each if he had won. They who win co. places, which is done in this manner: One of the dill divide what there is ; and if there are any coun. players takes four cards; a king, a qneen, a knager ters remaining, they belong to him of the three who and an ace; each player draws one of these cards ; and shall have spadill or the highest trump the next deal. It commonly be who comes in last, draws first. The per

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1 91 a ville, son who draws the king sits where he pleases, the queen into four equal parts. Hence comes the term quadri- Quadripartecipar- at his right hand, the knave next the queen, and the partite, the fourth part, or something divided into four. tition

ace on the left of the king. The king draws the fa QUADRUPEDS, in Zoology; those animals which
vourite suit. The number of cards and persons is the have four limbs or legs proceeding from the trunk of

Quail.
same at this game as the other, and is played in the their body. See MAMMALIA.
same manner.

QUADRUPLE, four-fold, or something taken four
The favourite suit is determined by drawing a card times, or multiplied by four, on which account it is the
out of the pack, and is of the sanje suit, during the whole converse of quadripartition.
party, of the card so drawn.

QUÆSTOR, see QUESTOR.
A king is the mediateur, which is demanded of the QUAGGA, or Quacha. See Equus, MAMMALIA
others by one of the players, who has a band he expects Index.
to make five tricks of; and through the assistance of QUAIL. See TETRAO, ORNITHOLOGY Index.
this king he can play alone and make six tricks.

Quails are to be taken by means of the call during
In return for the king received, he gives what card their whole wooing time, which lasts from April to
he thinks proper with a fish; but must give two fish if Augnst. The proper times for using the call are at
it is in the favourite suit. He who asks by calling in the sunrising, at nine o'clock in the morning, at three in
favourite suit, has the preference to him who asks by the afternoon, and at sunset; for these are the natural
calling in another; he who asky with the mediateur, bas times of the quail's calling. The notes of the cock
the preference to him who asks by calling in the favou- and hen quail are very different; and the sportsman who
rite suit, and by playing alone is obliged to make six expects to succeed in tbe taking them must be expert in
tricks to win. He who asks with the mediateur in the both : for when the cock calls, the answer is to be made.
favourite suit, has the preference to him who asks with in the hen's note ; and when the ben calls, the answer
the mediateur in any other suit, and is obliged to play is to be made in the cock's. By this means they will
alone, and to make six tricks.

come up to the person, so that he may, with great ease,
If sans prendre is played in any other suit than the throw the net over them and take them. If a cock-quail
favourite, he who plays it has the preference to him be single, on hearing the hen's note be will immediately
who asks only, or with the mediateur, or even he who come; but if he have a hen already with him, he will
plays in the favourite suit with the mediateur; and the not forsake her. Sometimes, tbough only one quail an-
sans prendre in the favourite suit has the preference to swers to the call, there will three or four come up'; and
all other players whatever.

then it is best to have patience, and not run to take up
The only difference between this method of playing the first, but stay till they are all entangled, as they
the game and the other is, that when one of the players will soon be.
demands the mediateur he is obliged to play alone, and The quail is a neat cleanly bird, and will not run
to make six tricks, as if he played sans prendre. In this much into dirty or wet places: in dewy mornings, they
case he should judge from the strength of his band, will often fly instead of running to the call; and in this
whether the aid of the king will enable him to play case, it is best to let them go over the net, if it so bapa .
alone or not.

pens that they fly higher than its top; and the sports-
With the mediateur and without the favourite suit it man then changing sides, and calling again, the bird.
is played in this manner. The game is marked and will come back, and then will probably be taken in the
played the same as in coinmon, except that a fish extra net.
ordinary is given to him who plays the mediateur, and The calls are to be made of a small leather purse,
to him who plays sans prendre ; that is, he who wins about two fingers wide, and four fingers long, and
the mediateur receives 13 counters from each ; and if made in the shape of a pear; that is to be stuffed half-
he loses by remise he pays 12 to each ; and 13 if by full of horse-hair, and at the end of it is to be placed a
codill. The winner of sans prendre receives 17 coun. small whistle, made of the bone of a rabbit's leg, or
ters from each; and if by remise he loses, he pays

16 some other such bone: this is to be about two inches
to each, and 17 if by codill:

long, and the end formed like a slageolet, with a little
The vole with the mediateur receives one fish only, soft wax. This is to be the end fastened into the
as at common quadrille. The beasts are also the same as puree; the other is to be closed up with the same wax,
the common game. The last game is generally played only that a bole is to be opened with a pin, to make
double, and is called paulans ; but for those who choose it give a distinct and clear sound. To make this
to play a ligher game, they may play the double colour, sound, it is to be held full in the palm of the hand,
wbich is called the Turk, and is double of the favourite with one of the fingers placed over the top of the wax;
suit. There is also a liigher game than this, called the tben the purse is to be pressed, and the finger is to
auóde, which is paying whatever is agreed to him who shake over the middle of it, to modulate the sound it
happens to hold the two aces in his hand.

gives into a sort of shake. This is the most useful call;
We have omitted many things respecting the mode for it imitates the note of the hen quail; and seldom
of marking the game, and playing the vole, because fails to bring a cock to the net if there be one near the
these are different io different cases, and are to be learn- place.
ed only by practice. The game itself is a very infe The call that imitates the note of the cock, and is
rior one ; but he who wishes to know more of it, may used to bring the ben to him, is to be about four inches
consult Hoyle's games improved by James Beaufort, Esq, Jong, and above an inch thick; it is to be made of a.
from which we have, with very little alteration, taken piece of wire turned round and curled, and covered
this article.

with leather; and one end of it must be closed up with
QUADRIPARTITION, the dividing by four, or a piece of flat wood, about the middle of wbich there

must,

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* See

Quail, must be a small thread or strap of leather, and at the which is a praise to them that do well; which is a pro- Quakers Quakers. other end must be placed the same sort of pipe, made tection to them that do well, and not the evil; and

of bone, as is used in the other call. The noise is made such soldiers as are put in place po false accusers must by opening and closing the spiral, and gives the same be, no violence must do, but be content with their sound that the cock does when he gives the hen a signal wages: and that magistrate bears not the sword in vain, that he is near her.

from under the occasion of that sword do I seek to bring QUAKERS, a religious society, which took its rise people: my weapons are not carnal but spiritual, and in England about the middle of the 17th century, and my kingdom is not of this world ; therefore with carnal rapidly found its way into other countries in Europe, weapon I do not fight, but am from those things dead, and into the English settlements in North America. from bim who is not of this world, called of the world The members of this society, we believe, called them- by the name of G: F: and this I am ready to seal with selves at first seckers, from their seeking the truth; but my blood ; this I am moved to give forth for the truth's after the society was formed, they assumed the appella- sake, who a witness stands against all unrighteousness, tion of friends. The name of quakers was given to and all ungodliness, who a sufferer is for the righteous them by their enemies; and though an epithet of re seed's sake, waiting for the redemption of it, who a proach, seems to be stamped upon them indelibly. crown that is mortal seeks not, for that fadeth away;

Their founder is generally believed to have been George but in the light dwells which comprehends that crown,
Fox, an illiterate shoemaker (see George Fox), but this which light is the condemnation of all such, in which

opinion has been lately controverted. An ingenious light I witness the crown that is immortal, which fades Month. writer* having found, or fancied, a similarity of senti not away from him who to all your souls is a friend, Rev. Sept. ments among the ancient Druids and modern Quakers, for establishing of righteousness, and clearing the land 1793, art. 5.

'seems to think that Fox must have been nothing more of evil doers, and a witness against all the wicked jnthan a tool employed by certain deists to pave the way ventions of man, and murderer's plots, which answer for their system of natural religion, by allegorizing the shall be with the light in all your consciences, which distinguishing article of the Christian faith.

makes no covenant with death; to which light in you It must be confessed, for experience will not allow it all I speak, and am clear, G: F: who a new name hath, to be denied, that extremes in religion are very apt to which the world knows not (A).” beget each other; and if the deists alluded to reasoned The Qirakers, however, did not long entrust the defrom this fact, they could not have pitched upon a tool fence of their principles to such senseless enthusiasts as fitter for their purpose than George Fox. From his George Fox: They were joined by a number of learned, works still extant he appears to have been one of the ingenious, and pious men, who new-modelled their most extravagant and absurd enthusiasts that ever lived, creed; and though they did not bring it to what is ge. and to have faucied himself, iu his apostolic character, nerally deemed the Christian standard, they so reformed something infinitely superior to man. In a book called it as that its tenets do not shock common sense, nor the News coming out of the North, (p. 15.), he says of lim- . duties prescribed scandalize a man of piety. The chief self, “I am the Door that ever was, the same Christ of these reformers were George Keith, the celebrated yesterday, to-day, and for ever." And in the intro. Penn, and our countryman Barclay. Keith was indeed duction to his Battle-door for Teachers and Professors, excommunicated for the liberties which he took with

“ All languages are to me no more than dust, the great apostle; but we have not a doubt but his who was before languages were." But one of the writings contributed to the moderation of Penn, and most extraordinary and blasphemous things that be ever to the elegant and masterly apology of Barclay. From wrote, is an answer to the Protector, who had required that apology we selected the summary of their opinions him to promise not to disturb bis goverement as then which was given in the former edition of this work ; established. It is as follows:

but they have lately published such a summary them“I who am of the world called G: F: doth deny selves, of which the reader will be pleased with the the carrying or drawing any carnal sword against any, following abstract : or against thee 0: C: or any man, in the presence of They tell us, that about the beginning of the the Lord I declare it, God is my witness, by whom I 17th century a number of men, dissatisfied with all am moved to give this forth for the truth's sake, from the modes of religious worship then known in the him whom the world calls G: Fox, who is the son of world, withdrew from the communion of every viGod, who is sent to stand :1 witness against all violencesible church to seek the Lord in retirement. Among and against the works of darkness, and to turn the peo these was their honourable elder George Fox, who ple from darkness to light, and to bring them from the being quickened by the immediate touches of dioccasion of the war and from the occasion of the magi- vine love, could not satisfy his apprehensions of duty strates sword, which is a terror to the evil doer, which to God without directing the people where to find acts contrary to the light of the Lord Jesus Christ; the like consolation and instruction. In the course of

bis

he says,

(A) We have transcribed this letter from the theological works of Mi Leslie, where it is preserved in its original form. The Quakers, after the death of their apostle, expunged from their edition of it the words which we have printed in Italics ; ashamed, as we hope, of the blasphemy imputed to them : but that Mr Leslie's copy is authentic, is thus attested by two of the friends, who saw Fox deliver it to the protector's messenger : “We are witnesses of this testimony, whose names in the flesh art,

T'ho. Adam.
Rob, Craven,"

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