Εικόνες σελίδας
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση


[ocr errors]

Ralbit. was kept dry, and regularly supplied with clean sweet nie hopes, that in a few years we shall be able to pay Rabbit

food, and a due regard to the cleanliness of the boxes or for our woollen cloths in wool. Finding the effect of !!
places of confinement.

soil and climate so salutary to sheep, &c. it may be rea-
“ Twelve or fifteen pair of these valuable animals sonably supposed, that rabbits will answer the most san-
taken to Upper Canada, and there enclosed within a guine expectations, as I understand the wool of the sheep
small space of ground suitable to their nature, but fur retains all its nature the same as in England, particn-
nished with a few artificial burrows at the first by way larly its strength, and felting qualities among the hat.
of a nursery, spread over those now useless plains, islands, ters, which assures me that rabbit wool from those bred
and peninsulas, so well calculated to their nature, would, in Upper Canada will do the same; and there are some
I will make bold to say, the eighth year after their in. millions of acres within the latitude and boundaries
troduction, furnish the British market with a valuable which I have before described, suited to the nature of
raw material, amounting to a large sum, increasing the warren rabbit; nor do I apprehend that the wolves,
every year with astonishing rapidity, so as to become, foxes, &c. of Upper Canada will be balf so destructive
in a few years, one amongst the first of national ob as the poachers in England.

“ The guanaco, or camel sheep of South America, no
“ It may be supposed by some, that the above project doubt will be a national object at some future period.
is magnified beyond possibility, or even probability; This is a tame, domestic animal, very bardy, and used
but the serious attention I have paid to the subject, with much cruelty by the natives in travelling over the
these many years past, as to all points for and against, mountains with their burdens; it shears a fleece of wool
Jeaves no room to accuse myself of being too sanguine ; of from alb. to 3lb. which is of dusky red on the back;
for, if properly managed a few years at the first, I on the sides inclined to white, and under the belly quite
cannot find a single thing likely to interrupt their pro- white; its texture is very fine, yet strong; its felting

qualities very powerful, and is worth, when ready for “ Some idea of the astonishing increase of the rabbit use, from five to fifteen shillings per pound. This animay be bad from the following facts :

mal would no doubt thrive, and do well in England,
• An old doe rabbit will bring forth young nine times Upper Canada, and in particular I should suppose

in one year, and from four to ten each time; but to al New Holland.
low for casualties, state the number at five each litter. " The beaver might be propagated to great advantage

in Scotland, Ireland, and northern parts of England.
In nine months

45 It is an animal, when tamed, very familiar, and will
The females of the first litter will bring forth five eat bread and milk, willow-sticks, elm bark, &c. and

times, the proportion of which is 2 females no doubt might be imported with safety ; but as these

62 two last-mentioned animals are not likely to be attended
Those of the second litter four times produce 50 to immediately, I shall say no more respecting them for
Ditto of ditto third ditto three ditto ditto


the present Ditto of ditto second ditto two ditto ditto

25 RABIRIUS, C. a Roman knight, who lent an im- Soc for cia

mense sum of money to Ptoleny Auletes king of Egypt.courageTotal in one year from one pair 219 The monarch afterwards not only refused to repay him, ment of but even confined him, and endangered his life. Rabi

Arts, &c.

for 1807. « The third female race of the old dam, and the se rius escaped from Egypt with difficulty; but at his recond of the first litter, seldom breed the first year, but turn to Rome be was accused by the senate of baving are early breeders in the spring following, when we lent money to an African prince for unlawful purposes. might expect an increase of the whole in proportion to He was ably defended by Cicero, and acquitted with the first pair, if properly attended to and protected. difficulty.—There was a Latin poet of the same name

“ It is generally allowed that hares are not more in the age of Augustus. He wrote a poem on the than one-fourth as prolific as rabbits, notwithstanding, victory which the emperor had gained over Antony at agreeable to an experiment tried by Lord Ribblesdale, Actium. Seneca has compared him to Virgil for ele. who enclosed a pair of hares for one year, the offspring gance and majesty; but Quintilian is not so favourable was (as I have been credibly informed) 68: these ani to bis poetry.—And there was an architect in the reign mals, could they be exported to Upper Canada with safe of Domitian called Rabirius. He built a celebrated ty, and there protected within enclosures for a few

years, palace for the emperor, of which the ruins are still seen would soon after spread over a large extent of country:

at Rome.
the fur is nearly as valuable as that of the rabbit.

“ In that part of Upper Canada within the 45 degrees RACE, in general, signifies running with others in
of north latitude, and the southern and western boun. order to obtain a prize, either on foot, or by riding on
daries, the climate is nearly the same as that of Eng horse back, in chariots, &c.
land, a little botter a few days in summer, and a little The race was one of the exercises among the ancient
colder a few days in winter, agreeable to Fabrenheit's Grecian games, which was performed in a course con-
thermometer, which I bave paid great attention to for taining 125 paces ; and those who contended in these
some years, comparing the same with the observations foot-races were frequently clothed in armour. Cha-
of the English.

riot and horse races also made a part of the ancient
“ The increase of most animals appears much greater games.
in proportion in America than in England, mankind Races were known in England in very early times,
not excepted: that of sheep is very apparent to tbose Fitz-Stephen, who wrote in the days of Henry II.
that pay attention to their breeding stock, which gives mentions the great delight that the citizens of London


* Trans. of


took in the diversion. But by his words, it appears not as many have asserted, has not been published. Too Bacise, Racine. to have been designed for the purposes of gaming, but great sensibility, say his friends, but more properly an Haco

merely to have sprung from a generous emulation of impotence of spirit, shortened the days of this poet.showing a superior skill in horsemanship.

Though he had conversed much with the court, he had Races appears to have been in vogue in the reign of not learned the wisdom, which is usually learned there, Queen Elizabeth, and to bave been carried to sucla ex of disguising bis real sentiments. Haviog drawn up : cess as to injure the fortunes of the nobility. The fa- well-reasoned and well-written memorial upon the misemons George earl of Cumberland is recorded to bave ries of the people, and the means of relieving them, he wasted more of bis estate than any of his ancestors, one day lent it to Madame de Maintenon to read; when and chiefly by bis extreme love to borse-races, tiltings, the king coming in, and demanding what and whose it and other expensive diversions. It is probable that the was, commended the zeal of Racine, but disapproved parsimonious queen did not approve of it; for races are of his meddling with things that did not concern bim, not among the diversions exhibited at Kennelworth by and said with an angry tone, “ Because he knows how her favourite Leicester. In the following reign, places to make good verses, does he think he knows every were allotted for the sport. Croyden in the south, and thing? And would be be a minister of state, because Garterly in Yorkshire, were celebrated courses. Cam- he is a great poet?” These words hurt Racine greatly: den also says, that in 1607 there were races near York, he conceived dreadful ideas of the king's displeasure ; and the prize was a little golden bell. See Racing. and his chagrin and fears brought on a fever, of which

Race, in genealogy, a lineage or extraction continued he died the 22d of April 1699.
from father to son.

The king, who was sensible of his great merit, and
RACINE, John, a celebrated French poet, member always loved him, sent often to him in his illness; and
of the French academy, treasurer of France in the gene- finding after his death that he had more glory than rich-
rality of Moulins, and a secretary to his majesty, was es, settled a handsome pension upon his family. There
born at Ferre Milon in 1639. He had a fine genius is nothing in the French language written with more wit
for the belles lettres, and became one of the first poets and elegance than his pieces in prose. Besides bis playa,
of the age. He produced his Thebaide when but very several of his letters have been published; he also wrote
young, and afterward other pieces, which met with spiritual songs, epigrams, &c. Racine's works were
great success, though they appeared when Corneille was printed at Amsterdam in 1722, in 2 vols 1 2mo, and the
in his highest reputation. In his career, bowever, he did next year a pompous edition was printed in 2 vols
not fail to meet with all that opposition which envy and quarto.
cabal are ever ready to set up against a superior genius. RACING, the riding heats for a plate, or other pre-
It was partly owing to chagrin from this circumstance mium. See PLATE. The amusement of horse-racing,
that he took a resolution to quit the theatre for ever; which is now so common, was not unknown among the
although his genius was still in full vigour, being not great nations of antiquity, por wholly unpraetised by our
more than 38 years of age. But he had also imbibed in ancestors in Britain, as we have already mentioned in
bis infancy a deep sense of religion ; and this, though it the article Race. In 1999, private matches between
had been smothered for a while by bis connections with gentlemen, who were their own jockies and riders, were
the theatre, and particularly with the famous actress very common; and in the reign of James I. public races
Champmelle, whom he greatly loved, and by whom he were established at various places, when the discipline,
had a son, now at length broke out, and bore down all and mode of preparing the horses for running, &c. were
before it. In the first place, he resolved not only to much the same as they are now. The most celebrated
write no more plays, but to do a rigorous penance for races of that time were called bell-courses, the prize of
those he had written ; and he actually formed a design the conqueror being a bell: hence, perhaps, the phrase
of becoming a Carthusian friar. His religious direc. bearing the bell, when applied to excellence, is derived.
tor, however, a good deal wiser than he, advised bim to In the latter end of Charles I.'s reign, races were per-
think more moderately, and to take measures more suit. formed in Hyde-Park. Newmarket was also a place for
ably to his character. He put him upon marrying, and the same purpose, though it was first used for hunting,
settling in the world : with which proposal this humble Racing was revived soon after the Restoration, and
and tractible penitent complied; and immediately took much encouraged by Charles II, who appointed races
to wife the daughter of a treasurer of France for Ami. for his own amusement at Dachet Mead, wben he resided
ens, by whom he had seven children.

at Windsor. Newmarket, however, now became the
He had been admitted a member of the French aca principal place. The king attended in person, establish-
demy in 1673, in the room of La Mothe le Vayer de- ed a house for his own accommodation, and kept and
ceased; but spoiled the speech he made upon that oc entered horses in his own name. Instead of bells, be
casion by pronouncing it with too much timidity. In gave a silver bowl or cup value 100 guineas ; on which
1677, he was nominated with Boileau, with whom he prize the exploits and pedigree of the successful horse
was ever in strict friendship, to write the history of were generally engraved. Instead of the cup or bowl,
Louis XIV.; and the public expected great things from the royal gift is now a hundred guineas. William Ill.
two writers of their distinction, but were disappointed.. not only added to the plates, but even founded an aca-
Boileau and Racine, after having for some time laboured demy for riding; and Queen Anne continued the bound-
at this work, perceived that it was entirely opposite to ty of her ancestors, adding several plates herself. George
their genius.

I. towards the end of his reign, discontinued the plates, He spent the latter years of his life in composing a and gave in their room a hundred guineas. An act history of the house of Port-Royal, the place of bis was passed in the 13th year of the reign of George II. education, which, bowever, though finely drawn up, for suppressing races by poneys and other small and weak




[ocr errors]


ricing horses, &c. by which all matches for any prize under the duke of Exeter's daughter, and still remains in the Raek

the value of sol. are prohibited, under a penalty of Tower of London, where it was occasionally used as
200l. to be paid by the owner of each borse running, an engine of state, not of law, more than once in the Raiel.le.
and 100l. by such as advertise the plate; and by which reign of Queen Elizabeth. But when, upon the assas-
each horse entered to run, if five years old, is obliged sination of Villiers duke of Buckingham, by Felton, it
to carry ten stones; if six, eleven; and if seven, twelve. was proposed in the privy council to put the assassin to
It is also ordained, that no person shall run any borse at the rack in order to discover his accomplices; tipe
a course uoless it be his own, nor enter more than one judges, being consulted, declared unanimously, to their
horse for the same plate, upon pain of forfeiting the hor own bonour and the honour of the English law, that
ses ; and also every horse-race must be begun and ended no such proceeding was allowable by the laws of Eng-
in the same day. Horses may run for the value of gol. land. It seems astonishing that this usage of admini.
with any weight, and at any place, 13 Geo. II. cap. 19. stering the torture should be said to arise from a ten-
18 Geo. II. cap. 34. Pennant's British Zoology, vol. i. derness to the lives of men; and yet this is the reason
p. 6. &c. Berrenger's History and art of Horseman- given for its introduction in the civil law, and its sub-
ship, vol. i. p. 185, &c. At Newmarket there are two sequent adoption by the French and other foreign na-
courses, the long and the round: the first is exactly four tions, viz. because the laws cannot endure that any man
miles and about 380 yards, i. e. 7420 yards. The se should die upon the evidence of a false or even a single
cond is 6640 yards. Childers, the swiftest horse ever witness, and therefore contrived this method that inno-
known, has run the first course in seven minutes and a cence should manifest itself by a stout denial, or guilt
half, and the second in six minutes forty seconds; which by a plain confession ; thus rating a man's virtue by the
is at the rate of more than forty-nine feet in a second. hardiness of his constitution, and his guilt by the sensi-
But all other horses take up at least seven minutes and bility of his nerves. The marquis Beccaria, in an ex-
fifty seconds in completing the first and longest course, quisite piece of raillery, has proposed this problem, with
and seven minutes only in the shortest, which is at the a gravity and precision that are truly mathematical :
rate of more than forty-seven feet in a second. And it “ The force of the muscles and the sensibility of the
is commonly supposed that these coursers cover, at every nerves of an innocent person being given ; it is requi-
bound, a space of ground in length about twenty-fourred to find the degree of pain necessary to make him
English feet. Race-horses have for some time been an confess himself guilty of a given crime.” See Act of
object of taxation.

RACHITIS, the Rickets. See MEDICINE In. Rack, a spirituous liquor made by the Tartars of

Tongusla. This kind of rack is made of mare's milk,
RACK, EDMUND, a person well known in the lite. which is left to be sour, and afterwards distilled twice
rary world by his attachment to, and promotion of, a. or thrice between two earthen pots closely stopped ;
gricultural knowledge: he was a native of Norfolk, a whence the liquor runs through a small wooden pipe.
Quaker. His edncation was common, and he was ap- This liquor is more intoxicating tban brandy distilled
prenticed originally to a shopkeeper: his society was from wine.
select in this situation, and by improving himself in Rack, or Arack. See Arack.
learning, his conversation was enjoyed by a respectable To Rack Wines, &c. To draw them off from their
acquaintance. He wrote many essays, poems, and let- lees, after having stood long enough to ebb and settle.
ters, and some few controversial tracts. At length he Hence rack-vintage is frequently used for the second
settled, about bis 40th year, at Bath in 1775, and was voyage our wine-merchants used to make into France
soon introduced to the most eminent literati of that for racked wines.
place, among whom Dr Wilson and Mrs Macaulay RACKOON, a species of ursus. See Ursus, MAM-
highly esteemed him for his integrity and abilities. In MALIA Index.
1777 he published Mentor's Letters, a moral work, RACONI, a populous town of Italy, in Piedmont,
which has run through many editions. But this year seated in a pleasant plain, on the road from Savillan to
he gained great celebrity by his plan of an agricultural Turin, on the rivers Grana and Macra. It belongs to
society, which was soon adopted by four counties. He the prince of Carignan, who has a handsome castle here.
still further advanced his fame by his papers in the Far It is six miles from Savillan, and six from Carignan.
mer's Magazine, and his communications in the Bath E. Long. 7. 46. N. Lat. 44. 39.
Society's papers ; a work remarkable for its ingenuity RADCLIFFE, Dr John, an English physician of
and spirit. His last engagement was in the History of great eminence in his time, born at Wakefield in
Somersetshire, where the topographical parochial sur. Yorkshire in 1650. He was educated at Oxford, and
veys were his. This work, in 3 vols 4to, was publish- eurolled himself upon the physical line ; but it was re-
ed'in 1791, by his colleague the Reverend Mr Collin- markable that he recommended bimself more by his
son.-Mr Rack died of an asthma in February 1787, ready wit and vivacity, than by any extraordinary ac-
aged 52.

quisitions in learning. He began to practise at Oxford
Rack, an engine of torture, furnished with pulleys, in 1675; but never paid any regard to established rules,
cords, &c. for extorting confession from criminals. which he censured whenever he thought fit, with great
The trial by rack is utterly unknown to the law of freedom and acrimony; and as this drew all the old
England : though once, when the dukes of Exeter and practitioners upon him, he lived in a continual state of
Suffolk, and other ministers of Henry VI. had laid a hostility with them. Nevertheless, bis reputation in-
design to introduce the civil law into this kingdom as creased with his experience; so that, before he bad been
the rule of government; for a beginning thereof they two years in business, his practice was very extensive
erected a rack for torture, which was called in derision among persons of high rank. In 1684 he removed to
Vol. XVII. Part II.




[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]


Kadeliile London, and settled in Bow-street, Covent Garden, 25 burgesses ; and the population in 1801 was nearly Radio

ll where in less than a year he got into great employment. 2000. Though it is the county town, the assizes are Radnor. In 1687 the princess Anne of Denmark made him held at Presteign: it bas one privilege, however, that Raport

her physician ; yet when her husband and she joined is very extraordinary, besides that of sending one mem-
the prince of Orange, Radcliffe, either not choosing to ber to parliament ; and that is, it keeps a court of pleas
declare himself, or unwilling to favour the measures then for all actions, without being limited to any particular
in agitation, excused himself from attending them, on sum. It was formerly fenced with a wall and strong
the plea of the multitude of his patients. Nevertheless, castle ; but both were in a great measure demolished
he was often sent for to King William and other great by Owen Glendower, when he assumed the title of
personages, though he did not incline to be a courtier. Prince of Wales, upon the deposition of King Richard
He incurred some censure for his treatment of Queen II. W. Long. 2. 45. N. Lat. 52. 10.
Mary, who died of the smallpox ; and soon after lost his RADNORSHIRE, & county of South Wales, is
place about the princess Anne, by his attachment to his bounded on the north by Montgomeryshire; on the
bottle. He also totally lost the favour of King William east by Shropshire and Herefordshire; on the south and
by his uncourtly freedom ; for, in 1699, when the south-west by Breckpockshire; and on the west by Car-
king showed bim his swollen ankles, while the rest of his digansbire;

extending 30 miles in length and 25 in
body was emaciated, and asked him what he thought of breadth. This county is divided into six hundreds, in
them? “ Why truly I would not have your majesty's which are contained three market-towns, 52 parishes,
two legs for your three kingdoms,” replied Radcliffe. and in 1811 there were 4165 houses, and 20,900 inha-
He continued increasing in business and insolence as bitants. It is seated in the diocese of Hereford, and
long as he lived, continually at war with his brethren sends two members to parliament, one for the county
the physicians; who considered him in no other light and one for the town of Radnor. The soil in general
than that of an active ingenious empiric, whom constant is but indifferent; yet some places produce corn, par-
practice had at length brought to some degree of skill ticularly the tastern and southern parts ; but in the
in his profession. He died in 1714; and if he never northern and western, which are mountainous, the land
attempted to write any thing himself, has perpetuated is chiefly stocked with horned cattle, sheep, and goats.
his memory by founding a fine library at Oxford, to See RADNORSHIRE, SUPLLEMENT.
preserve the writings of other men.

RADIX. See Rot.
RADIALIS, the name of two muscles in the arm. RAFT, a sort of Hoat, formed by an assemblage of
See ANATOMY, Table of the Muscles.

various planks or pieces of timber, fastened together RADIANT, in Optics, is any point of a visible ob side by side, so as to be conveyed more commodiously ject from whence rays proceed.

any short distance in a barbour or road tban if they RADIATED FLOWERS, in Botany, are such as were separate. The timber and plank with which have several semifloscules set round a disk, in form of a merchant-ships are laden, in the different parts of the radiant star; those which have no sucb rays are called Baltic sea, are attached together in this manner, in ordiscous flowers.

der to float them off to the shipping. RADIATION, the act of a body emitting or dif RAFTERS, in building, are pieces of timber which, fusing rays of light all round as from a centre. standing by pairs on the reason or railing piece, meet

RADICAL, in general, something that serves as a in an angle at the top, aod form the roof of a building. basis or foundation. Hence physicians talk much of See ARCHITECTURE. a radical moisture. In grammar, we give the appella RowLEY RAGG, a variety of whinstone or greention rulical to primitives, in contradistinction to com stone of a dusky or dark gray colour, with many small pounds and derivatives. Algebraists also speak of the shining crystals, having a granular texture, and acradical sign of quantities, which is the character expres quiring an ochry crust by exposure to the air. sing their roots.

RAGMAN'S ROLL, Rectius Ragimund's roll, 90 RADICLE, that part of the seeds of all plants called from one Ragimund a legate in Scotland, who which upon vegetating becomes their root, and is dis calling before him all the beneficed clergymen in that coverable by the microscope. See PLANT.

kingdom, caused them on oath to give in the true vaRADISH. See RAPHANUS, BOTANY Inder; and lue of their benefices; according to which they were for the mode of culture, see GARDENING Inder. afterwards taxed by the court of Rome ; and this roll,

RADIUS, in Geometry, the semidiameter of a cir. among other records, being taken from the Scots by cle, or a right line drawn from the centre to the cir. Edward I. was redelivered to them in the beginning of cumference.

tbe reign of Edward Ill. In Trigonometry, the radius is termed the whole sine, RAGOUT, or Racóo, a sauce, or seasoning, intendor sine of 90°. See SINE.

ed to rouse the appetite when lost or languishing. Radius, in Anatomy, the exterior bone of the arm, This term is also used for any high-seasoned dish predescending along with the ulna from the elbow to the pared of flesh, fish, greens, or tbe like : by stewing them wrist.

with bacon, salt, pepper, cloves, and the like ingredients. RADNOR, the county town of Radnorshire, in We have ragouts of celery, of endive, asparagus, cock'sSouth Wales, distant from London about 150 miles. coinbs, giblets, craw fish, &c. It is situated near the springhead of the river Somergil, The ancients fiad a' ragout called garum, made of in a fruitful valley at the bottom of a hill, where there the putrified guts of a certain fish kept till it dissolved are sheep grazing in abundance. It is a very ancient into a mere sanies, which was thought such a dainty, borough-town, whose jurisdiction extends near 12 miles that, according to Pliny, its price equalled that of the round: the government of it is vested in a bailiff and richest perfumes,


[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]



RAGSTONE, a coarse kind of sandstone which is circumstance it is distinguished from dew and fog : in

used as a whetstone for coarse cutting tools. It is found the former of which the drops are so small that they Rain. in the hills about Newcastle, and many other parts of are quite invisible; and in the latter, though their size England, where there are large rocks of it.

be larger, they seem to have very little more specific RAGULED, or RAGGED, in Heraldry, jagged or gravity than the atmospbere itself

, and may therefore knotted. This term is applied to a cross formed of the be reckoned hollow spherules rather than drops. Some trunks of two trees without their branches, of which of the more general facts relative to the phenomena of they show only the stumps. Raguled differs from in rain have been already given under METEOROLOGY. dented, in that the latter is regular, the former not. We shall here add some account of the speculations of

RAGUSA, an ancient town of Sicily, in the Val di philosophers on the same subject, in attempting to ac-
Noto, near the river Maulo, 12 miles north of Modica. count for those phenomena.
E. Long. 14. 59. N. Lat. 37. o.

It is universally agreed, that rain is produced by the
RAGUSA, a city of Dalinatia, and capital of Ragu- water previously absorbed by the heat of the sun, or

It is about two miles in circumference, is pretty otherwise, from the terraqueous globe, into the atmowell built, and strong by situation, having an inaccessphere; but very great difficulties occur when we begin sible mountain on the land-side, and on the side of the to explain why the water, once so closely united with sea a strong fort. It is an archbishop's see, and was the atmosphere, begins to separate from it. We cannot formerly a republic, with a doge like that of Venice, ascribe this separation to cold, since rain often takes who continued a month only in his office. It carries place in very warm weather, and though we should on a considerable trade with the Turks. E. Long. 18. suppose the condensation owing to the superior cold of 10. N. Lat. 42. 50.

the higher regions, yet there is a remarkable fact which RAGUSEN, a territory of Europe in Dalmatia, will not allow us to have recourse to this supposition. lying along the coast of the gulf of Venice, about 55 It is certain that the drops of rain increase in size conmiles in length, and 20 in breadth. It was formerly siderably as they descend. On the top of a hill, for ina republic under the protection of the Turks and Vene stance, they will be small and inconsiderable, forming tians, but fell under the dominion of the French, and only a drizzling shower; but at the bottom of the same was since transferred to the Austrians, in whose pos bill the drops will be excessively large, descending in session it remains.

an impetuous rain; which shows that the atmosphere RAJA, or RAJAH, the title of the Indian black is disposed to condense the vapours, and actually does princes, the remains of those who ruled there before the so, as well where it is warm as where it is cold. Moguls. Some of the rajas are said to preserve their For some time the suppositions concerning the cause independency, especially in the mountainous parts; but of rain were exceedingly insufficient and unsatisfacmost of them pay an annual tribute to the Mogul. The tory. It was imagined, that when various congeries Indians call then rai; the Persians, raian, in the plural; of clouds were driven together by the agitation of and our travellers rajas, or ragius.

the winds, they mixed, and run into one body, by RAJA, the Ray-Fish, in Ichthyology, a genus of which means they were condensed into water. The fishes belonging to the cartilaginous order.

coldness of the upper parts of the air also was thought RAIANIA, a genus of plants belonging to the di to be a great means of collecting and condensing the ccia class; and in the natural method ranking under clouds into water; which, being heavier than the air, the sith order, Sarmentacea. See Botany Index. must necessarily fall down through it in the form of

RAIETEA, one of the South sea islands, named rain. The reason why it falls in drops, and not in also ULIETEA.

large quantities, was said to be the resistance of the air; RAIL. See Rallus, ORNITHOLOGY Index. whereby being broken, and divided into smaller and

RAILLERY, according to Dr Johnson, means smaller parts, it at last arrives to us in small drops. But slight satire, or satirical merriment; and a beautiful this hypothesis is entirely contrary to almost all the writer of the last century compares it to a light which phenomena : for the weather, when coldest, that is, in dazzles, and which does not burn. It is sometimes in the time of severe frost, is generally the most serene; nocent and pleasant, and it should always be so, but it the most violent rains also bappen where there is little is most frequently offensive. Raillery is of various or no cold to condense the clouds ; and the drops of kinds; there is a serious, severe, and good-humoured rain, instead of being divided into smaller and smaller raillery; and there is a kind which perplexes, a kind ones, as they approach the earth, are plainly increased which offends, and a kind wbich pleases.

in size as they descend.
To rally well, it is absolutely necessary that kindness Dr Derham accounted for the precipitation of the
run through all you say; and you must ever preserve drops of rain from the vesiculæ being full of air, and
the character of a friend to support your pretensions to meeting with an air colder than they contained, the
be free with a man. Allusions to past follies, hints to air they contained was of consequence contracted into
revive what a man has a mind to forget for ever, should a smaller

space ;

and consequently the watery shell rennever be introduced as the subjects of raillery. This is dered thicker, and thus specifically beavier, than the not to thrust with the skill of fencers, but to cut with common atmosphere. But it has been shown, that the barbarity of butchers. But it is below the character 'the vesiculæ, if such they are, of vapour, are not filled of men of humanity and good-breeding to be capable with air, but with fire, or heat; and consequently, of mirth, while there is any in the company in pain and till they part with this latent heat, the vapour cannot disorder.

be condensed. Now, cold is not always eufficient to RAIN, the descent of water from the atmosphere effect this, since in the most severe frosts the air is very in the form of drops of a considerable size. By this often serene, and parts with little or none of its vapour


4 1 2

« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »