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period among the corn and grass by eating off their mixed with it, and others predicting some epidemical
“ The shower extended from N. IN. E. to S. I S.W.
vinced of its origin, and of the effects it might produce. Upon the whole, all the supposed marvellous rains This could not be done without the help of a chemical have been owing to substances naturally produced on analysis. To do this then with certaiaty, I endeavourthe earth, and either never having been in the air at all, ed to collect this rain from places where it was most or only carried thither by accident.
probable no heterogeneous matter would be mixed with Io Silesia, after a great dearth of wheat in that coun it. I therefore chose the plant called brassica capitata, try, there happened a violent storm of wind and rain, which having large and turned up leaves, they contain: and the earth was afterwards covered, in many places, ed enough of this coloured water : many of these I empwith small round seeds. The vulgar cried out that Pro tied into a vessel, and left the contents to settle till the vidence had sent them food, and that it had rained mil water became clear. let: but these were, in reality, only the seeds of a spe “ This being separated into another vessel, I tried it cies of veronica, or speedwell, very common in that with vegetable alkaline liquors and mineral acids; but country; and whose seeds being just ripe at that time, could observe no decomposition by either. I then evathe wind had dislodged them from their capsules, and porated the water in order to reunite the substances that scattered them about. In our own country, we have might be in solution; and touching it again with the histories of rains of this marvellous kind, but all fabu aforesaid liquors, it showed a slight effervesence with lous. It was once said to rain wheat in Wiltshire; and the acids, When tried with the syrup of violets, this the people were all alarmed at it as a miracle, till Mr became a pale green; so that I was persuaded it conCole showed them, that what they took for wheat was tained a calcareous salt. With the decoction of galls only the seeds or kernels of the berries of ivy, which no precipitation was produced. being then fully ripe, the wind had dislodged from the “ The matter being afterwards dried in the shade, it sides of houses, and trunks of trees, on which the ivy appeared a very subtile fine earth, of a cretaceous cothat produced them crept.
lour, but inert, from having been diluted by the rain. And we even once had a raining of fishes near the “ I next thought of calcining it with a slow fire, coast of Kent in a terrible burricane, with thunder and and it assumed the colour of a brick. A portion of this lightning. The people who saw small sprats strewed being put into a crucible, I applied to it a stronger all about afterwards, would have it that they had fallen heat; by which it lost almost all its acquired colour. from the clouds; but those who considered bow far the Again, I exposed a portion of this for a longer time to high winds bave been known to carry the sea-water, a very violent heat (from which a vitrification might be did not wonder that they should be able to carry small expected); it remained, however, quite soft, and was fish with it so small a part of the way.
easily bruised, but returned to its original dusky coIn the Philosophical Transactions for 1782, we have four. the following account of a preternatural kind of rain “ From the most accurate observations of the smoke by Count de Gioeni : “ The morning of the 24th in from the three calcinations, I could not discover either stant there appeared bere a most singular phenomenon. colour or smell that indicated any arsenical or sulphureEvery place exposed to the air was found wet with a
vus mixture. coloured cretaceous gray water, which, after evapora “ Having therefore calcined this matter in three porting and filtrating away, left every place covered with tions, with three different degrees of fire, I presented a it to the lieight of two or three lines ; and all the iron- good magnet to each : it did not act either on the first work that was touched by it became rusty.
or second; a slight attraction was visible in many “ The public, inclined to the marvellous, fancied va places on the third : this persuaded me, that this earth rious causes of this rain, and began to fear for the ani- contains a martial principle in a metallic form, and not mals and vegetables.
in a vitriolic substance. “ In places where rain-water was used, they abstain “ The nature of these substances then being discovered from it: some suspecting vitriolic principles to be ed, their volcanic origin appears; for iron, the more it Vol. XVII. Part II.
Rain, is exposed to violent calcination, the more it is divided reflected from the frater, having its rays issuing from a Rainbow Raiunow. by the loss of its phlogistic principle ; which cannot point lower than the real son, and in a live coming from
naturally happen but in the great chimney of a volcano. beneath the horizon, would consequently form a bow Calcareous salt, being a marine salt combined with a higher than the true one AB. And the shores, by calcareous substance by means of violent heat, cannot be which that narrow part of the sea is bounded, would beotherwise composed than in a volcano.
fore the sun's actual setting intercept its rays from the ** As
s to their dreaded effects on animals and vegeta- surface of the water, and cause the bow AC, which I bles, every one knows the advantageous use, in medis suppose to be produced by the reflection, to disappear cine, both of the one and the other, and this in the same before the other." form as they are thus prepared in the great laboratory The marine or sea bow is a phenomenon which may of nature.
be frequently observed in a much agitated sea, and is “ Vegetables, even in flower, do not appear in the occasioned by the wind sweeping part of the wares, and least macerated, which has formerly happened from one carrying them aloft; which when they fall down are ly showers of sand.
refracted by the sun's rays, which paint the colours of “ Ilow this volcanic production came to be mixed the bow just as in a common shower. These bours are with water may be conceived in various ways.
often seen when a vessel is sailing with considerable force, “ Ætna, about its middle regions, is generally sur and dashing the waves around her, which are raised rounded with clouds that do not always rise above its partly by the action of the ship and partly by the force summit, which is 2900 pacis above the level of the sea. of the ivind, and, falling down, they form a rainbow; This matter being thrown out, and descending upon and they are also often occasioned by the dashing of the the clouds below it, may happen to mix and fall in rain waves against the rocks on shore. with them in the usual
also be conjecto In the Philosophical Transactions, it is observed by red, that the thick smoke which the volcanic matter F. Bourzes, that the colours of the marine rainbow are contained might, by its rarefaction, be carried by the less lively, less distinct, and of shorter continuance, than wind over that tract of conntry; and then cooling so as those of the common bow; and there are scarcely abore to condense and become specifically heavier tlian the air, two colours distinguishable, a dark yellow on the side might descend in that coloured rain.
next the sun, and a pale green on the opposite side. “I must, bowever, leave to philosophers (to whom But they are more numerous, there being sometimes 20 the knowledge of natural agents belongs) the examina or 30 seen together. tion and explanation of such phenomena, confining my To this class of bows may be referred a kind of white self to observation and chemical experiments." See or colourless rainbows, which Mentzelius and others afMETEOROLOGY, SUPPLEMENT.
firm to have seen at noon-day. M. Marlotte, in his Rain, a well built and fortified town of Bavaria, one fourth Essai de Physique, says, these bows are formed of the keys of this electorate, on the Lech, 20 miles in mists, as the others are in showers; and adds, that he west of Ingolstadt. N. Lat. 48. 51. E. Long. 11. 12. has seen several both after sunrising and in the night.
Rain-Birul. See CucuLUS, ORNITHOLCGY Index. The want of colours be attributes to the smallness of the
vapours which compose the mist; but perbaps it is raIn the Philosophical Transactions for 1793, we have ther from the exceeding tenuity of the little vesiculæ of the following account of two rainbows seen by the Rev. the vapour, which being only little watery pellicles Mr Sturges.
bloated with air, the rays of light undergo but little re" On the evening of the oth of July 1792, between fraction in passing out of air into them ; too little to segeven and eight o'clock, at Alverstroke, near Gosport, parate the differently coloured rays, &c. Hence the rays on the sea-coast of Hampshire, there came up, in the are reflected from them, compounded as they came, tbat south-east, a cloud with a thunder-shower; while the is, wbite. Rohault mentions * coloured rainbows on sun shone bright, low in the horizon, to the north the grass ; formed by the refractions of the sun's rays in Pkyrigu.
the morning dew. Rainbows have been also produced Plate “ In this shower two primary rainbows appeared, by the reflection of the sun from a river; and in the GCCCLVIII. AB and AC, not concentric, but touching each other Philosophical Transactions, vol. I. p. 294. we have an
at A, in the south part of the horizon ; with a secon account of a rainbow, which must have been formed by
from its being made a sign of the covenant which the “If I might venture to offer a solution of this ap- Deity was pleased to make with man after that event. pearance, it would be as follows. I consider the bow Mr Whitehurst, in his Inquiry into the Original State AB as the true one, produced by the sun itself; and and Formation of the Earth, p. 173, &c. endeavours to the other, AC, as produced by the reflection of the sun establish it as a matter of great probability at least, that from the sea, which, in its perfectly smooth state, acted the antediluvian atmosphere was so uniformly temperate as a speculum. The direction of the sea, between the as never to be subject to storms, tempests, or rain, and Isle of Wight and the land, was to the north-west in a of course it could never exhibit a rainbow. For our own finc with the sun, as it was then situated. The image part, we cannot see how the earth at that period could
:ibow. do without rain any more than at present; and it appears three days before the full: that of the 27th of Febru. Rainion,
to us from Scripture equally probable that the rainbow ary was exactly at the full, which used to be judged the Raisins. was seen before the floud as after it. It was then, how- only time they could be seen, though in the Encycloever, made a token of a certain covenant; and it would pedia there is an account that Weidler observed one in unquestionably do equally well for that purpose if it had 1719, in the first quarter of the moon, with faint coexisted before as if it had not.
lours, and in very calm weather. No lunar iris, I ever Lunar RAINBOW. The moon sometimes also exhi heard or read of, lasted near so long as that on the 18th bits the phenomenon of an iris or rainbow by the re instant, either with or without colours." fraction of her rays in drops of rain in the night time. In the Gentleman's Magazine for August 1788 we This phenonienon is very rare. In the Philosophical have an account of a lupar rainbow by a correspondent Transactions for 1783, however, we have an account of who saw it.
who saw it. “On Sunday evening the 17th of Authree seen in one year, and all in the same place, com gust (says he), after two days, on both of which, parmunicated in two letters by Marmaduke Tunstall, Esq. ticularly the former, there had been a great deal of The first was seen 27th February 1782, at Greta rain, together with lightning and thunder, just as the Bridge, Yorkshire, between seven and eight at night, clocks were striking nine, 23 hours after full and appeared " in tolerably distinct colours, similar to a looking through my window, I was struck with the apsolar one, but more faint : the orange colour seemed to pearance of something in the sky, which seemed like a predominate. It happened at full moon ; at which time rainbow. Having never seen a rainbow by night, I alone they are said to have been always seen. Though thought it a very extraordinary phenomenon, and baAristotle is said to have observed two, and some others stened to a place where there were no buildings to obhave been seen by Snellius, &c. I can only find two de struct my view of the hemisphere : here I found that scribed with any accuracy; viz. one by Plot, in his Hi the phenomenon was no other than a lunar rainbow ; story of Oxfordshire, seen by him in 1675, though with the moon was truly walking in brightness,' brilliant ont colours; the other seen by a Derbyshire gentleman as she could be; not a cloud was to be seen near her; at Glapwell, near Chesterfeld, described by Thoresby, and over against her, toward the north-west, or perhaps and inserted in N° 331. of the Philosophical Transac rather more to the north, was a rainbowv, a vast arch, tions: this was about Christmas, 1710, and said to have perfect in all its parts, not interrupted or broken as bad all the colours of the iris solaris. The night was rainbows frequently are, but unremittedly visible from windy; and though there was then a drizzling rain and one horizon to the other. In order to give some idea dark cloud, in which the rainbow waz reflected, it pro of its extent, it is necessary to say, that as I stood toved afterwards a liglit frost."
ward the western extrensity of the parish of Stoke Two others were afterwards seen by Mr Tunstall; Newington, it seemed to take its rise from the west of one on July the 30th, about 11 o'clock, which lasted Hampstead, and to end, perhaps, in the river Lea, about a quarter of an hour, without colours. The other, the eastern boundary of Tottenbam; its colour was which appeared on Friday October 18, was “ perhaps white, cloudy, or grayish, but a part of its western leg the most extraordinary one of the kind ever seen. It seemed to exbibit tints of a faint sickly green. I conwas first visible about nine o'clock, and continued, though tinued viewing it for some time, till it began to rain; with very different degrees of brilliancy, till past two. and at length the rain increasing and the sky growing At first, though a strongly marked bow, it was without more hazy, I returned home about a quarter or 20 micolours ; but afterwards they were very conspicuous nutes past nine, and in ten minutes came out again; but and vivid in the same form as in the solar, though saint by that time all was over, the moon was darkened by er; the red, green, and purple, were most distinguish- clouds, and the rainbow of course vanished.” able. About twelve it was the most splendid in ap Marine RAINBOW, or Sca-bow. See the article pearance ; its arc was considerably a smaller segment of RAINBOW. a circle than a solar; its south-east limb first began to RAINBOW Stone. See Moon-Stone. fail, and a considerable time before its final extinction: RAISINS, grapes prepared by suffering them to the wind was very high, nearly due west, most part of remain on the vine till they are perfectly ripe, and then the time, accompanied with a drizzling rain. It is a drying them in the sun, or by the heat of an singular circumstance, that three of these phenomena The difference between raisins dried in the sun and should have been seen in so short a time in one place, as those dried in ovens, is very obvious : the former are they have been esteemed ever since the time of Aristotle, sweet and pleasant, but the latter have a latent acidity who is said to have been the first observer of them, with the sweetness that renders them much less agreeand saw only two in 50 years, and since by Plot and able. Thoresby, almost the only two English authors who The common way of drying grapes for raisins, is to bave spoke of them, to be exceeding rare.
tie two or three bunches of them together while yet on evidently to be occasioned by a refraction in a cloud or the vine, and dip them into a hot lixivinm of woodturbid atmosphere, and in general are indications of, ashes, wit a little of the oil of olives in it. This disstormy and rainy weather: so bad a season as the late poses them to shrink and wrinkle ; and after this they summer having, I believe, seldoni occurred in England. are left on the vine three or four days separated on Thoresby, indeed, says, the one he observed was suc sticks in an horizontal situation, and then dried in the ceeded by several days of fine serene weather. One sun at leisure, after being cut from the tree. The finest particular, rather singular, in the second, viz. of July and best raisins are those called in some places Damasthe 30th, was its being six days after the full of the cus and Jube raisins; which are distinguished from the moon; and the last, though of so long a duration, was others by their size and figure: they are fat and wrinkled
4 K 2
Raisins on the surface, soft and juicy within, and near an inch in the road, our gallant young soldier took off his new
Raleigh I! ong; and, when fresls and growing on the bunch, are plusb mantle, and spread it on the ground. Her maRaleigh. of the size and shape of a large olive.
jesty trod gently over the fair foot-cloth, surprised and The raisins of the sun, and jar-raisins, are all dried pleased with the adventure. He was a handsome man, by the heat of lhe sun; and these are the sorts used in and remarkable for his gentility of address. medicine. However, all the kinds have much the same The queen admitted bim to her court, and employed virtues : they are all nutritive and balsamic; they are bim first as an attendant on the Frencb ambassador Siallowed to be attennant, are said to be good in nephri mier on his return home, and afterwards to escort the tic complaints, and are an ingredient in pectoral decoc. duke of Anjou to Antwerp. During this excursion he tions: in which cases, as also in all others where astrin became personally known to the prince of Orange ; gency is not required of them, they should bave the from whom, at his return, he brought special acknot. stones carefully taken out.
ledyments to the queen, who now frequently conversed RAISIN-Wine. See WINE..
with him. But the inactive life of a courtier did not RAKKATH, in Ancient Gengraphy, a town of Up- suit the enterprising spirit of Mr Raleigh. In the year per Galilee, thought to be Tiberias, (Talmud): but 1583, he embarked with his brother, Sir Humphrey this is denied by Ruland, who says that Rakkath was a Gilbert, on a second expedition to Newfoundland, in a town of the tribe of Naphthali.
ship called the Raleigh, which he built at his own exRAKE is a well known instrument with teeth, by pence; but was obliged to return on account of an inwhich the ground is divided. See AGRICULTURE, In fections distemper on board. He was, however, so struments.
little affected by this disappointment, that he now laid RAKE also means a loose, disorderly, vicious, and before the queen and council a proposal for exploring thoughtless fellow.
the continent of North America ; and in 1584 obtained RAKE of a Ship, is all that part of her hull wbich a patent empowering him to possess such countries as he hangs over both ends of her keel. That which is be should discover in that part of the globe. Accordingly fore is called the fore rake or rake forward, and that Mr Raleigh fitted out two ships at his own es pence, part which is at the setting on of the stern-post is called which sailed in the month of April, and returned the rake rift or aflerwurd.
England about the middle of September, reporting that RALEIGH, Sir WALTER, fourth son of Walter they had discovered and taken possession of a fine couvRaleigh, Esq. of Fardel, in the parish of Cornwood in 'try called W'indangocoa, to which the queen gave the Devonshire, was born in 1552 at Hayes, in the parish name of Virginia. About this time he was elected of Budley, a farm belonging to his faiher. About the knight of the shire for the county of Devon, and soon year 1568, he was sent to Oriel college in Oxford, after received the honour of knighthood ; and to enwhere he continued but a sliort time ; for in the follow able bim to carry on his designs abroad, the queen ing year he embarked for France, being one of the granted him a patent for licensing the venders of wine hundred volunteers, commanded by Henry Champer. throughout the kingdom. In 1585 he sent a fleet of non, whin, with other English troops, were sent by seven ships to Virginia, commanded by his relation Sir Queen Elizabeth to assist the queen of Navarre in de Richard Greenville, who left a colony at Roanah of 107 fending the Protestants. In this service he continued
persons, under the government of Mr Lane; and by the for five or six years; after which he returned to Lon establishment of this colony be first imported tobacco don, and probably resided in the Middle Temple. But into England. See NicoTIANA. In the same year bis enterprising genius would not suffer him to remain Sir Walter Raleigh obtained a grant of 12,000 acres of long in a state of inactivity. In 1577 or 1578, he the forfeited lands in the county of Cork in Ireland.embarked for the Low Countries with the troops sent About the same time he was made seneschal of the by the queen to assist the Dutch against the Spaniards, duchy of Cornwall, and warden of the stanneries; and and probably shared the glory of the decisive victory grew into such favour with the queen, that even Leicesover Don John of Austria in 1578. On his return to ter was jealous of his influence. Enrland, a new enterprise engaged bis attention. His In 1587, he sent another colony of 150 men to Virhalf brother, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, having obtained a ginia, with a governor, Mr John White, and 12 assistpatent to plant and inhabit some parts of North Ame. ants. About this time we find our knight distinguishrica, Mr Raleigh embarked in this adventure ; but ed by the titles of Captain of the queen's guards, and m-eting with a Spanish fleet, after a smart engagement Lieutenant-general of Cornwall. From this period to the they returned, without success in 1579.
year 1594, he was continually engaged in projecting The following year, the king of Spain, in conjunc- new expeditions, sending succours to the colonies abroad, tion with the pope, having projected a total conquest defending the kingdom from the insults of the Spaniof the English dominions, sent troops to Ireland to as. ards, and transacting parliamentary business, with equal sist the Desmonds in the Munster rebellion Raleigh
Raleigh ability and resolution. Wbilst thus employed, he was obtained a captain's commission under Lord Grey of publicly charged, in a libel written by the infamous Wilon, they deputy of Ireland, and embarked for that Jesuit Parsons, with being an Atheist; a groundless kingdom; where, by his conduct and resolution, he was and ridiculous imputation. In 1594, he obtained from principally instrumental in putting an end to the rebel
the queen a grant of the manor of Sherborne in Dorlious attempt.
He returned to England; and attract setshire, where he built a magnificent house : but Sir ed the notice of Queen Elizabeth, owing, as we are Walter fell under the queen's displeasure on account of told in Naunton's Fragmenta Regalia, to the following an intrigue with the daughter of Sir Nicholas Throgaccidental piece of gallantry. The queen, as she was morton, one of the maids of honour ; however, he marone day taking a walk, being stopped by a splashy place ried the lady, and lived with ber in great conjugal har.
aleigh mony. During his disgrace at court, he projected the f!e wrote A Ilistory of England, commencing with the Ralple
conquest of Guiana in South America, and in 1595 Stuarts, which is much esteemed; as were his polios alph. sailed for that country; of which having taken posses tical essays and pamphlets, some of which were looked Rameses.
sion, after defeating the Spaniards who were settled upon as master-pieces. His last publication, The Case
RAMADAN, a solemn season of fasting among the
i Maccab. ii. the birth place of Samuel ; adjoining to
born at Carpi near Modena in 1633. He was professor
which the Exodus took place, and which must have
RALPH, JAMES, an ingenious historical and political shore.
ads of ed widai'