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Timeses dria in the year 334 ; and tbat prince dying, bis son which fronted the left of their infantry, and into the families
I! Constantius bad the obelisk transported from Alexan- village of Autr'Eglise, quite on their left. The front Ranisse Ramillies
, dria to Rome in 352, where it was erected in the grand between the village of Ramillies and Autr'Eglise was
Circus. Its height was 132 feet. When the Goths covered by a small stream of water, which rendered the backed the city of Rome in 409, they overthrew this meadows in some places marshes, and also by several obelisk, which continued buried in the sand till the time roads covered with hedges; which difficulties preventof Sixtus V. in 1587, when it was found broken in three ed our cavalry of the right wing from coming to acpieces; which being joined together, it was set up in tion. As fast as the army of the allies arrived it was the square of St Joho de Lateran. On the four sides of ranged in order of battle ; with the left towards Bonnef, this wonderful obelisk are a number of figures and hie and the right towards Folz, and every thing was disporoglyphical characters, which, according to the expli- sed in order to attack. To this end, four battalions were cation of Ammianus Marcellinus, contain the praises of detached to attack the village of Franquenies, and 12 Rameses.
battalions to attack the village of Ramillies, which were RAMIFICATION, the production of boughs or to be supported by the whole infantry. branches, or of figures resembling branches.
Our artillery began to cannonade the enemy at one; RAMILLIES, a small village of Brabant, in the at about two, the attack began with the post of FranNetherlands, 12 miles north of Namur, and 22 quenies, where our infantry bad the good fortune to drive south-east of Brussels. Lat. 50. 51. Long. 4. 48. the enemy from the hedges, where they were advantageFamous for the battle fought by the allies commanded ously posted, and at the same time all the cavalry of our by the duke of Marlborough and M. d'Auverquirque, left wing advanced to attack that of our enemy's right; against that of the two crowns, commanded by the duke soon after all was in action. Whilst the cavalry were of Bavaria and Marshal Villeroy, the 22d of May 1706. engaged, the village of Ramillies was likewise attacked, See BRITAIN, N° 357.
and forced after a vigorous resistance.
of the al. The battle lasted about two hours, and was pretty Jies being joined at the camp of Borchloon the 20th of obstinate; but so soon as our cavalry had gained ground
May, halted the 21st. On the 22d the army marched enough to attack the enemy in fiank, they began to from Borchloon in four columns, and posted itself the give way; at the same time all their infantry were put same day, with the right towards the mill of Quorem, in disorder, so that the whole retreated, in great confuextending with the left towards Blehen : from this camp sion. The cavalry of their left wing formed a little was discovered the army of the two crowns, which was upon the high ground, between Offuz and Mount St encamped with the left at Over-Espen, and the right Andrew, to favour their retreat; but after the infantry towards the wood or Chapiaraux, Heylissem in their front and cavalry of our right wing bad filed off between the and Tirlemont in the rear. It was resolved the same bottom of the village of Ramillies and Olsuz, the whole day to march the next morning towards the plain of army marched in several columns to attack the enemy Meerdorp or Mierdau, to view the posture of the ene anew; but they gave way before we could come up with mies, and determine what would be the most proper them, and retired in great confusion, some towards the means of attacking them according to the movement defile of the abbey De la Ramée and towards Dongelthey should make. To this end, an advanced guard of berge, others towards Judogne, and others again towards ooo horse and all the quarter-masters of the army were Hougarde. They were pursued all night so closely that sent forward on the 23d at break of day.
they were obliged to abandon all their artillery and bago The same morning about four, the army marched in gage, part of which was found at Judogne and at Houeight columns toward the aforesaid plain. The advan- garde, with their chests of ammunition. ced guard and the quarter master3 arrived about eight The chemy lost above 30,000 men, 60 cannon, eight at the height of Meerdorp or Mierdau ; from whence mortars, standards, colours, baggage, &c.; we about the
army of the cnemy was scen in motion : a little after 3000. The rest of the campaign was spent in the sieges it was perceived that the enemy was marching through of Ostend, Menin, and Aeth. In fourteen days the the plain of Mount St Andrew in four columns, of which duke defeated and dispersed the best appointed army the information was given to the duke of Malborough and French ever had, and recovered all Spanish Brabant, the M. d'Auverquirque, who immediately repaired to the marquisite of the holy Roman empire. The army of the said height; and by the time these generals were ar enemy consisted of 76 battalions and 142 squadrons, inrived there, the head of the enemy's army already ap- cluding the king's houshold troops (La Ålaison du Roi); peared at the tomb of Ottomont upon the causeway, near and the army of the allies was 74 battalions and 123 the Mehaigne ; whereupon the duke of Marlborough squadrons. Considering the importance of the victory, and M. d'Auverquirque made the army advance with the loss of the allies was very small, uot above 1100 beall expedition.
ing killed, and 2600 wounded. The enemy, as fast as they advanced, ranged in order RAMISSERAM, a small island about 20 miles from 'of battle, with their right towards the tomb of Otto that of Manaar, and the nearest channel of communicamont upon the Mehaigne, extending with their left to tion veen Ceylon and the continent of India. When Antr'Eglise : having Tranquiers in front of the right, Mr Cordiner and his companions landed here in 1804, into which they had thrown several battalions of infan- they entered the nearest choultry, or place erected for try and 14 squadrons of dragoons, who had dismounted the accommodation of strangers, half a mile beyond their horses to support them. They had placed many which is the grand pagoda, or temple of Shivven, hav. of their infantry and a considerable part of their artil- ing nothing remarkable in its external appearance, when Jery in the village of Ramillies, which fronted the right seen from a distance; but on a nearer inspection it is alof their main body, as well as into the village of Offuz, most impossible to describe the ornaments and laboured s
R A M 1 Raniisse. workmanship that strike the eye. Yet these are far RAMSAY, ALLAN, a Scottish poet, was born at Ramsay.
outdone by the magnificence of the interior parts of the Leadhills in Lanarkshire, in October 1686. His father
pagoda. 'Upon this island there are great numbers of was employed in the management of Lord Hopeton's Rampha
small horses, constantly employed in conveying travel mines at that place; but died while the poet was yet in
his infancy, in consequence of which and the marriage
were the contemporaries of Ramsay, and who died not
Which joins sweet-llowing Clyde.
Bred fifteen summers there.
the Easy Club, appeared in 1712, when he was 26 years
bookseller, as being more congenial to the literary turn RAMLA, the modern name of Arimathea. See of his mind. His detached pamphlets were afterwards ARIMATHEA.
published by bim in the year 1721, in one volume 4to, RAMMER, an instrument used for driving down which was encouraged by a very liberal subscription. stones or piles into the ground; or for beating the earth, It was advertised as follows in the Edinburgh Evening in order to render it more solid for a foundation.
Courant. " 'The Poems of Allan Ramsay, in a large RAMMER of a Gun, the Gun-stick ; a rod used in quarto volume ; fairly printed, with notes, and a concharging of a gun, to drive home the powder, as also plete glossary (as promised to the subscribers), being the shot, and the wad which keeps the shot from falling now finished; all who have generously contributed to out.
carrying on of the design, may call for their copies as RAMPANT, in Heraldry, a term applied to a lion, soon as they please, from the author, at the Mercury, leopard, or other beast that stands on its hind legs, and opposite to Niddry's wynd, Edinburgh." The first rears up his fore-feet in tbe posture of climbing, show volume of his well known collection, “ The Tea-table ing only balf his face, as one eye, &c. It is different Miscellany,” was published in 1724, after which a sefrom saliant, in which the beast seems springing for cond volume soon made its appearance; a third in 1727, ward as if making a sally.
and a fourth after another interval of time. Ile soon af-
RAMPHASTOS, the Toucan. See RuamPHAS- part of which, cailed Patie and Roger, was printed in
1721, and Jenny and Meggy in 1723, the great success
Ramsay. of which induced him to form them afterwards into a to the son of the earl of Wemyss; atter wbich, concei- Ratsię. regular drama.
ving a disgust at the religion in which he had been eduIn the year 1728, he published a second volume of cated, he in the same ill humour reviewed other Chribi- poems, which was afterwards reprinted in 8vo. These stian churches; and, fiuding none to bis liking, rested performances so rapidly enlarged the circle of his fame for a while in Deisnr. While he was in this uncertain and reputation, that in 1731, an edition of his poetical state of mind, he went to Leyden; where, falling into works was published by the booksellers of London, and the company of one Poiret a myst:c divine, he received two years after they appeared at Dublin. He held an the infection of mysticism: which prompted him to conexten-ive correspondence with coto-mporary poets, de sult M. Fenelon, ibe celebrated archbishop of Cambray, monu wrom we find ihe facetious Hamilton of Gilbert who had imbibed principles of the same nature ; and field, and the celebrated author of the Ch.ce sent him who gained him over to the Catholic religion in 1709. two epistles. From his shop opposite to Niddry street, The subsequent course of his life received its direction he removed to one at the east end of the Luckenboot lis. from his friendship and connections with this prelate; In this shop he continued to sell and lend out books till and being appointed governor to the duke de Chateau he was far advanced in years; and we are informed that Thierry, and the prince de Turenne, he was made a be was the first person who established a circulating lib knight of the order of St Lazarus. He was sent for to rary in Scotland. His collection of Fables appeared in Rome by the chevalier de St George, to undertake the 1730, after which period he may be said to bave almost education of his children; but he found so many indiscontinued the occupation of an author.
trigues and dissensions on his arrival there in 1724, fuch, however, was his enterprising spirit, that he that he obtained the chevalier's leave to return to Paris. built, at his own expence, the first theatre for dramati He died in 1743, in the office of intendant to the duke cal performances ever known in Edinburgh, which took of Bouillon, prince de 'Turenne. The most capital work place in what is called Carubber's close, in the year of his writing is the Travels of Cyrus, which has been 1736 ; but he did not long enjoy his character of ma several times printed in English. nager, for the magistrates of Edinburgh required bim RAMSAY, The Rev. James, so justly celebrated for to shut it up, as an act of parliament prohibited all his philanthropy, was born on the 25th of July 1733, such amusements without a special licence and his ma at Frasersburgh, a small town in the county of Aberdeen, jesty's letters patent. It is generally understood that North Britain. His descent was honourable, being, he relinquished the trade of a bookseller about the year through his father, from the Ramsays of Melrose in 1755, being then 69 years of age, and lived the re Banflslire, and through his mother, from the Ogilvies mainder of his days in a small house erected by himself of Purie in Angus. His parents were of characters the on the north side of the Castle-hill. A scorbutic com most respectable, but in circumstances by no means af. plaint, attended with excruciating pain, deprived him fluent. From bis earliest years he discovered a serious of his teeth, and after corroding one of his jaw bones, disposition, and a strong thirst for knowledge ; and afput a period to his existence on the 7th of June 1758, ter passing through the course of a Scotch grammar in the 71st year of his age.
school education, he was inclined to pursue the studies Ramsay possessed a considerable share of poetical ge requisite to fit him for the profession of a clergyman; nius : Of this his Gentle Shepherd, which will conti an inclination with which the wishes of his mother, a nue to be admired as long as the language in which it woman of eminent piety, powerfully concurred. Seveis written shall be understood, and especially by the ral circumstances, however, conspired to divert bim for patives of North Britain, to whom only the peculiari a time from bis favourite pursuit. ties of dialect by which it is distinguished can be fami He was educated in the episcopal persuasion; and haliar, affords the best proof. Some of his songs may ving been unhappy enough to lose his father while yet contain farfetched allusions and childish conceits ; but very young, he found, upon his advancing towards the many of them are equal, if not superior for their pa state of manhood, that the joint fortunes of himself and storal simplicity, to productions of a similar nature in liis mother could not bear the expence of a regular eduany other language. Some of the imitations of the an cation in either of the universities of Oxford or Cancients by this port are extremely happy, in particular bridge, which he doubtless thought absolutely necessary Horace's Ode, Vides ut alta stet nive, &c.; and some to one who aspired to respectability in the church of of his tales have all the excellencies of that species of England. Yielding therefore to necessity, he resolved composition. But of a great proportion of his other to study surgery and pharmacy; and was with this view productions, it may be pronounced with truth that they bound apprentice to Dr Findlay, a physician (A) in Fraare mere prosaic compositions, filled with the most com sersburgh. But though obliged to relinquish for a time mon-place observations, and destitute even of the orna bis favourite studies, he did not think ignorance excument of smooth versification and correct rhymes. sable in a surgeon more than in a clergyman, or conceive
RAMSAY, Andrew Michael, generally known by that he could ever become eminent in the profession in the name of the Chevalier Ramsay, was a polite Scots which circumstances bad placed him, merely hy skill in writer, born of a good family at Ayr in 1686. His setting a bone or compounding a medicine. He detergood parts and learning recommended bim to be, tutor mined therefore, with the full approbation of his master, 3
(A) In the remote towns of Scotland the same man generally acts in the triple capacity of physician, sorgeon, and apothecary.
Ramsay. who very soon discovered his talents for literature, to stance, which must not be omitted. Whilst he acted as Ramsay.
make himself acquainted with at least the outlines of the surgeon of the Arundel, then commanded by Captain
would expose himself to the contagion of so dangerous
benevolence, and fully authorised by bis no less bene-
occasion gained him the friendship and esteem of Sir
ly returned to St Christopher's, where he was present-
African Slaves in the British Sugar Colonies. He sum.
them to attend, on Sunday, at particular hours. He Of his humanity there is indeed one memorable in appointed bours at home to instruct such sensible slaves VOL. XVII. Part II.
Ramsay. as would of themselves attend. He repeatedly exhorted would have done honour to the pen of the most el. Rare
their masters to encourage such in their attendance. He perienced commander. Of the first edition of this es. recommended the French custom, of beginning and end say the profits were by its benevolent author apploing work by prayer. But inconceivable is the listless priated to the Magdalen and British lying in hospitals
, ness with which he was heard, and bitter was the cen as those of the second and third (which last was pubBure heaped on bim in return. It was quickly suggest lished about the period of which we now write) were ed, and generally believed, that he wanted to interrupt to the maritime school, or, in the event of its failure, the work of slaves, to give them time, forsooth, to say to the maritime society. their prayers ; that be aimed at the making of them Although caressed by both the admirals under whom Christians, to render them incapable of being good he served, and having such influence with the latter as slaves. In one word, he stood, in opinion, a rebel con to be able to render essential services to the Jews and vict against the interest and majesty of plantership. And other persons whom he thought harshly treated at the as the Jews say, that in every punishment, with which capture of St Eustatius, Mr Ramsay once more quitted they have been proved, since the bondage of Egypt, the sea-service, and retired to his pastoral charge in the there has been an ounce of the golden calf of Horeb; island of St Christopher's. There, bowever, tbough so might he say, that in every instance of prejudice (and the former animosities against him bad entirely subthey were not a few) with which, till within a year or sided, and though his friendship was now solicited by two of his departure from the country, he was exercised, every person of consequence in the island, he remained there was an ounce of his fruitless attempts to improve but a little while. Sick of the life of a planter and of the minds of slaves. In the bidding prayer, he had in the prospect of slavery around him, he resigned his serted a petition for the conversion of those persons. livings, bade adieu to the island, and returned to Eng. But it was deemed so disagreeable a momento, that se land with his wife and family in the end of the year veral white people, on account of it, left off' attending 1781. Immediately on his arrival, he was, through divine service. He was obliged to omit the prayer en the interest of his steady friend Sir Charles Middleton, tirely, to try and bring them back. In short, neither presented to the livings of Teston and Nettlestead in were the slaves at that time desirous of being taught, the county of Kent. nor were their masters inclined to encourage them.” Here he was soon determined, by the advice of those
That he was hurt by this neglect cannot be question- whom he most respected, to publish an Essay, which had ed, for he had a mind benevolent, warm, and irritable; been written many years before, on the Treatment and but he still retained many friends amongst the most wor Conversion of African Slaves in the British Sugar Celsthy members of the community; and as he was consci nies.. Tle controversy in which this publication involous of baving done nothing more than his duty, he con ved him, and the acrimony with which it was carried soled himself with reflecting, that those are " blessed on, are so fresh in the memory of all our readers, tbat wbom men revile, and persecute, and speak all maurier no man wbo thinks of the narrow limits within which of evil against falsely, for the sake of the gospel." our biographical articles must be confined, will blame
Although bis serious studies were now theological, us for not entering into a detail of the particularshe considered himself as answerable to God, his country, Torrents of obloquy were poured upon the bene rolent and his own family, for a proper use of every branch of author by writers who were unfair enough to conceal knowledge which he possessed. He therefore took the their names; and it must be confessed, that bis replies charge of several plantations around him in the capaci abounded with sarcasms, which the most rational friends ty of a medical practitioner; and attended them with to the cause which he supported would not have becu unremitting diligence, and with great success. Thus
sorry to see blotted from his pages. The provocation, he lived till the year 1777, when relinquishing the prac however, which he received was great; and Mr Ramtice of physic entirely, he paid a visit to the place of say, though an amiable, virtuous, and pious man, had his nativity, which he had not seen since 1755. His a warmth of temper, which, though not deserving of mother, whose latter days he had made comfortable by praise, will be censured by none who reflect on the fraila handsome annuity, had been dead for some years ; ties of our common nature. That the particular calumbut lie rewarded all who had been attentive to her, or nies propagated against him on this occasion were wholly in early lite serviceable to himself; and he continued groundless, it is impossible to doubt, if we admit him to the pension to a sister who had a numerous family, for have been possessed of common understanding. When which her husband was unable to provide.
some years ago a story was circulated, of Swift's baAfter remaining three weeks in Scotland, and near a ving, when prebendary of Kilroot, been convicted beyear in England, during which time he was admitted fore a magistrate of an attempt to commit a rape on into the confidence of Lord George Germaine, secre the body of one of his parishioners, it was thought a tary of state for the American department, Mr Ramsay sufficient confutation of the calunny to put the retailer was appointed chaplain to Admiral Barrington, then of it in mind, that the dean of St Patrick's, though going out to take a command in the West Indies. Un detested by the most powerful faction in the kingdom, der this gallant officer, and afterwards under Lord Rod lampooned without dread, and with great severity, the ney, he was present at several engagements, where he dean of Ferns for the very crime, of which, had this displayed a fortitude and zeal for the honour of bis anecdote been true, he must have been conscious that country which would not have disgraced the oldest ad all Ireland knew himself to be guilty! Such conduet miral. To the navy, indeed, he seems to have been cannot be reconciled to common sense. strongly attached; and he wrote, at an early period of been a ravis her, though he might have been penitent
, his life, an Essay on the Duty and Qualifications of a and reasoned in general terms against giving way to Sea-officer, with such a knowledge of the service as such licentious passions, he would never bave satirised