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Doubling of the Ranks, is the placing two ranks in tain quite such sublime ideas of the honour of either one, frequently used in the manæuvres of a regiment. sex, as to lay the blame of a mutual fault upon one of
Ranks and Files, are the horizontal and vertical the transgressors only; and therefore makes it a neces-
sary ingredient in the crime of rape, that it must be
Rape was punished by the Saxon laws, particularly
tion. But this was afterwards thought too hard : and RANULA, a tumor under a child's tongue, which, in its stead another severe, but not capital, punishment like a ligature, hinders it from speaking or sucking. was inflicted by William the Conqueror, viz. castration
RANUNCULUS, Crowfoot; a genus of plants and loss of eyes ; which continued till after Bracton of the polygamia order, belonging to the polyandria wrote, in the reign of Henry III. But in order class; and in the natural method ranking under the 26th to prevent malicious accusations, it was then the law, order, Multisiliquæ. See BOTANY Index.
(and, it seems, still continues to be so in appeals of RAPACIOUS ANIMALS, are such as live upon rape), that the woman should, immediately after, go prey..
to the next town, and there make discovery to some
time of limitation fixed: for, as it is usually nuw punish-
But our English law does not enter. and subjecting the offender only to two years imprison-
ment, and a fine at the king's will. But this lenity opportunity to complain; if the place, where the fact Be
these and the like circumstances carry a strong, but not Westm. 2. c. 34.
And by statute 18 Eliz. c. 7. it is conclusive, presumption that her testimony is false er made felony without benefit of clergy: as is also the feigned. abominable wickedness of carnally knowing or abusing Moreover, if the rape be charged to be committed any woman-child under the age of ten years, in which on an infapt under 12 years of
still be case the consent or non-consent is immaterial, as by rea a competent witness, if she bath sense and understardson of her tender years she is incapable of judgment and ing to know the nature and obligations of an catt
, diseretion. Sir Matthew Hale is indeed of opinion, that and, even if she hath not, it is thought by Sir Max such profligate actions committed on an infant under the thew Hale, that she ought to be heard without cath, age of twelve years, the age of female discretion by the to give the court information ; though that alone od common laiv, either with or without consent, amount to not be sufficient to convict the offender. And he is o? rape and Blony; as well cince as before the statuie of this opinion, first, Because the nature of the ollence Queen Elizabeth: but that law bas in general been held being secret, there may be no other possible proof sl only to extend to infants under ten; though it should the actual fact; though afterwards there may be com seem that dainsels between ten and twelve are still un current circumstances to corroborate it, prored ter ! der the protection of the statute Westm. 1. the law with other witnesses : and, secondly, Because the law a respect to their seduction not having been altered by ei- lows what the child told her mother, or other rela. ther of the subsequent statutes.
tions, to be given in evidence, since the nature of the A male infant, under the age of fourteen years, is case admits frequently of no better proof; and there presumed by law incapable to commit a rape, and there is much more reason for the court to hear the narrafore it seems cannot be found guilty of it. For though tion of the child herself, than to receive it at second. in other felonies “malitia supplet ætatem ;" yet, as to band from those who swear they heard ber say so. this particular species of felony, the law supposes an im And indeed it seems now to be settled, that in these becility of body as well as mind.
cases infants of any age are to be heard ; and, if they The civil law seems to suppose a prostitute or common have
any idea of an oath, to be also sworn : it being ! harlot incapable of any injuries of this kind: not allow found by experience, that infants of very tender years ing any punishment for violating the chastity of ber, often give the clearest and truest testimony. But in who bath indeed no chastity at all, or at least hath no any of these cases, whether the child be sworn or hol, regard to it. But the law of England does not judge it is to be wished, in order to render her evidence de so hardly of offenders, as to cut off all opportunity of dible, that there should be some concurrent testimony retreat even from common strumpets, and to treat of time, place, and circumstances, in order to make them as never capable of amendment. It therefore out the fact ; and that the conviction should not be holds it to be felony to force even a concubine or grounded singly on the unsupported accusation of a harlot; because the woman may have forsaken that infant under years of discretion. There may be there. unlawful course of life: for, as Bracton well ob fore, in many cases of this nature, witnesses who are serves,
“ licet meretrix fuerit antea, certe tunc tempo competent, that is, who may be admitted to be heard; ris non fuit, cum reclamando nequitia ejus consentire and yet, after being heard, may prove not to be citnoluit."
dible, or such as the jury is bound to believe. Fer er As to the material facts requisite to be given in evi excellence of the trial by jury is, that the jury are tres dence and proved upon an indictment of rape, they are of the credit of the witnesses, as well as of the truth a of such a nature, that though necessary to be known the fact. and settled, for the conviction of the guilty and preser “ It is true (says this learned judge), tbat rape is: vaiion of the innocent, and therefore are to be found in most detestable crime, and therefore ought severely 200 such criminal treatises as discourse of these matters in impartially to be punished with death ; but it ous be detail, yet they are bighly improper to be publicly dis- remembered, that it is an accusation easy to be made, cussed, except only in a court of justice. We shall hard to be proved, but harder to be defended by the therefore merely add upon this head a few remarks from party accused, though innocent." He then relate 11 Sir Matthew Hale, with regard to the competency and very extraordinary cases of malicious prosecution for this credibility of witnesses ; which may, salvo pudore, be crime, that had happened within bis own observatie con-idered.
and concludes thus: “mention these instances, the And, first, the party ravished may give evidence up we may be the more cautious upon trials of offences a on oath, and is in law a competent witness : but the cre this nature, wherein the court and jury may dibility of her testimony, and how far forth she is to be much ease be imposed upon, without great care ape ti believed, must be left to the jury upon the circumstances gilance; the heinousness of the offence many times tres of fact that concur in that testimony. For instance : if porting the judge and jury with so much indignatis
, the witness be of good fame; if she presently discover that they are over-hastily carried to the conviction et ed the offence, and made search for the offender; if the the persons accused thereof, by the confident testicut party accused fled for it; these and the like are con of sometimes false and malicious witnesses." curring circumstances, which give greater probability
RAPHAEL D'URBINO, the greatest, most sublime. to her evidence. But, on the other side, it she be of and most excellent painter that has appeared, sider the evil fame, and stand unsupported by others; if she con revival of the fine arts, was the son of an indiferes cealed the injury for any considerable time after she had painter named Sanzio, and was born at Urbino og Ce
aphael Friday 1482. The popes Julius II. and Leo X. who among which are his Hortorum libri quatuor, which is Rapia
employed bim, loaded him with wealth and honour; reckoned his masterpiece. 2. Reflections on Eloquence, 4 Lapin. and it is said that Cardinal de St Bibiana had such a Poetry, History, and Philosophy. 3. Comparisons be Rappers
wil. value for him, that he offered him his niece in marriage. tween Virgil and Homer, Demosthenes and Cicero, His genius is admired in all bis pictures ; his contours Plato and Aristotle, Thucydides and Titus Livius. are free, his ordonnances magnificent, his designs cor 4. The History of Jansenism.
Several works on rerect, his figures elegant, his expressions lively, his atti- ligious subjects. The best edition of his Latio poems tudes natural, his heads graceful; in fine, every thing is that of Paris in 1723, in 3 vols. 1 2mo. is beautiful, grand, sublime, just, and adorned with RAPIN de Thoyras, Paul de, a celebrated historian, graces. These various perfections he derived not only was the son of James de Rapin lord of Thoyras, and from his excellent abilities, but from his study of anti was born at Castres in 1661. He was educated at firac quity and anatomy; and from the friendship he con- under a tutor in his father's house; and afterwards sent tracted with Ariosto, who contributed not a little to the to Puylaurens, and thence to Samur. In 1679 he reimprovement of his taste. His pictures are principally turned to his father, with a design to apply himself to to be found in Italy and Paris. That of the Transfi- the study of the law, and was adınitted an advocate : guration, preserved at Rome in the church of St Peter but some time after, reflecting that his being a ProteMonterio, passes for his masterpiece. He had a band- stant would prevent lis advancement at the bar, he resome person, was well proportioned, and had great solved to quit the profession of the law, and apply himsweetness of temper; was polite, affable, and modest. self to that of the sword; but his father would not conHe, however, lived in the utmost splendour; most of the sent to it. The revocation of the edict of Nantes in eminent masters of bis time were ambitious of working 1685, and the death of his father, wbich happened two under him; and he never went out without a crowd of months after, made him resolve to come to England ; artists and others, who followed him purely through re but as he had no hopes of any settlement here, his stay spect. He was not only the best painter in the world, was but short. He therefore soon after went to Hol. but perhaps the best architect too; on which account land, and listed himself in the company of French voLeo X. charged him with building St Peter's church at lunteers at Utrecht, commanded by M. Rapin his couRome: but he was too much addicted to pleasure, which sin-german. He attended the prince of Orange into occasioned bis death at 37 years of age. He left a great England in 1688: and the following year the lord number of disciples ; among whom were Julio Romano Kingston made him an ensign in his regiment, with and John Francis Penni, who were his heirs. Many which he went into Ireland, where he gained the esteem able engravers, as Raimondi, George Mantuan, and of his officers at the siege of Carrick fergus, and had soen Bloemart, engraved after Raphael. See PAINTING. a lieutenant's commission. He was present at the battle
RAPHAIM, or REPHAIM, (Moses), a name signi- of the Boyne, and was shot through the shoulder at the fying Giants, as they really were, and an actual people siege of Limerick. He was soon after captain of the too, situated in Basan or Batanea, beyond Jordan, se company in which he had been ensign; but, in 1693, parated from the Zanzummim by the river Jabbok. resigned his company to one of his brothers, in order to Also a valley near Jerusalem ; Joshua x.
be tutor to the earl of Portland's son. In 1699, he RAPHANUS, RADISH; a genus of plants belong. married Marianne Testard ; but this marriage neither ing to the tetradyoamia class; and in the natural me. abated his care of his pupil, nor prevented his accompathod ranking under the 39th order, Siliquosæ. See Bo. nying him in his travels. Having finished this employTANY Index ; and for the method of culture, see GARment, he returned to his family, which he had settled DENING.
at the Hague ; and here be continued some years. But RAPHANIDOSIS, a punishment inflicted at A as he found his family increase, be resolved to retire to thens upon adulterers. The manner of it was this : some cheap country; and accordingly removed, in 1707, The hair was plucked off from the privities of the of. to Wesel, where he wrote his History of England, and fenders, bot ashes laid upon the place, and a radish or some other pieces. Though he was of a strong constimullet thrust up his fundament, as has been mentioned tution, yet 17 years application (for so long was be in under ADULTERY. To this Juvenal alludes, Sat. x. composing the history just mentioned) entirely ruined ver. 317. Quosdam machos et mugilis intrat. Persons bis health. He died in 1725. He wrote in French, who had been thus punished were called suggoorlos. The 1. A Dissertation on the Whigs and Tories. His word ruphanidosis is derived from qu®aris, " a radish.” History of England, printed at the Hague in 1726 and
RAPHIDIA, a genus of insects, of the neuroptera 1727, in 9 vols 4to, and reprinted at Trevoux in 1728, order. See EntOMOLOGY Index.
in 10 vols 4to. This last edition is more complete than RAPJER, formerly signified a long old-fashioned that of the Hague. It has been translated into English, sword, such as those worn by the common soldiers: but and improved with Notes, by the reverend Mr Tindal, it now denotes a small sword, as contradistinguished in 2 vols folio. This performance, though the work of from a back-y word.
a foreigner, is deservedly esteemed as the fullest and RAPIN, Rene, a Jesuit and eminent French writer, most impartial collection of English political transacwas born at Tours in 1621. He taught polite litera tions extant. The readers of wit and vivacity, however, ture in the society of the Jesuits with great applause, may be apt to complain of him for being sometimes raand was justly esteemed one of the best Latin poets and ther tedious and dull. greatest wits of bis time. He died at Paris in 1687. RAPINE, in Law, the taking away another's goods, He wrote, 1. A great number of Latin poems, which &c. by violence, have rendered him famous tbroughout all Europe ; RAPPERSWIL, a town of Swisserland, on the
4 M 2
Rapperswil confines of the canton of Zurich, and of the territory of ambassador, all of which were believed in England and Rar Sea
II Gaster, with an old castle. It is strong by situation, other parts of Europe in the beginning of this century, 1 Ras-Sem. being seated on a neck of land, which advances into the (See PETRIFIED City). Mr Bruce informs us, that it Rastall
lake of Zurich, and over which there is a bridge 850 is situated about five days journey south from Bengazi; paces long. It is subject to the cantons of Zurich and
but has no water excepting one fountain, which has a Berne. E. Long. 8. 57. N. Lat. 47. 20.
disagreeable taste and seems to be impregnated with RAPPOLSTEIN, a town of France in the depart alum. Hence it has obtained the name of Ras-Sem, or ment of Upper Rhine, which, before the revolution, had the fountain of poison. The only remains of antiquity the title of a barony. All the musicians of Alsace like in this place consist of the ruins of a tower or fortificawise depended upon this baron, and were obliged to him a tion, which, in the opinion of Mr Bruce, is as late as certain tribute, without which they could not play upon the time of the Vandals; but he says he cannot imagine their instruments. E. Long. 7. 28. N. Lat. 48. 15. what use they made of the water; and they had no
RAPTURE, an ecstasy or transport of mind. See other within two days journey of the place. Here our EXTASY.
traveller saw many of the animals called jerboa, a kind RARE, in Physics, stands opposed to dense; and de of mice; which, he says, seem to partake as much of notes a body that is very porous, whose parts are at a the nature of a bird as of a quadruped. great distance from one another, and which is supposed RASAY, one of the Hebrides islands, is about 13 to contain but little matter under a large bulk. See the miles long and two broad. It contains 700 inhabitants, following article.
has plenty of limestone and freestone ; feeds great nunRAREFACTION, in Physics, the act whereby a bers of black cattle ; but has neither deers, bases, nor body is rendered rare ; that is, brought to possess more rabbits. The only appearance of a barbour in Rasay is room, or appear under a larger bulk, without acces at Clachan bay, where Mr Macleod the proprietor of sion of any new matter. This is very frequently the the island resides. Rasay presents a bold shore, which effect of fire, as has long been universally allowed. In rises to the height of mountains ; and here the natives many cases, however, philosophers have attributed it have, with incredible labour, formed many little corn to the action of a repulsive principle. However, from fields and potato grounds. These heights decrease at the many discoveries concerning the nature and proper the south end, where there are some farms and a good. ties of the electric fluid and fire, there is the greatest looking country. Mr Macleod is sole proprietor of this reason to believe, that this repulsive principle is no other island and of Rona and Fladda at the north end of it, than elementary fire. See REPULSION.
which are only proper for grazing. RAS-EL-FEEL, one of the frontier provinces of A The house of Rasay is pleasantly situated near the byssinia, of which the late celebrated traveller Mr Bruce south-west end of the island, which is the most level was made governor while in that country. It is but of part of it. It has an extensive and excellent garden, small extent, and in its most prosperous state contained and is surrounded with forest trees of considerable mag. only 39 villages. The climate is extremely hot, in Mr nitude ; another proof that trees will grow upon the Bruce's opinion one of the hottest in the world. He in edge of the sea, though it must be allowed that the forms us, that on the first day of March, at three channel here is narrow. Immediately behind the house o'clock in the afternoon, the thermometer stood at 114° of Rasay are the ruins of an ancient chapel, now used in the shade, and in the evening at 82°; though at sun. as the family burying-place. rise it had been no higher than 61. Notwithstanding RASCIANS, a poor oppressed people who dwelt on this appearance of extreme heat, however, the sensation both sides of the Danube, and who, about the year 1594; was by no means intolerable ; they could bunt at mid being weary of the Turkish thraldom, first took 13 of day, and felt the evenings rather cold. The soil is a their vessels upon that river ; and then drawing together fat, loose, black earth, which our author says is the a body of 15,000 men between Bude and Belgrade, same from 13° to 16° of north latitude ; at least till we twice defeated the pâstâ of Temeswar with a body of come to the deserts of Atbara, where the tropical rains 14,000 Turks. They afterwards took Baczkerek, four
This country divides that of the Sbangalla into miles from Belgrade, and the castle of Ottadt; then two parts, nearly equal. These people inbabit a belt laying siege to that of Beche, on the Theyssa, the old of land about 65 miles broad, all along the northern pâshâ of Temeswar marched to relieve it with 11,000 frontier of Abyssinia, excepting two large gaps or spaces men ; but the Rascians encountering them, slew near which liave been left open for the sake of commerce, 10,000, and took 18 pieces of cannon. The couseand which are inhabited by strangers, to keep the Shan quence of this victory was the reduction of Wersetza galla in awe. The latter trade in gold, which they and Lutz. Then, sending to the archduke for aid and pick up in the streams as it is washed down from the gunners, they offered to put themselves and their counmountains ; for there are no mines in their country, try under the emperor's protection. neither is there any gold in Abyssinia, excepting what RASOR-BILL, a species of alca. See Alca, Orniis imported from this or some other country. The THOLOGY Inder. Shangalla are the natural enemies of the inhabitants of RASOR-Fish, a genus of shell-fish. See Solen, Con. Ras-el-Feel, and much blood has been shed in the va CHOLOGY Index. rious incursions they have made upon one another; RASTALL, John, a printer and miscellaneous writhough of late those of Ras-el-Feel, by the assistance of ter, was born in London, probably about the end of the the emperors, have been enabled to keep the Shangalla 15th century, and educated at Oxford. Returning from at bay.
the university, he settled in the metropolis, and comRÁS-SEM, a city of Tripoli in Barbary, concerning menced printer, " then esteemed (says Wood) a profeswhich a number of fables were told by the Tripoline sion fit for any scholar or ingenious man.” He married
Castall the sister of Sir Thomas More, with whom, we are told, mients on the top of a very steep precipice, under which
A he was very intimate, and whose writings he strenuous is a curious cavern. Lord Gower, Mr Benson, and Sir Island Rat
ly defended. From the title-page of one of his books, he J. B. Warren, K. B. have been former proprietors. See ll 2 sland.
sing it through a straining bag, and then putting in the
force and magnitude.
of the simplicity of the service in the royal dock-yards. RAT. See Mus, MAMMALIA Index; and for an The British fleet is accordingly distributed into six rates, account of the methods of destroying rats, see VERMIN, exclusive of the inferior vessels that usually attend on Destruction of.
naval armaments ; as sloops of war, armed ship,