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Resurrec- to have been a general opinion among the Pharisees; is taken from death, and the victory over our souls froni Resurrection. for although it was a notion of the sect of the Saddu
cees that there was no resurrection, neither angel nor Others have conceived the human soul :as naturally
to the second death ; though, after all, where is your or the This resurrection of the dead to jndgment, though grave? To this it is answered, that the soul of itself is Christians, not perbaps in the same sense in which the old Phari- naturally immortal, and that it depends not either for
sees conceived it, is now generally and almost univer- its existence or the exercise of its faculties upon the
on their hypothesis, maintain tbat the soul, as being im-
tion; and some are not even for allowing them, except they be men of piety and virtue. To render this re
surrection probable, the rabbins say, with some of the Mahometans, that there is a certain bone in the body See Pho- wbich resists putrefaction, and serves as a seed for the next body *. What that bone is, is of no great moment,
as any bone, we believe, in the skeleton will answer the purpose equally well. With respect to the manner of
(1) The sect of the Quakers explain it figuratively.
(M) The last quoted author + (Resurrection of the same Body, asserted from the traditions of the Heathens,
(N) In illo ipso voluptatis ultimæ æstu quo genitale virus expellitur, nonne aliquid de anima quoque sentimus
Resurrec and though the parts of a plant, a polype, or a worm, dency of the fancy to work and to summon vp spectrex Resim, tion. may survive their separation and become living wholes*, when the world around us is involved in darkness, it
yet the soul, they observe, is not to be compared with has also been imagined, that these spirits delight in the * See Po
the vital principles of plants and animals, nor ought to night and shadow of death (P), or have been prohibited lupus and
And be divided on reasons so slender as those of analogy. frou enjoying the exhilarating beams of day. Reproduction, Even granting, they say, that the soul were not natu hence we are told, rally immortal of itself; yet the justice of Gol, which
That in the dismal regions of the dead
Th’infernal king once rais'd his horrid lead;
Leap'd from his throne, lest Neptune's arm should lay
His dark dominions open to the day,
And pour in ligbt.
ally of your's : our Lord has declared The nations, therefore, who have fancied a general it in express ternis; and whether the soul be immortal receptacle for the dead, bave thus been induced to place or not, we can easily believe what he said is true, as it in the west (a), where the night begins and the day we kuow himn whom we have trusted.
ends. That part of the world which, in the division of These, with Plato, suppose, that the soul is here as in his father's dominions, fell to Pluto the inferna! god, prison ; though how or at what time it should first have and where, according to Lactantius, Satan bolds the come into this dungeon they have not determined. They empire of darkness, the Friendly Islanders have placed in the have only agreed, that upon its enlargement all its to the westward of a certain island which they call Tc. Heste faculties are to receive an increase of power; and “ba jee ; some tribes of American Indians, in a country beving already equipped it so exquisitely with conscious. yond the western mountains ; and Homer, somewhere ness, activity, and perception in and of itself, and put to the westward of Greece at the boundaries of the it into su complete a capacity for happiness and misery ocean, in a separate state,” their bypothesis does not require them to admit the least occasion for a resurrection ;
Where in a lonely land and gloomy cells
The dusky nation of Cimmeria dwells;
The sun ne'er views th' uncomfortable seats
When radiant be advances nor retreats.
Unhappy race! whom endless night invades,
Clouds tlie dull air, and wraps them round in shades. only a very small space, were packed up in their first Another opinion entertained by the Greeks and some Under the progenitors, and there left to be afterwards evolved and other nations was, that the place of departed spirits is earth clothed with matter of a grosser kind by acts of gene under the earth. This opinion is frequently mentioned ration and consequent nutrition. For the proof of this in Homer, in "irgil, and alluded to by the Jewish protheory we are referred to the small animals seen through phets. As for the prophets, we know the circumstance the microscope, and likewise to those which are suppo from which they borrowed it: it was borrowed from sed to escape even microscopic observation; but, above those subterraneous vaults where their chiefs were buall, to the eggs of insects, which, though scarcely per ried, and which bave been described by modern travelceptible, yet contain in embryo a future caterpillar lers. In the sides of these caverns there is ranged a and all its coats, and within these a future butterfly with great number of cells; and in these cells the mighty lay its legs and wings. These philosophers can perhaps ac in a sort of state, with their weapons of war and their count for the general taint of original sin in some other swords at their head. To these kinds of Egyptian ceway than has hitherto been done. We have only to meteries Ezekiel alludes, when he says, “ that they shall add, that on their scheme the resurrection is not a mat not lie with the mighty that are fallen of the uncircumter that seems to be indifferent.
cised, who are gone down to hell with their weapons of Place of
The next thing that falls to be considered is the place war, and they have laid their swords under their head." the dead of the dead. From a natural enough association of And Isaiah, when thus speaking of the prince of Babynear to the ideas, an opinion bad very early prevailed, that the spi lon, “ Thou shalt be brought down to bell, to the sides grave.
rit continued near to the body; and the offerings there of the pit. Hell from beneath is moved for thee, to fore intended for the dead were by most nations pre meet thee at thy coming ; it stirreth up the dead for sented at the grave; and that on which the departed thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it bath raised
spirit is supposed to rest is always placed near the grave up from their thrones all the kings of the nations. All 23 in China.
the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, In dark From the dreams of the night and the natural tep every one in his own house."
(0) An Historical View of the Controversy concerning an Intermediate State, and the Separate Existence of the Soul.
(P) Some Turkish ghosts are an exception, who use lamps or candles in their tombs, when their friends choose to supply them with these luxuries.
(a) 'l'he west and darkness are synonymous in Homer. 2 Qoros, ou gae o' ideer oan 30006, oud oma, naug. (Odys.) « Ò my friends ! which is the west, or which is the east, the place of darkness, or that of the morning, we cannot learu."
Resurrec Many of the ancient fathers of the church asserted brute, that man might suffer injuries similar to what he Pesurrection. only, that the dead are now in abditis receptaculis, or had inflicted, and the brute retaliate what he had suf tion. in certain hidden and concealed places.
fered. Others have confined the human soul in plants 26
Orpheus, Origen, and some others of the fathers, In hidden
and in stones; and Bell of Antermony mentions an receptacles.
with the ancient Caledonian bard Ossian, and the learn Indian, who supposed that his ancestors might be in 27 ed Dodwell among the moderns, imagined that the son), fisbes.
31 In the air. when it left the body, went into the air, and resided The notions of Homer were probably those of many
of According somewhere between the surface of the earth and the his time. But these notions were dismal indeed. When to Homer. 28 moon.
his bero Ulysses visited the shades, many of the ghosts In new bo Those who believed in a transmigration caused the seemed to retain the mangled and ghastly appearance dies.
soul at death only to enter a new body, and kept the which they had at death; and, what is worse, seemed
scorpions, and dragons, and with a variety of other ani. A gloomy shade, the sullen Ajax stood;
For ever sad, with proud disdain he pin’d, State of The opinions concerning the state of the dead are And the lost arms for ever stung his mind. the dead still more numerous than those concerning the place according where they reside. Rude nations have generally thought
Upon Ulysses saying to Achilles, to some rude ns
that the future state is similar to the present; that Alive, we bail'd thee with our guardian gods; tions. plants, animals, and inanimate things there, have their And, dead, thou rul'st a king in these abodes; shades: and that these contribute as much to the plea
The shade replied:
grave their wives, their arms, their favourite animals, In this gloomy region no one is rewarded for his vir-
tue, nor is punished for bis crimes, unless committed, According The ancient Egyptians, who believed in transmigra- like those of Sisyphus, Tantalus, and Ixion, against the to the E. tion, supposed that the soul was after death obliged to gods. All indeed are classed into groups, from a cergyptians,
animate every species of bird and quadruped, of reptile tain analogy of age, sex, fate, and disposition; but all
(R) A military gentleman who resided at Penobscot during the late American war, assured us that the In-
(s) The question which the Sadducees put to our Saviour about the wife of the seven brothers, is a proof that
5 E 2
Resurrec. of superior merit, but because he had married the daugh The conscious wretch must all his acts reveal, Beste tion. ter of Jove.
Loth to confess, unable to conceal,
of rewards and punishments, these for the most part To the last hour of unrepenting death.
The spirits of the dead no longer mingle together as punishwas condemned to many calamities for a number of
in the less enlightened period of Homer; the vicious years, if the body was not honoured with funeral rites.
ars dismissed to a place of torments, the virtuous sent to Among the Scandinavians, a natural death was attend-regions of bliss : indifferent characters are confined to a ed with infamy, while a violent death, particularly in
limbus *; and those who are too virtuous for bell, but per battle, gave a title to sit in the halls of Odin, and to
too much polluted with the stains of vice to enter hea.dixenfrás quaff beer from the skulls of enemies. Among the
ven without preparation, are for some time detained in a Tascalans, it was only the great that were permitted purgatory. to animate birds and the nobler quadrupeds ; the lower For there are various penances enjoin'd,
ranks were transformed into weasels, into paultry And some are hung to bleach upon the wind; pergate These 'at beetles, and such mean animals. Among the Mexicans, Some plung'd in waters, others purg'd in fires, first distri- those who were drowned, who died of a dropsy, tu Till all the dregs are drain'd, and rust expires ;
mors, or wounds, or such like diseases, went along with Till nothing's left of their habitual stains, cording to
the children that had been sacrificed to the god of waphysical
But the pure ether of the soul remains, distinc ter, and in a cool and delightful place were allowed to tions; indulge in delicious repasts and varieties of pleasures:
When thus purified, they become fitted to receive
the rewards of their past virtues, and now enter into
With ether vested, and a purple sky,
His be battle, or in captivity among their enemies, and the
The blissful seats of bappy souls below,
Stars of their own, and their own suns tbey know;
Where patriots live, who, for their country's good,
In fighting fields were prodigal of blood.
Priests of unblemish'd lives here make abode,
And poets worthy their inspiring god;
And searching wits, of more mechanic parts, him to his setting. After four years of this glorious life,
Who grac'd their age with new-invented arts :
Those who to worth their bounty did extend ; ri's Hist. of they went to animate clouds, and birds of beautiful feaMerico,
And those who knew that bounty to commend. thers and of sweet song ; but always at liberty to rise vol. vi,
again, if they pleased, to heaven, or descend to the These good men are engaged in various amusements, p. 136.
earth, to warble their songs, and to suck flowers *." 34
according to the taste and genius of each. Orpbeus is and after These sentiments of a future state, conceived in a sa still playing on his harp, and the warriors are still dewards ac. vage and a rude period, could not long prevail among lighted with their chariots, their horses, and their cording to moral di.
an enlightened and civilized people. When the times arms. stinctions.
of rapine and violence therefore began to cease; when The place of torment is at some distance.
Who dare not give, and even refuse to lend,
To their poor kindred, or a wanting friend.
Of lustful youths for foul adult’ry slain.
in the skies. One soul of the hero is therefore repining with the ghosts of mortals in the regions below, while
. Homer insinuates, that Menelaus was to be translated to Elysium without tasting death. This Elysium is the habitation of men, and not of ghosts, and is described as being similar to the seat of the gods. Compare Odyss. iv. 1. 563. and Odyss. vi. 1. 43. in the Greek.
to some & state of
Resurrec. Hosts of deserters, who their honour sold,
conscience; and support their opinion by observing, that Resurrection. And basely broke their faith for bribes of gold : matter cannot act upon spirit; forgetting, perhaps, that tion. All these within the dungeon's depth remain,
at the resurrection the spirit is to be clothed with a bo-
dy, and, at any rate, that it is not for man vainly to
The souls of babes, of unhappy lovers, and some What seems to have tortured the genius of divines of the midHis paradise of others, seem to be placed in a paradise of fools residing much more than heaven or hell, is a middle state. On dle state,
and diffe. fools. in a quarter distinct from Elysium, Tartarus, and Pur- this subject there being little revealed in Scripture,
many have thought it incumbent upon them to supply nions about It is curious to observe, how much these ideas of a the defect; which they seem to have done in different it. future state differ from the vague and simple conjectures ways. From the Scriptures speaking frequently of the of rude nations; and yet from their simple and rudle con dead as sleeping in their graves, those who imagine that jectures, we can easily trace the successive changes in the
of the mind are dependent on the body, supthe writings of Homer, Plato, and Virgil ; and inay ea pose that they sleep till the resurrection, when they are sily show, that those laws which different nations have to be awakened by the trump of God, reunited to their prescribed for their dead, have always borne the strong- bodies, have their faculties restored, and their sentence est analogy lo their state of improvement, their system awarded. of opinions, and their moral attainments. Some na This opinion they support by what St Peter says in tions, as those of India, have fancied a number of hea- the Acts, that David is not ascended into beaven; and vens and bells, corresponding to some of the principal that this patriarch could not possibly be speaking of shades in virtue and vice; and have filled each of these himself when he said, “ Thou will not leave my soul in places respectively with all the scenes of happiness and hell, i. e, the place of the dead.” They observe, too, According inisery, which friendship and hatred, admiration, con that the victory of Christ over death and the grave tempt, or rancour, could suggest. But having already seeris to imply, that our souls are subject to their power; sleep; observed the progress of the human mind in forming the and accordingly the Scripture speaks frequently of the grand and leading ideas of a future state, we mean not soul's drawing near to, of its being redeemed from, and to descend to the modifications which may have occurred of its descending into, the grave; that the Psalmist, to particular nations, sects, or individuals.
however, declares, plainly, that when the breath of man 39 The belief of Christians respecting futurity demands goeth forth, he returneth to his earth, and that very The state
our attention, as being founded on a different principle, day his thoughts perish. And should any one choose io
the good and a liell for the wicked. In this heaven vy, are perished ; and that there is no work, nor de-
to others, 2 40 glorious, immortal, incorruptible, not subject to disease, paration at death obliged to dispose of it some other way. conscicus The nature to pain, or to death. Their minds are strangers to sor
In establishing this theory, they usually begin with at-existence. of heaven.
row, to crying, to disappointment; all their desires are tempting to prove, from Scripture or tradition, both its
works, and the whole universe is filled with bis glory.” future resurrection of the dead ; and that any person, 41 Their notions of hell differ considerably. Some un who looks into the context, will see it was not meant of Of bell.
derstanding the Scriptures literally, have plunged the a middle state. From the dead living unto God, our
bis Second Epistle to the Corinthians. To this argu-