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that of the minuend instead of adding, remembering always first to reduce every

fraction to the same denominator, whether there be two or more.

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NOTES OF LESSONS.
ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE.

No. III.
JERUSALEM.

Psalm xlviii. 1-3. Of all the places in the Holy Land, , people, to make a profound impression none excite so much interest, or have on their minds of the evil of sin, and connected with them so many engrossing to keep alive the hope of a Messiah. associations as its capital, Jerusalem. This special worship for the whole peoThe capital of a country embodies the ple occurred three times a year. Deut. very character of that country; hence xvi. 16. Jerusalem, as the capital, would be

III. It is remarkable for its associalinked with the object for which Pales- tions with our blessed Redeemer. tine had been selected as the residence Though our Saviour is only recorded of God's peculiar people, (see Lesson I., to have made five visits to this place, and revise,) and hence we might infer yet here some of His most remarkable that it also would be a chosen place. discourses were delivered, and in it, or It was so. I. Kings, xi., 32.

its vicinity, some of His most splendid I. Its early history.

miracles performed; while the most The notices are few and scattered. It thrilling recollections are connected is supposed to have been founded by with the brook Cedron, the garden of Melchizedec. Gen. xiv. 18. It was the Gethsemane, the Dolorous way,Calvary, scene of the offering of Isaac. Gen. and the Mount of Olives. xxii. 2. Also 2 Chron, iii, 1. In the IV. It was a type of the Church of time of Joshua it was in the possession God. of the Jebusites, Josh, xv. 63. and was 1. As such it was the place of His known as Jebusi, as well as by the special presence. Here were the Temple, name of Jerusalem. Josh. xviii. 16. the Ark, and the Shechinah. It was, with the exception of the 2. As a type, it was emblematic of the strong-hold of Mount Zion, wrested Church's security. It was well secured; from them by the tribe of Judah. on three of its sides it had a deep valJudges i. 8. It became a part of Ben- ley, known as those of Jehoshaphat

, jamin's possessions, Josh. xviii. 28; Hinnom, and Gihon. It was surroundand was subsequently made the capital ed also by mountains. Built on hills, of the country by David. 2 Samuel surrounded by valleys, and these again v. 549.

by mountains, it presented an appearII. It was the scene of the special ance of compactness and security, worship of God.

which excited the admiration of all It was chosen,

beholders. Ps. cxxii. 3. Ps. CXXV. 1. As the repository of the Ark of the 1-2 Lament. iv. 12. It was well Covenant (1 Chron. xv. 1–4) and of the adapted then as an emblem of that Law. The two tables of stone and the security which is promised to the original books of Moses were placed in Church. Matt. xvi. 18. the Ark. Deut. xxxi. 24-26.

3. Of its beauty. Lament. ii. 15. 2. For His worship,-for that special And the Church is to be presented to worship, which was designed to keep God without spot or wrinkle or any Israel in remembrance of the great such thing. Rev. xxi. 2, 23. design of their existence as a separate

G.

ON THE FLOOD. I. Obtain from the children some ac- Months have elapsed and still the

count of the nature, causes, and con- Ark floats upon the bosom of the sequences of an ordinary flood. waters. As they subside it rests upon II. Picture out elliptically the circum- the top of a high mountain. From

stances connected with the universal the window a raven is set forth, which deluge.

rests upon the carcases and returns to III. Draw out the lessons to be derived. | the Ark no more. A dove (emblem of

I. Causes -- Heavy rains, breaking peace) is also sent out, which returns down of embankments, and the melt- to the hand of the patriarch. Again it is ing of snow Consequences — The sent forth, and in the evening it comes destruction of property, and sometimes back carrying in its routh a leaf of life.

plucked from the olive tree. At length II.-Picture out to the children a the earth is dry, and the voice of venerable and aged man working upon Jehovah calls upon the people to issue a structure of huge proportions-a rude forth. The Ark is again empty; and kind of ship or vessel. As he labors around an altar (whereon are laid birds from day to day his neighbours collect and beasts of various kinds) stand the in crowds to mock and deride him. greteful family. The smoke of the Some pity his credulity; others inter- affering rises heavenwards, while the rupt his labors : still he toils on un- vcice of God comforts the wo hippers mindful of their mockery. Ever and with the assurance that the waters of anon he pauses in his work to warn

a flood shall never again spread over his hearers of the impending wrath of the face of the whole earth. an angry God. The aged patriarch Obtain from the children the names and his sons shudder at their blasphemy of the persons in the ark, the date of and weep for their fate. The long-ex- the deluge, and the length of time pected day has now arrived : within Noah and his family remained in the the limits of the Ark are assembled ark. birds and beasts of every kind. The

III. Draw out the Lessons. patriarch and his children are also 1. The Ark is typical of Christ's there. The Lord has closed upon them Church. Noah' and his family found the door of the Ark, and all within is safety there : we are safe if in Christ hushed. Suddenly the noise of the and in union with His Church. rushing of water breaks upon their

Though destruction walk around us,

Though the arrow past us fly, ears: the cries of drowning mortals

Angel guards from Thee surround us, rise high and clear above the war of We are safe if Thou art nigh. the surging deluge. Without is one

Though the night be dark and dreary, scene of confusion : the husband for

Darkness cannot hide from Thee;

Thou art He who (never weary) sakes his wife, and the mother the Watchest where Thy people be. child of her bosom. Each one's exer- 2. The destruction of mankind was tions are made in his own behalf. a punishment for their sins.

“ Your Many turn with anxious face towards sins will find you out.” the Ark and try in vain to reach it; 3. A timely repentance would have they fall down and are overwhelmed. saved them. See the case of Nineveh : Others gain the rocks and mountains God said upon the repantance of and find there a fancied security. The the inhabitants of that city, “Shall I vessel floats upon the tempestuous sea not spare Nineveh, that great city?" of waters, and the cries of the sufferers 4. If we neglect God's warnings, are less frequent. (Here produce a He will send upon us a swift destrucpicture of the scene.) The patriarch, tion. “My Spirit shall not always his sons, and their wives fall upon their strive with man.” knecs in silent thankfulness.

5. The depravity of mankind was

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the consequence of the intermarriages Review the lesson briefly, and call of the sons of God with the daughters upon the children to adduce examples of men. From this we learn the of persons mentioned in Scripture, danger attendant upon associating with whose sins called forth a remarkable those who lead ungodly lives.

display of God's power. Tell them 6. Noah and his family returned that records of the flood have been found thanks to God upon quitting the Ark. among the Chinese, the Indians, and So let us ever be mindful of His good- | others to whom the Bible was unknown. ness in delivering us from the sorrow Let them draw from this a proof of the and ruin of sin and giving us the light truth of Scripture. A. J. B. of the Gospel.

Bosbury.

HEAT-EXPANSION. Distinguish between heat as a real II. In air and all gases, expansion substance which enters into or passes varies directly as the amount of heat. out of a body, and mere properties Not so with water. The rule holds such as color.

when the temperature is above 40° Proceed to explain the effects of heat (i e.) water condenses more and more or caloric when it enters any substance. down to that point. Below 40° how

1. Expansion. Solids, liquids and ever, the opposite rule holds. Water gases all suffer expansion by heat. then expands. Mark the beauty and

Prove this by experiments. Take a usefulness of this exception. By expiece of iron with an aperture into panding, water becomes ice at 32°, which a rod made of the same material floats, and acting as a blanket prevents exactly fits. Make it red hot and it the entire body of water becoming one will be found too large ; when cool, it mass of ice. The opposite rule would will once more fit.

have impeded navigation and the flow Again in the case of liquids. A child of all water through canals or pipes. cannot fail to have observed that the Exp. Two thermometers, one filled kettle, if placed on the fire, quite full, with water, the other with spirits, will will run over long before it boils. illustrate this peculiar law. Place the

A bladder imperfectly filled with bulbs in melting snow. The spirit will air and tied at the neck will fill sink to 32o--the water will fall to 40° out when placed near the fire, and and then begin to rise, thereby proving again shrink when removed.

its new expansive power. A flask with a long neck, having a Try the intelligence of the class by little water in the neck is inverted and asking why our water pipes are so placed in a vessel of water. Place the often burst in winter? Why a mass bulb near heat when the expanded air of ice floats instead of sinking to the will force out the water, which will re- bottom? turn upon the removal of the flame.

EXAMINATION FOR. CERTIFICATES.
We offered, in a former number, It is important to observe that

many some suggestions to those Masters who candidates with fair attainments, fail wish to prepare themselves for the in the exposition of their information. General Examination for Certificates. It is not enough to read for these We resume this subject; and we examinations ; candidates should would repeat that a Candidate should habituate themselves to express their rather seek to acquire thoroughness and knowledge with ease and perspicuity, minute accuracy in the elementary and answers should be written to subjects than to take in a wide and examination papers which have been loose amount of information.

previously proposed. The style of an answer tells much about the candidate; , this point. They should be acquainted and will necessarily affect an examiner's with some of the most useful rules of estimate of its merit. What seems to mental arithmetic and be able to prove be wanted is a correct, terse, and com- them as they would do to a class of prehensive mode of expression.

children, Practical book-keeping We will suppose our reader (for we should be studied in its principal wish these remarks to be as practical departments. as possible), seated with his examina- Algebra. It will not be necessary tion papers before him. He will first for candidates to work out all the exhave to select that question in each amples on the different rules which section which he can master best, and may be given in the Algebra they use be careful to ascertain its exact scope. when going through it for the first He may next rapidly analyze his time. The proofs of rules for the answer within his mind, and perhaps multiplication and division of quantities jot down on rough paper the main facts with indices, of the G. C. Measure and or points which need to be brought out. L. C. Multiple, the extraction of the These, with such collateral information square root, &c. should be attended to; as seems to come within the range of examples in fractions and equations the answer, will next be put together should often be worked. Some assison his paper; and he should seek, on tance from others will save much time the one hand, to avoid that extreme in the study of this subject, if it can conciseness which would make his in- / be obtained. formation appear meagre and frag- Euclid and Mensuration. The first mentary, and would render the com- of these subjects will well repay attenposition bald and imperfect:-and, on tion in the case of many candidates, the other hand, that wordiness and for, except in the deductions, every amplification which would dilute its question which is set will be familiar strength and prevent the facts which to them. We recommend candidates were adduced from being viewed in to write out their propositions as they their due relations.

are presented in Pott's Euclid. We would recommend candidates to In Mensuration, the proofs of the make a certain allotment of time for rules should be acquired. In Tate's the preparatory study of each subject, Mensuration he will find a compendium and then to take up some examination of Trigonometry which will be suffipapers on the same subject which have cient for his purpose. But we do not been previously proposed at the annual recommend candidates to expend time examinations. It is probable that in on the higher mathematics, unless they many cases they would be able to obtain are well acquainted with the elementary the assistance of friends who would subjects and are reading rather for a class set them similar questions, and review than a certificate. In our opinion it their answers.

would be well if the examination We shall now make a few remarks papers contained less of high analysis, on the several subjects of examination and if some questions on the Natural which may assist candidates in thetr History Sciences were substituted in previous self-tuition. Two of these, its stead. At present there is no induce-Holy Scripture and School Manage- ment given to the candidates at the ment have been already mentioned. general Examination, or to students at

The paper on Arithmetic is one of the Normal Colleges to study the much importance. Candidates should latter. be able to explain its elementary pro- We will add, in our next number, cesses in the way which would make a few remarks on those subjects which them most intelligible to children, and have not yet been noticed, and meanto elucidate each successive step. while subjoin a list of text-books which Tate's Arithmetic will assist them in appear most adapted to the wants of candidates.

Geography.-Hughes; Cornwell; Holy Scripture. Cambridge Analysis, Sullivan. Nicholl's 's Help, &c.

Grammar, and History of the LanSchool Management, Method, &c.- guage.—Pupil Teacher's Grammar. Stow's Training System; Dawes’ English History.--Ince's Outlines; Suggestive Hints; Willm's Education Farr; Christian Knowledge Society's of the People.

School History. + Arithmetic.—Tate, Colenso, Hunter. Astronomy.-Moseley; Reid ; Tate ; Euclid.-Potts. Algebra.—Colenso. Tate's Mechanics and Tate's Diff. Cal

Mensuration, Trigonometry. — Tate, | culus will also be useful. Ingram.

Liturgy, &c. Tract 3 for Pupil Physical Science. - Scottish School Teachers. Tract by Christian KnowBook Association ; Comstock; Joyce. | ledge Society.

SCHOOL ACCOUNTS.

“The school accounts, which are re- schools should as far as possible be quired, are by no means of a complex, scrupulously exact-free from all susor difficult character, or at all such as picions of negligence, management, or to demand for their correct keeping any trick-and, in short, so characterized by great sacrifice of labour or attention; perfect good faith in all their details, as on the contrary, they are in themselves to be thoroughly trustworthy. Else, very simple, and could, I believe, be at how are we to know, and surely we all times kept in a fit state for inspection ought to know, what is the true state of by the expenditure of a very small education among us? to what extent it amount of care on the part of the teachers has been diffused among our people, And I have now some confidence that and in what kind ? its present shortthis care will not be withheld, and that comings and defects, and the remedies in future they will be so kept as to af- likely to remove them? For example, ford true aid to him whose business it is evident that the average age at leads him to consult them. The Register which children commence to attend and Report Book should be kept fully school, and that at which they leave off, according to their respective headings, with the time actually spent by them and in strict conformity with the printed under the eye of their instructor, are directions by wbich they are prefaced ; three elements absolutely necessary to the class rolls again should be duly be known by all those who are called closed at the end of each quarter, by upon either to frame suitable measures having entered, in the two columns to for the education of a people, or, when the right, the days of attendance or framed, wisely to direct their adminisnon-attendance for each child re-tration. Let but one of these elements spectively, and when closed, should be materially vary, then go too must the neatly bound up together, and with whole course of instruction—books, those that preceded them, carefully pre- subjects, and methods ; for it is obvious served for future reference.

that a population whose children should “It might seem, but for the inatten- remain but a very short period at school, tion hitherto paid to the matter, almost say some ten or thirteen months, and needless to remark, that it is of the very that only during their tenderest years, first importance that the statistics of our' and one whose children shonld be found

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