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that of the minuend instead of adding, remembering always first to fraction to the same denominator, whether there be two
reduce every or more.
NOTES OF LESSONS.
ON THE GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE.
Of all the places in the Holy Land, none excite so much interest, or have connected with them so many engrossing associations as its capital, Jerusalem. The capital of a country embodies the very character of that country; hence Jerusalem, as the capital, would be linked with the object for which Palestine had been selected as the residence
of God's peculiar people, (see Lesson I., and revise,) and hence we might infer that it also would be a chosen place. It was so. I. Kings, xi., 32.
I. Its early history.
The notices are few and scattered. It is supposed to have been founded by Melchizedec. Gen. xiv. 18. It was the scene of the offering of Isaac. Gen. xxii. 2. Also 2 Chron. iii. 1. In the time of Joshua it was in the possession of the Jebusites, Josh. xv. 63. and was known as Jebusi, as well as by the name of Jerusalem. Josh. xviii. 16. It was, with the exception of the strong-hold of Mount Zion, wrested from them by the tribe of Judah. Judges i. 8. It became a part of Benjamin's possessions, Josh. xviii. 28; and was subsequently made the capital of the country by David. 2 Samuel v. 5-9.
II. It was the scene of the special worship of God.
It was chosen,
1. As the repository of the Ark of the Covenant (1 Chron. xv. 1-4) and of the Law. The two tables of stone and the original books of Moses were placed in the Ark. Deut. xxxi. 24-26.
2. For His worship, for that special worship, which was designed to keep Israel in remembrance of the great design of their existence as a separate
people, to make a profound impression on their minds of the evil of sin, and to keep alive the hope of a Messiah. This special worship for the whole people occurred three times a year. Deut. xvi. 16.
III. It is remarkable for its associations with our blessed Redeemer.
Though our Saviour is only recorded to have made five visits to this place, yet here some of His most remarkable discourses were delivered, and in it, or its vicinity, some of His most splendid miracles performed; while the most thrilling recollections are connected with the brook Cedron, the garden of Gethsemane, the Dolorous way, Calvary, and the Mount of Olives.
IV. It was a type of the Church of God.
1. As such it was the place of His special presence. Here were the Temple, the Ark, and the Shechinah.
2. As a type, it was emblematic of the Church's security. It was well secured; on three of its sides it had a deep valley, known as those of Jehoshaphat, Hinnom, and Gihon. It was surrounded also by mountains. Built on hills, surrounded by valleys, and these again by mountains, it presented an appearance of compactness and security, which excited the admiration of all beholders. Ps. cxxii. 3. Ps. cxxv. 1-2 Lament. iv. 12. It was well adapted then as an emblem of that security which is promised to the Church. Matt. xvi. 18.
3. Of its beauty. Lament. ii. 15. And the Church is to be presented to God without spot or wrinkle or any such thing. Rev. xxi. 2, 23.
I. Obtain from the children some account of the nature, causes, and consequences of an ordinary flood. II. Picture out elliptically the circumstances connected with the universal deluge.
III. Draw out the lessons to be derived. I. Causes-Heavy rains, breaking down of embankments, and the melting of snow. Consequences The destruction of property, and sometimes of life.
II. Picture out to the children a venerable and aged man working upon a structure of huge proportions-a rude kind of ship or vessel. As he labors from day to day his neighbours collect in crowds to mock and deride him. Some pity his credulity; others interrupt his labors: still he toils on unmindful of their mockery. Ever and anon he pauses in his work to warn his hearers of the impending wrath of an angry God. The aged patriarch and his sons shudder at their blasphemy and weep for their fate. The long-expected day has now arrived: within the limits of the Ark are assembled birds and beasts of every kind. The patriarch and his children are also there. The Lord has closed upon them the door of the Ark, and all within is hushed. Suddenly the noise of the rushing of water breaks upon their ears the cries of drowning mortals rise high and clear above the war of the surging deluge. Without is one scene of confusion: the husband forsakes his wife, and the mother the child of her bosom. Each one's exertions are made in his own behalf. Many turn with anxious face towards the Ark and try in vain to reach it; they fall down and are overwhelmed. Others gain the rocks and mountains and find there a fancied security. The vessel floats upon the tempestuous sea of waters, and the cries of the sufferers are less frequent. (Here produce a picture of the scene.) The patriarch, his sons, and their wives fall upon their knees in silent thankfulness.
Months have elapsed and still the Ark floats upon the bosom of the waters. As they subside it rests upon the top of a high mountain. From the window a raven is set forth, which rests upon the carcases and returns to the Ark no more. A dove (emblem of peace) is also sent out, which returns to the hand of the patriarch. Again it is sent forth, and in the evening it comes back carrying in its outh a leaf plucked from the olive tree. At length the earth is dry, and the voice of Jehovah calls upon the people to issue forth. The Ark is again empty; and around an altar (whereon are laid birds and beasts of various kinds) stand the greteful family. The smoke of the affering rises heavenwards, while the vcice of God comforts the worshippers with the assurance that the waters of a flood shall never again spread over the face of the whole earth.
Obtain from the children the names
of the persons in the ark, the date of the deluge, and the length of time Noah and his family remained in the ark.
III. Draw out the Lessons.
1. The Ark is typical of Christ's Church. Noah and his family found safety there: we are safe if in Christ and in union with His Church.
Though destruction walk around us,
Though the arrow past us fly,
Watchest where Thy people be. 2. The destruction of mankind was a punishment for their sins. "Your sins will find you out."
3. A timely repentance would have saved them. See the case of Nineveh : God said upon the repantance of the inhabitants of that city, "Shall I not spare Nineveh, that great city?"
4. If we neglect God's warnings, He will send upon us a swift destruction. "My Spirit shall not always strive with man."
5. The depravity of mankind was
the consequence of the intermarriages of the sons of God with the daughters of men. From this we learn the danger attendant upon associating with those who lead ungodly lives.
6. Noah and his family returned thanks to God upon quitting the Ark. So let us ever be mindful of His goodness in delivering us from the sorrow and ruin of sin and giving us the light of the Gospel.
Review the lesson briefly, and call upon the children to adduce examples of persons mentioned in Scripture, whose sins called forth a remarkable display of God's power. Tell them that records of the flood have been found among the Chinese, the Indians, and others to whom the Bible was unknown. Let them draw from this a proof of the truth of Scripture. A. J. B. Bosbury.
Distinguish between heat as a real substance which enters into or passes out of a body, and mere properties such as color.
Proceed to explain the effects of heat or caloric when it enters any substance. 1. Expansion. Solids, liquids and gases all suffer expansion by heat.
Prove this by experiments. Take a piece of iron with an aperture into which a rod made of the same material exactly fits. Make it red hot and it will be found too large; when cool, it will once more fit.
Again in the case of liquids. A child cannot fail to have observed that the kettle, if placed on the fire, quite full, will run over long before it boils.
A bladder imperfectly filled with air and tied at the neck will fill out when placed near the fire, and again shrink when removed.
A flask with a long neck, having a little water in the neck is inverted and placed in a vessel of water. Place the bulb near heat when the expanded air will force out the water, which will return upon the removal of the flame.
II. In air and all gases, expansion varies directly as the amount of heat.
Not so with water. The rule holds when the temperature is above 40° (i e.) water condenses more and more down to that point. Below 40° however, the opposite rule holds. Water then expands. Mark the beauty and usefulness of this exception. By expanding, water becomes ice at 32°, floats, and acting as a blanket prevents the entire body of water becoming one mass of ice. The opposite rule would have impeded navigation and the flow of all water through canals or pipes.
Exp. Two thermometers, one filled with water, the other with spirits, will illustrate this peculiar law. Place the bulbs in melting snow. The spirit will sink to 32°-the water will fall to 40° and then begin to rise, thereby proving its new expansive power.
Try the intelligence of the class by asking why our water pipes are so often burst in winter? Why a mass of ice floats instead of sinking to the bottom?
EXAMINATION FOR CERTIFICATES.
We offered, in a former number, some suggestions to those Masters who wish to prepare themselves for the General Examination for Certificates. We resume this subject; and we would repeat that a Candidate should rather seek to acquire thoroughness and minute accuracy in the elementary subjects than to take in a wide and loose amount of information.
It is important to observe that many candidates with fair attainments, fail in the exposition of their information. It is not enough to read for these examinations; candidates should habituate themselves to express their knowledge with ease and perspicuity, and answers should be written to examination papers which have been previously proposed. The style of an
answer tells much about the candidate; and will necessarily affect an examiner's estimate of its merit. What seems to be wanted is a correct, terse, and comprehensive mode of expression.
We will suppose our reader (for we wish these remarks to be as practical as possible), seated with his examination papers before him. He will first have to select that question in each section which he can master best, and be careful to ascertain its exact scope. He may next rapidly analyze his answer within his mind, and perhaps jot down on rough paper the main facts or points which need to be brought out. These, with such collateral information as seems to come within the range of the answer, will next be put together on his paper; and he should seek, on the one hand, to avoid that extreme conciseness which would make his information appear meagre and fragmentary, and would render the composition bald and imperfect:-and, on the other hand, that wordiness and amplification which would dilute its strength and prevent the facts which were adduced from being viewed in their due relations.
We would recommend candidates to make a certain allotment of time for the preparatory study of each subject, and then to take up some examinationpapers on the same subject which have been previously proposed at the annual examinations. It is probable that in many cases they would be able to obtain the assistance of friends who would set them similar questions, and review their answers.
We shall now make a few remarks on the several subjects of examination which may assist candidates in thetr previous self-tuition. Two of these, -Holy Scripture and School Management have been already mentioned.
The paper on Arithmetic is one of much importance. Candidates should be able to explain its elementary processes in the way which would make them most intelligible to children, and to elucidate each successive step. Tate's Arithmetic will assist them in
this point. They should be acquainted with some of the most useful rules of mental arithmetic and be able to prove them as they would do to a class of children. Practical book-keeping should be studied in its principal departments.
Algebra. It will not be necessary for candidates to work out all the examples on the different rules which may be given in the Algebra they use when going through it for the first time. The proofs of rules for the multiplication and division of quantities with indices, of the G. C. Measure and L. C. Multiple, the extraction of the square root, &c. should be attended to; examples in fractions and equations should often be worked. Some assistance from others will save much time in the study of this subject, if it can be obtained.
Euclid and Mensuration. The first of these subjects will well repay attention in the case of many candidates, for, except in the deductions, every question which is set will be familiar to them. We recommend candidates to write out their propositions as they are presented in Pott's Euclid.
In Mensuration, the proofs of the rules should be acquired. In Tate's Mensuration he will find a compendium of Trigonometry which will be sufficient for his purpose. But we do not recommend candidates to expend time on the higher mathematics, unless they are well acquainted with the elementary subjects and are reading rather for a class than a certificate. In our opinion it would be well if the examination papers contained less of high analysis, and if some questions on the Natural History Sciences were substituted in its stead. At present there is no inducement given to the candidates at the general Examination, or to students at the Normal Colleges to study the latter.
We will add, in our next number, a few remarks on those subjects which have not yet been noticed, and meanwhile subjoin a list of text-books which appear most adapted to the wants of
"The school accounts, which are required, are by no means of a complex, or difficult character, or at all such as to demand for their correct keeping any great sacrifice of labour or attention; on the contrary, they are in themselves very simple, and could, I believe, be at all times kept in a fit state for inspection by the expenditure of a very small amount of care on the part of the teachers And I have now some confidence that this care will not be withheld, and that in future they will be so kept as to afford true aid to him whose business leads him to consult them. The Register and Report Book should be kept fully according to their respective headings, and in strict conformity with the printed directions by which they are prefaced; the class rolls again should be duly closed at the end of each quarter, by having entered, in the two columns to the right, the days of attendance or non-attendance for each child respectively, and when closed, should be neatly bound up together, and with those that preceded them, carefully preserved for future reference.
"It might seem, but for the inattention hitherto paid to the matter, almost needless to remark, that it is of the very first importance that the statistics of our
schools should as far as possible be scrupulously exact-free from all suspicions of negligence, management, or trick-and, in short, so characterized by perfect good faith in all their details, as to be thoroughly trustworthy. Else, how are we to know, and surely we ought to know, what is the true state of education among us? to what extent it has been diffused among our people, and in what kind? its present shortcomings and defects, and the remedies likely to remove them? For example, it is evident that the average age at which children commence to attend school, and that at which they leave off, with the time actually spent by them under the eye of their instructor, are three elements absolutely necessary to be known by all those who are called upon either to frame suitable measures for the education of a people, or, when framed, wisely to direct their administration. Let but one of these elements materially vary, then so too must the whole course of instruction-books, subjects, and methods; for it is obvious that a population whose children should remain but a very short period at school, say some ten or thirteen months, and that only during their tenderest years, and one whose children should be found