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to remain treble or quadruple that time, and extensive culture in the teachers and that too up to years of riper youth, selected, while in the other the inwould require very different treatment struction given would be necessarily so at the hands of the legislature in every- | limited to the simplest elements of thing pertaining to education. In the knowledge, as to require for its commuone case the studies of the pupils might nication men of humble views rather properly be both varied and compre- than large attainments.”Report of hensive, and such as to demand refined | Irish Education Board.


“What is termed the “Use of the should not be learned; but they should Globes,' and which, if we are speaking be kept out of sight until after the mind of early education, might be called the has become familiar with the visible abuse of them, affords another instance realities to which they relate. A desof that mistaken practice which, while cription of the earth, combining many it offends nature, actually shuts out in- topics, separately treated of in five or telligence from all but the most actively six sciences--that is to say, astronomy, intellectual minds. Instead of placing geography, geology, hydrography, mibefore the learner, in the first place, the neralogy, meteorology, and, to some palpable, visible, and picturesque facts extent, natural history, affords as good of physical astronomy, and physical an opportunity as we can anywhere find geography, and which few children for calling the Conceptive faculty into would fail to listen to with delight; the play, and for enriching it with splendid Teacher, book in hand, or forcing the ideas. What we want, in the training book into the hands of the learner,afflicts of this faculty, is to accustom the mind him in some such style as this—The to stretch out from the boundary of Colures are two great circles, imagined things actually seen, and to give itself to intersect each other at right angles in a sort of intellectual ubiquity, by that the poles of the world: one of them passes effort which realizes remote scenes as through the solstitial, and the other analagous to surrounding objects; and through the equinoctial point of the yet as unlike them. A child is to be ecliptic, whence the first is denominated led on, until he breaks over his home the solstitial, and the second the equi- horizon; he is to be exercised and innoctial colure. This last determines formed until he can wing his way, north the equinoxes, and the former the sol- or south, east or west; and can show, stices, &c. &c. Such is the style in in apt and vivid language, that his imawhich mere children are sometimes in- gination has actually taken the leap, troduced to the sciences, and thus are and has returned—whether it be from alienated from subjects in which they the tempest-rocked Hebrides, or the might have found pleasure. The par- ice-bound northern ocean; from the red agraph just cited occurs on only the man's wilderness of the West, or from sixth page of a much-used school book, the steppes of central Asia; from the and if rendered into Dutch or Chinese, teeming swamps of the Amazon, or would scarcely prove less beneficial to from the sirocco deserts of Africa, or thousands of those who, in their sor- from the tufted islets of the Pacific, rowful school days, learn, repeat, and or from the heaving flanks of Etna, or instantly afterwards forget it. It is not the marbled shores of Greece."-Taythat the technical parts of the sciences' lor's Home Education.


CORRESPONDENCE. To the Editor of the Papers for the Schoolmaster." SIR,-Would any one of your numerous readers, who is a successful Teacher of Writing kindly communicate the result of his experience and method in teaching so necessary a branch of Education. I suppose simply the use of ruled copy-books.

In a school of moderate attainments, where the average age is low, and the books are supplied by the Committee, what number per cent, should write on paper.


To the Editor of the Papers for the Schoolmaster.

SIR, -I should be very thankful to any of your correspondents who would favour me with the best method for teaching a mixed class of boys. The School is a mixed one of boys and girls; and in the morning they are together, but in the afternoon they are separate--the girls are at needlework. Then the first class is made up of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd classes which, of course, vary much.

I remain, yours, &c., January 9th, 1852.



To the Editor of the Papers for the Schoolmaster."

SIR,—In answer to the request made in your January number on the subject of Chalk Map Drawing, I beg to submit the following as the result of considerable experience:

In the first year of my apprenticeship as Pupil-Teacher, I received instructions on this important element of a Pupil-Teacher's education. The first thing to be done in learning to draw a map from memory, is to construct some plain figure, the angles of which should fall, when applied to the map, on some of the principal features of the land. Experience however, has taught a great deal with respect to the choice of figures to be used. At first it was a practice with me (and my fellow pupil-teachers too), to use a triangle to assist in drawing England ; in which the angles fell upon Berwick-on-Tweed, Land's End, and North Foreland. Similarly a rhomboid was used for Ireland. But here a difficulty was found in drawing the figure intended to assist; the result has been, that the pupil-teachers of the school in which I teach, have abandoned the use of those irregular figures for squares ; although, in some instances, a triangle in connection with a square may be made available; in which case the sides of the triangle are easily determined, as they may be made to bear a definite proportion to those of the square. Numerous other points besides these on the angles may also be accurately determined, by being one-half, one-third, one-fourth along the sides of the square. England affords us an example in which a triangle in connection with a square renders great assistance; the sides of the triangle being equal to those of the square. A square and equilateral triangle constructed upon a line joining the Northern extremity of Cardigan Bay and the North West corner of Norfolk, gives a frame work upon which a pupil may soon learn to draw England with all its counties; anything beyond this can of course be put in with ease. Placing this framework upon a map, the base of the triangle joining the points before-mentioned, the vertex of the triangle will fall just below Berwick-onTweed, the south-west corner of the square just below Plymouth Sound; while the southeast corner marks nothing definitely. A few other important points are determined as follows:-Walney Isle in the point of bisection of the west side of the triangle; Worm's Head on the point of bisection of the West side of the square; just opposite, the Thames, a little below the Half-way; in the centre of the square, the north-east corner of Wiltshire. But to enumerate all the points that may be strictly and accurately determined would be endless: they may be easily found by the pupil, and as easily remembered.

Scotland, Ireland, Europe, Asia, North America, Palestine and St. Paul's Travels, an. done with squares exclusively.

T. B.


Christmas, 1851. (£25.)



First Class,
Beale, William

Q. S. of 1850
Bethell, Samuel

Calne Middle School
Brereton, Ebenezer

Ipswich, St. Clements
Crow, William

Lockwood N. S.
Davies, George

Pembroke Dock N. S.
Gibson, George

Derby, Curzon Street N. S.
Hancock, John

Q. S. of 1850
Harding, Thomas

Winchester, Central
Haworth, James

Q. S. of 1850
Makins, William..

Sheffield, St. Mary's
Pritchard, George

Q. S. of 1850
Saunders, Henry.

Q. S. of 1850 The following Candidates would have obtained Queen's Scholarships, but for the restriction on the number which the Training College was allowed to admit:

First Class.-W. White, G. Ayres, J. R. Rockett, J. Graham, J. B. Chick, J. Bond, W. Smith, J. Hill, A. Cooper, F. Tucker, H. Edsor, E. T. Stephens, and T. C. Hatton.

Second Class.-J. Wood, A. Howard, F. Cole, W. H. Salome, J. Kay, and H. Robins.


First Class Scholarship (£16 138. 4d.)
Chivers, Ann

Bowood School

Second Class (£13 6s. 8d.)
Baldwin, Emma .

Cheltenham, St. John's N. S.
Blake, Mary

Westbury, Heywood House S.
Clarke, Marianne..

Gordon Square, All Saints
Clubb, Martha

Baldwin's Gardens N. S.

italics :




them swayed most, but that the very ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND THE attempt of this address thus made, and HISTORY OF ENGLISH

the thought of whom it hath recourse

to, hath got the power within me to a LITERATURE.

passion, far more welcome than inci( Continued from our January Number.) dental to a preface.” SECTION III.

Milton.-Areopagitica. Paraphrase one of the following pas

EUCLID. sages, and parse the words printed in

SECTION I: 1. 'Tis greatly wise to fall with our past bours;

1. If from the ends of the sides of a - And ask them what report they bore to triangle there be drawn a straight line Heaven;

to a point within the triangle, these And, how they might have borne more welcome news.

shall be less than the other two sides of Their answers form what men experience the triangle, but shall contain a greater call;

angle. It wisdom's friend, her best; if not, worst foe.

2. In any right angled triangle the

Young. square which is described on the side 2. This sacred right the lisping babe pro- sub-tending the right angle is equal to

the sum of the squares described upon To be inherent in him, by Heaven's will, the sides which contain the right angle. For the protection of his innocence; And the rude boy, who, having overpast

3. If a straight line be divided into The sinless age, by conscience is enrolled, any two parts, the squares of the whole Yet mutinously knits his angry brow, And lifts his wilful hand on mischief bent, to twice the rectangle contained by the

line, and of one of the parts, are equal Or turns the godlike faculty of speech To impious use-by process indirect whole and that part, together with the Declares his due, while he makes known square of the other part. his need. Wordsworth.--Excursion.

SECTION II. • i.e. Education.

1. If in a circle two straight lines 3. “They, who to states and gover- cut one another, which do not both nors of the commonwealth direct their pass through the centre. they do not speech, high court of parliament! or, bisect each other. wanting such access in a private condi- 2. The diameter is the greatest tion, write that which they foresee may straight line in a circle; and of all the advance the public good; I suppose others, that which is nearer to the centhem, as at the beginning of no mean

tre is always greater than the one endeavour, not a little altered and more remote: and the greater is always moved inwardly in their minds; some

nearer to the centre than the less. with doubt of what will be the success, 3. To inscribe a circle in a given others with fear of what will be the

square. censure; some with hope, others with

SECTION III. confidence of what they have to speak. And me perhaps each of these disposi- 1. In a right angled triangle, if a tions, as the subject was whereon I en- perpendicular be drawn from the right tered, may at other times have affected; angle to the base, the triangles on each and, likely, might in these foremost side of it are similar to the whole expressions now also disclose which of I triangle and to one another.

2. Equal triangles, which have one CATECHISM, LITURGY, AND angle of the one equal to one angle of CHURCH HISTORY. the other, have their sides about their

SECTION I. equal angles reciprocally proportional. 1. “ What is thy duty towards

3. Equiangular paralellograms have God?” to one another the ratio which is com- Give Scriptural authority for each pounded of the ratios of their sides.

clause in answer to this question in the

Catechism ; and explain the three last SECTION IV.

clauses as you would to a class in 1. Upon a given base to describe an your School. isosceles triangle equal to a given rect- 2. “My good child, know this, that angle.

thou art not able to do these things of 2. To find a point within a triangle, thyself, nor to walk in the commandso that lines drawn to the angles shall ments of God, and to serve Him, withdivide the triangle into three equal out His special grace; which thou parts.

must learn at all times to call for by 3. Show that the lines which bisect diligent prayer." the angles of a paralellogram form a Explain this passage from the Caterectangle.

chism, and show that it rests on the 4. The perpendiculars let fall from authority of God's word. the three angles of any triangle on the

SECTION II. opposite sides, intersect each other in 1. Write down the first six clauses the same point.

of the General Confession, and give

Scriptural illustrations of them. Why MENSURATION.

is it called the General Confession? SECTION I.

Why is the confession of sin properly

made the first act of public worship? 1. Prove the rule for determining 2. Into what four principal parts is the area of a triangle, having given the Litany properly divisible: what the base and the perpendicular upon it supplications belong to these four parts from the opposite angle.

respectively 2. Prove the rule for finding the area 3. “In all time of our tribulation; of a triangle, having given the sides.

in all time of our wealth ; in the hour 3. Prove the formula for determining of death, and in the day of judgment, the volume of earth taken from an ex

Good Lord deliver us.cavation; known as the Prismoidal Why need we pray for deliverance at Formula:

these times; and what scriptural SECTION II.

ground have we for hoping that our

prayers will be heard ? 1. What is the area of a room 16 ft.

SECTION III. 7 in. long, and 13 ft. 5 in. wide ? Prove 1. What is recorded of the diffusion each step in the operation and inter- of Christianity in the first ages of the pret each in the result.

Church 2. There is a goblet of gold the price 2. Give some account of the perseof which is £100. What would be the cutions of the primitive Church? price of a similar goblet which would 3. Give some account of the divicontain twice as much? The thickness sions or schisms of the early Church. of the gold in the two goblets is to be Distinguish between a schism and a the same.

heresy. 3. A circular ring is to be constructed

SECTION IV. with a given quantity of iron so as to 1. Who were the most remarkable of have a given surface; the section of the martyrs of the early Church ? Give the iron of the ring is to be square ; a more particular account of one of determine its dimensions.


Printed by G. Norman, 9, Clarence Street, Cheltenham.

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