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to remain treble or quadruple that time, and that too up to years of riper youth, would require very different treatment at the hands of the legislature in everything pertaining to education. In the one case the studies of the pupils might properly be both varied and comprehensive, and such as to demand refined

and extensive culture in the teachers selected, while in the other the instruction given would be necessarily so limited to the simplest elements of knowledge, as to require for its communication men of humble views rather than large attainments."-Report of | Irish Education Board.

THE CONCEPTIVE FACULTY.

"What is termed the 'Use of the Globes,' and which, if we are speaking of early education, might be called the abuse of them, affords another instance of that mistaken practice which, while it offends nature, actually shuts out intelligence from all but the most actively intellectual minds. Instead of placing before the learner, in the first place, the palpable, visible, and picturesque facts of physical astronomy, and physical geography, and which few children would fail to listen to with delight; the Teacher, book in hand, or forcing the book into the hands of the learner, afflicts him in some such style as this-The Colures are two great circles, imagined to intersect each other at right angles in the poles of the world: one of them passes through the solstitial, and the other through the equinoctial point of the ecliptic, whence the first is denominated the solstitial, and the second the equinoctial colure. This last determines the equinoxes, and the former the solstices, &c. &c. Such is the style in which mere children are sometimes introduced to the sciences, and thus are alienated from subjects in which they might have found pleasure. The paragraph just cited occurs on only the sixth page of a much-used school book, and if rendered into Dutch or Chinese, would scarcely prove less beneficial to thousands of those who, in their sorrowful school days, learn, repeat, and instantly afterwards forget it. It is not that the technical parts of the sciences

should not be learned; but they should be kept out of sight until after the mind has become familiar with the visible realities to which they relate. A description of the earth, combining many topics, separately treated of in five or six sciences-that is to say, astronomy, geography, geology, hydrography, mineralogy, meteorology, and, to some extent, natural history, affords as good an opportunity as we can anywhere find for calling the Conceptive faculty into play, and for enriching it with splendid ideas. What we want, in the training of this faculty, is to accustom the mind to stretch out from the boundary of things actually seen, and to give itself a sort of intellectual ubiquity, by that effort which realizes remote scenes as analagous to surrounding objects; and yet as unlike them. A child is to be led on, until he breaks over his home horizon; he is to be exercised and informed until he can wing his way, north or south, east or west; and can show, in apt and vivid language, that his imagination has actually taken the leap, and has returned-whether it be from the tempest-rocked Hebrides, or the ice-bound northern ocean; from the red man's wilderness of the West, or from the steppes of central Asia; from the teeming swamps of the Amazon, or from the sirocco deserts of Africa, or from the tufted islets of the Pacific, or from the heaving flanks of Etna, or the marbled shores of Greece."-Taylor's Home Education.

CORRESPONDENCE.

To the Editor of the "Papers for the Schoolmaster."

SIR,-Would any one of your numerous readers, who is a successful Teacher of Writing kindly communicate the result of his experience and method in teaching so necessary a branch of Education. I suppose simply the use of ruled copy-books.

In a school of moderate attainments, where the average age is low, and the books are supplied by the Committee, what number per cent. should write on paper.

H. EVERS.

To the Editor of the "Papers for the Schoolmaster."

SIR,-I should be very thankful to any of your correspondents who would favour me with the best method for teaching a mixed class of boys. The School is a mixed one of boys and girls; and in the morning they are together, but in the afternoon they are separate-the girls are at needlework. Then the first class is made up of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd classes which, of course, vary much. I remain, yours, &c.,

January 9th, 1852.

A PUPIL-TEACHER.

CHALK MAP DRAWING.

To the Editor of the "Papers for the Schoolmaster."

SIR,-In answer to the request made in your January number on the subject of Chalk Map Drawing, I beg to submit the following as the result of considerable experience :In the first year of my apprenticeship as Pupil-Teacher, I received instructions on this important element of a Pupil-Teacher's education. The first thing to be done in learning to draw a map from memory, is to construct some plain figure, the angles of which should fall, when applied to the map, on some of the principal features of the land. Experience however, has taught a great deal with respect to the choice of figures to be used. At first it was a practice with me (and my fellow pupil-teachers too), to use a triangle to assist in drawing England; in which the angles fell upon Berwick-on-Tweed, Land's End, and North Foreland. Similarly a rhomboid was used for Ireland. But here a difficulty was found in drawing the figure intended to assist; the result has been, that the pupil-teachers of the school in which I teach, have abandoned the use of those irregular figures for squares; although, in some instances, a triangle in connection with a square may be made available; in which case the sides of the triangle are easily determined, as they may be made to bear a definite proportion to those of the square. Numerous other points besides these on the angles may also be accurately determined, by being one-half, one-third, one-fourth along the sides of the square. England affords us an example in which a triangle in connection with a square renders great assistance; the sides of the triangle being equal to those of the square. A square and equilateral triangle constructed upon a line joining the Northern extremity of Cardigan Bay and the North West corner of Norfolk, gives a frame work upon which a pupil may soon learn to draw England with all its counties; anything beyond this can of course be put in with ease. Placing this framework upon a map, the base of the triangle joining the points before-mentioned, the vertex of the triangle will fall just below Berwick-onTweed, the south-west corner of the square just below Plymouth Sound; while the southeast corner marks nothing definitely. A few other important points are determined as follows:-Walney Isle in the point of bisection of the west side of the triangle; Worm's Head on the point of bisection of the West side of the square; just opposite, the Thames, a little below the Half-way; in the centre of the square, the north-east corner of Wiltshire. But to enumerate all the points that may be strictly and accurately determined would be endless: they may be easily found by the pupil, and as easily remembered.

Scotland, Ireland, Europe, Asia, North America, Palestine and St. Paul's Travels, are done with squares exclusively. T. B.

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The following Candidates would have obtained Queen's Scholarships, but for the restriction on the number which the Training College was allowed to admit :

First Class.-W. White, G. Ayres, J. R. Rockett, J. Graham, J. B. Chick, J. Bond, W. Smith, J. Hill, A. Cooper, F. Tucker, H. Edsor, E. T. Stephens, and T. C. Hatton.

Second Class.-J. Wood, H. Howard, F. Cole, W. H. Salome, J. Kay, and H. Robins

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GENERAL EXAMINATION OF TRAINING SCHOOLS. CHRISTMAS, 1851.

(MALE STUDENTS.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE.

(Continued from our January Number.) SECTION III.

Paraphrase one of the following passages, and parse the words printed in italics:

1. 'Tis greatly wise to talk with our past
hours;

-And ask them what report they bore to
Heaven;

And, how they might have borne more
welcome news.

Their answers form what men experience

call;

If wisdom's friend, her best; if not, worst foe. Young.

2. This sacred right the lisping babe pro

claims

To be inherent in him, by Heaven's will,
For the protection of his innocence;
And the rude boy- who, having overpast
The sinless age, by conscience is enrolled,
Yet mutinously knits his angry brow,
And lifts his wilful hand on mischief bent,
Or turns the godlike faculty of speech
To impious use-by process indirect
Declares his due, while he makes known

his need.

Wordsworth.-Excursion.

i.e. Education.

3. "They, who to states and governors of the commonwealth direct their speech, high court of parliament! or, wanting such access in a private condition, write that which they foresee may advance the public good; I suppose them, as at the beginning of no mean endeavour, not a little altered and moved inwardly in their minds; some with doubt of what will be the success, others with fear of what will be the censure; some with hope, others with confidence of what they have to speak. And me perhaps each of these dispositions, as the subject was whereon I entered, may at other times have affected; and, likely, might in these foremost expressions now also disclose which of

them swayed most, but that the very attempt of this address thus made, and the thought of whom it hath recourse to, hath got the power within me to a passion, far more welcome than incidental to a preface."

Milton.-Areopagitica.

EUCLID.

SECTION I:

1. If from the ends of the sides of a triangle there be drawn a straight line to a point within the triangle, these shall be less than the other two sides of the triangle, but shall contain a greater angle.

2. In any right angled triangle the square which is described on the side sub-tending the right angle is equal to the sum of the squares described upon the sides which contain the right angle.

3. If a straight line be divided into any two parts, the squares of the whole line, and of one of the parts, are equal to twice the rectangle contained by the whole and that part, together with the square of the other part.

SECTION II.

1. If in a circle two straight lines cut one another, which do not both pass through the centre. they do not bisect each other.

2. The diameter is the greatest straight line in a circle; and of all the others, that which is nearer to the centre is always greater than the one more remote: and the greater is always nearer to the centre than the less. 3. To inscribe a circle in a given square.

SECTION III.

1. In a right angled triangle, if a perpendicular be drawn from the right angle to the base, the triangles on each side of it are similar to the whole triangle and to one another.

2. Equal triangles, which have one angle of the one equal to one angle of the other, have their sides about their equal angles reciprocally proportional.

3. Equiangular paralellograms have to one another the ratio which is compounded of the ratios of their sides.

SECTION IV.

1. Upon a given base to describe an isosceles triangle equal to a given rectangle.

2. To find a point within a triangle, so that lines drawn to the angles shall divide the triangle into three equal parts.

3. Show that the lines which bisect the angles of a paralellogram form a rectangle.

4. The perpendiculars let fall from the three angles of any triangle on the opposite sides, intersect each other in the same point.

MENSURATION.

SECTION I.

1. Prove the rule for determining the area of a triangle, having given the base and the perpendicular upon it from the opposite angle.

2. Prove the rule for finding the area of a triangle, having given the sides.

3. Prove the formula for determining the volume of earth taken from an ex

cavation; known as the Prismoidal Formula:

SECTION II.

1. What is the area of a room 16 ft. 7 in. long, and 13 ft. 5 in. wide? Prove each step in the operation and interpret each in the result.

2. There is a goblet of gold the price of which is £100. What would be the price of a similar goblet which would contain twice as much? The thickness of the gold in the two goblets is to be the same.

CATECHISM, LITURGY, AND CHURCH HISTORY.

SECTION I.

1. "What is thy duty towards God?"

Give Scriptural authority for each clause in answer to this question in the Catechism; and explain the three last clauses as you would to a class in your School.

2. "My good child, know this, that thou art not able to do these things of thyself, nor to walk in the commandments of God, and to serve Him, without His special grace; which thou must learn at all times to call for by diligent prayer."

Explain this passage from the Catechism, and show that it rests on the authority of God's word.

SECTION II.

1. Write down the first six clauses of the General Confession, and give Scriptural illustrations of them. Why is it called the General Confession? Why is the confession of sin properly made the first act of public worship?

2. Into what four principal parts is the Litany properly divisible: what supplications belong to these four parts respectively?

3. "In all time of our tribulation; in all time of our wealth; in the hour of death, and in the day of judgment, Good Lord deliver us."

Why need we pray for deliverance at these times; and what scriptural ground have we for hoping that our prayers will be heard?

SECTION III.

1. What is recorded of the diffusion of Christianity in the first ages of the Church?

2. Give some account of the persecutions of the primitive Church?

3. Give some account of the divisions or schisms of the early Church. Distinguish between a schism and a heresy.

SECTION IV.

3. A circular ring is to be constructed with a given quantity of iron so as to 1. Who were the most remarkable of have a given surface; the section of the martyrs of the early Church? Give the iron of the ring is to be square; a more particular account of one of

rmine its dimensions.

them.

Printed by G. Norman, 9, Clarence Street, Cheltenham.

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