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service.

turned by the Jasmine and Uno, the two fected a thorough re-organization of the New York harbor-boats, which, until last year, made no returns; but leaving this number out of the account, there remain 493, being more than three times the number seized and reported in any previous year, and more than four times the average.

For the fiscal year ended

June 30, 1865......
June 30, 1866.
June 30, 1867
June 30, 1868.
June 30, 1869
June 30, 1870.
June 30, 1871.
June 30, 1872.......
Previous to 1864 the cost of maintaining
the Revenue Cutter Service cannot well be
ascertained, the accounts not having been
kept separate from the general expenses of
collecting the revenue.

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The reports for the first quarter of the fiscal year, 1873, indicate great improvement even over the last. They give the number of vessels assisted in distress during the months of July, August and September, as 63; the number seized or reported for violation of law, 539; the number of miles sailed, 57,880; the number of vessels boarded and examined, 10,892; and the number of lives saved, 77.

The running expenses of the service for the fiscal year were $930,249.81, being $190,776.62 less than those of the previous year, and $127,389.19 less than the amount appropriated.

Since 1864 the expenses of sustaining the tary of the Treasury states that the number service have been as follows:

of vessels now in commission is thirty-four,

of which thirty are steamers and four sailing

$1,229,434.04 vessels. They are so distributed as to em-
1,777,230.70 brace in their cruising grounds the entire
1,167,125.41 coast of the United States, with the excep-
1,293,661.67 tion of a portion of the Pacific coast, and
1,185,702.26
afford reasonable protection against the smug-
1,133,670.15
1,121,026.43 gling of goods into the country by the cargo.
930,249.81 For the portion of the Pacific coast alluded
to, a vessel was authorized to be built at the
last session of Congress, and plans and spe-
cifications for her construction are now in
preparation.

..

......

Although there has been a steady decrease in expenses from year to year since 1868, as shown by the above statement, the difference between those of the last year and the preceding one considerably exceeds the reduction of all the intervening years.

The services rendered during the fiscal years of 1872-1874, are shown in the following statement:

The increased efficiency and decreased cost above shown are principally due to carrying into effect, as far as practicable, the recommendations of the special commission convened in 1869, and whose report was submitted to Congress, May 20, 1870, and to the strict enforcement of the revised regulations promulgated August 1, 1871, which has ef

Fiscal years
ending-

Vessels assisted

in distress.

June 30, 1872.
June 30, 1873..
June 30, 1874.

Total..

532

Average per year 194

Seized or reported]

for

violation oflaw.

219

210 153

Miles sailed.

examined. Boarded and

Lives saved.

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The expenses of the Revenue Marine for the two fiscal years ended— June 30, 1873, were $995,308.88 June 30, 1874, 903,601.83 This exhibits a reduction of $94,707.05, notwithstanding the last report of the Secre

66

THE LIFE SAVING SERVICE.

In 1848, Hon. William A. Newell, a member of the House of Representatives from New Jersey, called the attention of the government to the practicability and duty of providing means for affording relief to vessels navigating the dangerous coast of his State, and advocated the establishment of station houses at suitable intervals, to be furnished with surf boats and other appliances adapted to the purpose of rendering assistance to vessels cast ashore by stress of weather. Congress at that session made an appriation of $10,000" for providing surf-boats, rockets, carronades, and other necessary ap

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paratus for the better preservation of life and
property from shipwreck on the coast lying
between Sandy Hook and Little Egg Har-
bor," and in subsequent years it extended
the stations and equipment to other States,
and doubled the first appropriation. But it
must be said that during the twenty-two
years intervening between the beginning of
the Life Saving Service and the commence-
ment of the fiscal year of 1871, comparatively
little had been expended in its support, yet

the instances are rare in which so small an

was evidence also of neglect and misuse. The apparatus was rusty for want of care, and some of it ruined by the depredations of vermin and malicious persons. Many of the most necessary articles were wanting, and at no station was the outfit complete. At some of the stations where crews were employed in the winter months, such indispensable powder, rockets, shot lines, shovels, &c., were not to be found. At other Some of the ke pers were too old for active stations not a portable article was

articles as

left.

service, others lived too far from their sta-
expenditure was productive of so vast an tions, and few of them were really competent
amount of good. Although no official record
for their positions. Politics had had more
of disasters was kept prior to the appoint-influence in their appointment than qualifi-

ment of Superintendents in 1855, and the
reports made to the Department since have
not been regular or complete, it is cer-
tain that 4,163 lives were rescued, and that
$716,000 worth of property was saved through
the instrumentality of this service. There
is reason to believe that these figures would
be largely increased if accurate statistics
could be obtained. The total amount of
money expended in the support of the ser-
vice is less than $280,000.

cation for the duties required of them. Even
in the selection of crews for the stations where
they were employed, fitness was a secondary
consideration. The employment of paid
crews at alternate stations had provided
crews where they were comparatively little
needed, while it had left others, where reg-
ular crews were most necessary, to rely upon
such aid as might be volunteered. It had
also excited discontent among those who had
habitually volunteered their services at the
intervening stations, and a feeling that an
unjust, discrimination was made against
them.

The occurrence of several fatal disasters in the winter of 1870-71 made it apparent that the service was not in the effective condition that it should be, and Congress, by act approved April 20, 1871. made an appropriation of $200,000, for the purpose of increasing its efficiency, to be expended in accordance with the provisions of the act of December 14, 1854, and authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to employ crews of experienced surfmen at such stations and for such periods as he might deem necessary and proper.

On the receipt of the officer's report, the proper measures were taken to remedy the defects of the service; and to place it upon a better footing. Inefficient officers were removed and suitable persons appointed in their places. Instructions were given that the strictest regard should be had to experience and qualification as surfmen in the selection of crews, and that proper care should be taken of the houses and apparatus. Specific directions were forwarded to the Superintendent for the keeping of suitable records and making reports to the Departments, and a journal was furnished the keeper of every station in which he was required to make entries of all pertinent facts. Steps were also taken to effect a thorough re-organization of the service, and 'to prepare a suitable set of regulations for its government.

With a view of ascertaining the actual state of affairs, the Department availed itself of the experience of an officer, and directed him to visit both coasts, and carefully examine every station aud report its condition, as well as the condition of the service generally.

The duty was thoroughly performed, and the report of the officer was transmitted to the Senate in response to a resolution of that body, January 22, 1872. He found that During the fall of 1871, thirteen new houses most of the stations were too remote from were erected on the New Jersey coast; six each other; that the houses were dilapidated on the Long Island coast; the old houses on and needed repairs and enlargement. There that coast, east of Fire Island, having been

1

ADULT THALZHt aut enlarged, and the erec- twenty-one new stations, at the following
tha of wear her houses contracted for.
Ja 18 there were 30 Life Saving Stations
in the cast of Long Island, and 4 on the
mast of New Jersey: 9 on Cape Cod: 1 on
Hask Hand; and I on Narragansett Pier:-'
#1 tatione in all. And the following shows
The vertice rendered :

SCYMART.

Yumber of wrecks

Vale of vessels wrecked.

$227.300

Vaide of cargoes (as far as reported) $2-1.500
Amount of property saved... $269.75%%
Amount of property lost
$205.344
Number of lives saved........
206

No. 1........
No. 2
No. 3......

Ja 1973, the Life Saving Service comprised eighty-one stations, which are located upon the coasts of Cape Cod, Rhode Island, Long Island and New Jersey, and are divided into three districts-the coast of Cape Cod, from Race Point to Monomoy, forming the first; the coasts of Rhode Island and Long Island, from Narragansett pier to Coney Island, the second; and the coast of New Jersey from Sandy Hook to Cape May the third.

The number of wrecks which have oceurred since the last report, upon coasts where stations were in operation, as shown by the wreck reports of the keepers of stations, is as follows:

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Little Kinnakeet.

32

Under the Act of March 3, 1873, which ap-
priated $30,000 for the purpose, the Storm
Signal system of the Signal Service has been
connected with the Life Saving Service at sev-
eral of the stations on the New Jersey coast,
and through it, the Treasury Department is
235 placed in direct telegraphic communication
234 with the stations at Sandy Hook, Monmouth
Beach, Squan, Barnegat, Atlantic City,
Peck's Beach and Cape May; and the system
33
77 will be extended to the stations on the North
Carolina coast.

1

In order still further to increase the efficiency of the Life Saving Service, regulations for the government of the service, based upon

The cost of maintaining the service during
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1873, exclus-the several acts of Congress relating to the
ive of the amount expended in the con-
struction and establishment of new stations,
was $87,893.83..

subject, were promulgated, which effected a
complete organization of the service, and
which, with such changes as its growth will
compel, it is believed, will be adequate to its
proper and efficient government. They di-
vide the stations into convenient districts,
each to be cared for by a superintendent, and

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Total number of wrecks.......

No. of lives imperilled....
No. of lives saved.....

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No. of lives lost......
No. of shipwrecked persons shel-
tered in station-houses...

No. of days' shelter afforded...

Property imperilled......
Property saved....
Property lost....

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22

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9

10

13

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$832,230
581,21
226,029

66

Congress also appropriated $100,000 for the establishment of new life-saving stations upon the coast of the United States," and contracts were made for the construction of

points:

On the coast of Maine:

West Quoddy Head, (near Carrying
Point Cove.)

Cross Island. (Machias Bay.)
Browney's Islani (near Jonesport.)
Whitehead Island, (Penobscot Bay.)
The Pool. (Saco Bay.)

On the coast of New Hampshire:
Rye Beach (near Straw's Point.)
On the coast of Massachusetts:
Plum Island, (Sandy Beach.)
Davis' Neck. (Ipswich Bay.)
Gurnett Point, (near light-house.)
Manomet.

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provide for an appropriate supervision of the season of 1873-4 forty-eight vessels, them all by an inspector. They specify the valued, with their cargoes, at $2,331.606, duties of each person connected with the and having on board 1,106 persons, were service, and provide for the proper care of driven on these shores. In twenty-nine inall the stations and their appurtenances. stances the life-saving apparatus was called They include a simple, but ample code of sig- into requisition, and 303 persons were rescued nals, devised by the inspector, for intercom- by it. Of the amount of property jeopardized munication between the stations; instruc- only $457,282 was lost, and the number of tions and drill in the use of the apparatus; lives lost was but two. Both of these were hints as to the management of boats; in- caused by the falling of the mast of a vessel structions for saving drowning persons by when she struck—a case in which, of course, swimming to their relief, and directions for life saving appliances were not available. restoring the apparently drowned. The number of days' shelter afforded shipwrecked persons at the stations was 494.

The last report of the Life Saving Service embraces the fiscal year of 1874, and shows that twenty-two new stations were established, as follows: Five on the coast of Maine, one on the coast of New Hampshire, five on the coast of Massachusetts, one on the coast of Rhode Island, three on the coast of Virginia, and seven on the coast of North Carolina. They are completely equipped and manned. Contract has been entered into for the construction of six stations on the coast

of Maryland and Virginia, between Cape Henlopen and Cape Charles, under authority of the act of June 20, 1874, and arrangements will be made for the erection of two other stations between these capes, on the coast of Delaware, as soon as possession of the sites selected for them, which are the property of the State, can be obtained. The act of June 23, 1874, appropriated the sum of $342,304.44 to carry out the act above cited.

When these stations are completed and put in operation, the Atlantic coast, from Quoddy Head to Cape Hatteras, with the exception, perhaps, of the vicinity of Point Judith, will be well protected. South of Cape Hatteras nothing is needed, except the houses of refuge provided for by the act above referred

to.

The one hundred and four stations located in the five districts, designated as the Maine district, the Cape Cod district, Rhode Island and Long Island district, the New Jersey district, and the Virginia and North Carolina district, embrace the most dangerous portions of the Atlantic Coast. From the reports of the Superintendents it appears that during

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Almost all the disasters which occur upon these coasts are from the stranding of vessels, and it is against death and loss of property resulting from this class of disasters that the Life Saving Service, as thereon established, i designed to afford protection. The success of the system, which the foregoing statistics imply, is all that can be hoped for. It is hardly to be expected that an equal measure of success will be attained upon the lakes, where the causes and character of a large proportion of the disasters are of a different nature. That the benefits to be derived from the extension of the service there, however, will amply justify the expense involved, can

not be doubted.

Reports and statistics of shipping disasters are required to be collected under the provisions of the act of June 20, 1874; and certain statistics have been gathered. The following is a summary of wrecks and disasters which show a sad loss of human life:

Summary of wrecks and casualties on and near | in its breadth, supported by the nation, and
the coasts and on the rivers of the United regulated with all the precision of the naval
States, &c:

service; for there must be periods when its
usefulness is crippled by the fluctuation of
its means.

Nature of casualty.

Number of vessels.

| Tons.

Whether laden or in ballast.

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Total losses

ceco Partial losses.

5.287.03 26 2

1,767.01 12 1 2 12
317.58

12

1

9 925 53 26 13 4

15/28

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Founderings..29)
Strandings.... 15
Collusions
4
Other causes. 43
Total........ 91 17.297.15 65 18 8 56,35 550

28 1

3

Number lives lost.

3

321

36

183

The aim of the Republican party has been
to place this country at the head of all the
nations of the earth. It has done this, to a
great extent; and the United States of North
America leads the van in many things which
denote the enterprise and earnestness of our
5 daily life. It has given a new career to the
Life Saving Service by enabling it to respond
to the national desire that aid should be ren-
dered to shipwrecked mariners at widely dis-
tant places of danger; and property rescued
from jeopardy by marine disasters. From
the success achieved in the past, and the
present, it is but just to the Republican
party-the party comprising the best ele-
ments in the nation—that the trust reposed
in it should be continued. It has left its mark
grandeur and strength; and it seems but the
upon the
age, and built up the Republic in
teaching of wisdom that the Republican party
should be left to complete its plans for this
important service, and plant its stations,
boats and crews wherever the claims of hu-
manity and of commerce may call for them.

With the proof thus presented of the necessity and the efficiency of the Life Saving Service, its gradual extension will be justified to all parts of the dangerous coasts of the United States frequented by vessels either domestic or foreign. The appropriations of a Republican Congress infused life and vigor into a service which had been allowed to languish for lack of sympathy, and to become almost useless from incompetent men, insufficient equipment, and decaying station houses. Its present condition is an evidence that the Republican party fully realizes the wants, in this respect, of a great maritime nation, and desires to supply them conscientiously. Our Life Saving Service is superior to that of any other country, because no foreign service receives assistance from the government. Even the Royal National Life Boat Institution of England is a private association, called into existence by the bounty of the benevolent. As a private institution, it has rendered great service; but its subscription list must needs be limited; which, limiting the number of stations, must leave many points on the dangerous British coast altogether unprotected. It cannot, therefore, compare in effectiveness with our Life Saving Service, whose numerous stations dot the coasts of the United States, and whose men are ever on the watch, day and night, to rescue unfortunates from the perils of the deep. Nor can a private institution, however grand its character and beneficent its working, when supported only by voluntary contributionsthough it bask under the patronage of Royalty-compete with an institution national

THE folly and danger of leaving loaded pistols within the reach of children received a sad illustration in Cincinnati on Sunday. A respectable German of that city, who had purchased a new revolver on Saturday, left it lying, loaded, on the mantle-piece of his room. In his absence, a son, fifteen years old, possessed himself of the pistol and began snapping it—"in fun". -at a little two-year old brother. In a moment the pistol was discharged, and the bullet went crashing into the baby's forehead. The little one lived only half an hour, and the parent survives to mourn his carelessness.

It is the duty of man to provide for his family. It is no less his duty to provide good lives. This he can do by doing his duty at government for the community in which he the primary meeting and at the ballot-box. Nominate good men, and then do your best to elect them. This should be one of the highest obligations of citizenship.

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