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THE REPUBLIC, ,

A Political Science Monthly Magazine.

The fifth volume of THE REPUBLIC commenced in July, 1875.

As in the past the highest ambition of its publishers will be to render THE REPUBLIC a

reliable medium of information on all subjects connected with Republican government

Federal, State, and municipal. Washington, in his Farewell Address, justly claimed that

“In proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened.” The object of The RePUBLIC writers is not only to educate the people—and especially our young men who are now stepping upon

the stage of public life--in the principles of political science, but to impress upon every

official conscience the sacred obligation of fidelity to the public interests. It was Benjamin

Rush who uttered the great truth that "nothing can be politically right that is morally wrong,” and he, too, pronounced the equally logical axiom that "virtue is the soul of the republic.” It will be the duty and aim of THE REPUBLIC to inculcate these and similar

truths, to commend integrity and fidelity, to sustain patriotic statesmen in all laudable efforts, to establish and perpetuate the principles of good government; and in this way to

contribute to the advancement of the physical, intellectual, and moral condition of the

people, as well as to the national prosperity, virtue and power.

THE REPUBLIC will continue to chronicle faithfully the current action of the Executive,

Legislative, and Judicial Departments of the Government, to coniment impartially upon

the acts of public men, and to do what may be done within its sphere to inform the people

and improve the Government.

The fifth volume of THE REPUBLIC will be printed from a new and handsome type. Other important improvements will be introduced in the variety, arrangement, and makeup of the magazine. Under an enlarged corps of the ablest writers a broader field of political review and discussion of national questions will be adopted ; and it is believed that

the new volume will be a decided improvement in every way upon its predecessors.

TERMS:

1

The REPUBLIC is a magazine of sixty-four pages, published monthly, at $2 a year, or

six copies for $10. The postage, in all cases, after January 1, 1875, will be paid by the

publishers. A few copies of the back volumes may yet be obtained, either bound or in

numbers. Remittances should be made by postal money-order or registered letter.

Address,

REPUBLIC PUBLISHING COMPANY, Washington, D. C.

Devoted to the Dissemination of Political Information.

VOL. V.

WASHINGTON, D. C., AUGUST, 1875.

No. 2.

GROWTH OF THE NATION UNDER REPUBLICANISM. The Republican party, as a political organ- The trust confided to its care in 1861, was ization, dates its history from 1856. It came the nation itself. Never was a more sacred into power March 4, 1861, and from that trust given to a party to keep, and never time to the present, it has been responsible has one been guarded with equal fidelity, or for the administration of national affairs.

with more religious care. Has it been faithful to its trust? This question has been passed upon by the people the United States are indebted for the Gov

To this fidelity and this care the people of three times since 1861. First, in 1864, in Mr. Lincoln's re-election ; second, in 1868, main as a recognized fact worthy of historic

ernment they now enjoy. It must ever reat the election of General Grant; third, in 1872, when the people returned the present preservation, that the Republican party took incumbent by the largest popular majority up the theory of self-government and made

it a grand success, at the very moment when ever given to a President. Thus it would

Democracy proclaimed it a failure. appear that up to 1872, at least, the people had an abiding faith in Republicanism, and

Democracy had abandoned all hopes of by their votes proclaimed to the world that saving the Union, had announced its wilthe party had been faithful to its trust. Has lingness to see its bonds seve

evered, had proit done anything since the last popular en- claimed its determination to make no efforts dorsement, to forfeit the confidence and good to stay the tide that was sweeping the nawill of the American people? We think not, tion to certain destruction, when the loyal for we believe its public services have been people called the Republican party into as faithfully performed since 1872, as they power and gave into its hands a trust which were before. If it has made mistakes, it has Democracy was about to betray. been quick to correct them--and in this it

A nation without credit at home and has shown a desire to conform to the wishes abroad, its treasury nearly bankrupt, its curof a nation that has entrusted it with power rency insecure, its navy scattered, its army for the past fourteen years. · This prompt re- small and demoralized, its authority repudiflection of the popular will has been a lead-ated and defied in eleven States, its Southern ing trait in the character of Republicanism. forts and arsenals in the hands of insurgents, All its public measures have been based

a powerful political party which had been upon public wants, and to discover these

instrumental in bringing about this disas wants, and to administer to them, have been

trous state of affairs—holding sufficient inthe chief aim and object of the party.

fluence to prevent unity of action, was a fair As we are on the eve of a political campaign whose issues are to have a direct bear-picture of the condition of the trust when ing on the Presidential campaign of 1876, it Republicans came into power. is well to briefly review the past history of the It was a moment of extreme peril to the Republican party, and to again ask the ques- nation--the darkest period in its history. tion,

" has it been faithful to its trust?'' True, the enthusiasm of the loyal millions

POPULATION.

STATES.

GAIN.

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as they rallied to the support of the Union, tion of each division, and the gain in ten
lightened up this period of gloom, but the years :
actual danger which beset the Union was
greater than any before encountered. The
South was in open rebellion and the North

1860.

1870. was divided in sentiment. The Democratic

Eastern 3,135,583 3,487,924 party maintained its organization, and used

352,641 it to encourage the South and to discourage Western.

Middle...... | 3,258,250 10,158,729 1,900,479

9,091,879 12,956,930 3,875,051 the efforts of the North. Yet in the face of Southern... 10,259,016 10,808,379 549,381 almost insurmountable obstacles, the Repub

Pacific...... 439,316 693,661 254,345

Territories lican party followed the dictates of loyalty

259,577 442,730 183,153 and justice, and turned neither to the right

Total..... 31,443,321 38,558,371 | 7,115,050 nor the left until the rebellion was crushed, and the Union saved. Therefore, to the Re

The percentage of increase, from 1860 to

1870, was somewhat smaller than that shown publican party, to its wisdom and fidelity, between 1850 and 1860. This can be readily its patriotism and courage, the people owe accounted for by causes directly traceable the existence of the Union. If it had no to the war. The Surgeon General United other claim on the gratitude of the nation States Army fixes the losses of the Union than this one of preserving its nationality, 285,000. The Confederate losses are estima

armies, by death, at 304,00 – hy discharge, it should outweigh all the claims of Democ-ted at 3:0,000. Add to this the large number, racy, and entitle it to the confidence and on both sides, who died after the close of the support of every loyal American citizen.

war, from causes chargeable to the service,

and we have not les than 1,000,(,00 of the deBut it has other claims. It has not only crease accounted for. The loss of so large a organized the means for saving the nation, number of able-bodied men would necessarily in the face of the greatest rebellion of mo.1- affect the ratio of births during the decade. ern times, but it has, by the operation of ted population for 1870 -—-41,609,000 — and

Therefore, the difference between the estimawise laws and a liberal policy, developed a the actual count—34,558,371-may be propgrowth of material prosperity rarely equalled erly attributed to the rebellion, and causes in the history of nations.

directly chargeable to it. Yet, despite these

unfavorable causes, which retarded the natuTo fully comprehend the advancement ral growth of the nation, the close of the made during a single decade of Republican first decade of Republican administration

finds the nation with a substantial increase of ascendency, let us briefly compare the con

over seven millions. The increase up to the dition of the country in 1860, with its con

present time, may safely be assumed to reach dition in 1870, as shown by the 9th census : not less than 11,500,000, making the present

population about 42,000,000.

INCREASE IN POPULATION.

INCREASE IN PRODUCTS OF MANUFACTURES.

In 1860 the population of the United States

The substantial growth in the products of was, according to the census, 31,183,744. manufactures from 1860 to 1870, illustrate the Including Territories, 31,443,321. According industrial prosperity of the nation. It is safe

to assume that the increase of products of to the census of 1870, the population was

manufactures to June 30, 1874, would be up38,115,641. Including Territories, 38,558,- ward of $3,000,000,000. The followin, table 371. The following table shows the popula-1 shows the increase from 1860 to 1870 :

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