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1 TIMOTHY iii. 2.
“ The husband of one wife.” No. 1.
(NOVATIAN AND NOVATUS.) The followers of Novatian, a Presbyter of the Church of Rome, and of Novatus, a Presbyter of Carthage, condemned second marriages; and for ever excluded from their communion all those who after baptism had fallen into this sin. :|
Epiph. Hæres. Theod. Hæret. Fab. l. iii. c. 5.
(RUSSIAN CHURCH.) • In Russia the clergy are divided into regular and secular. The former are of the monastic order, the latter are of the parochial clergy; who are not only allowed to marry once, but formerly, à secular Priest could not be ordained without being married; and if his wife died, he was obliged to quit his priesthood, and either retire to a monastery, or submit to take some inferior office in the church; so strictly was he the “ husband of one wife.” That practice is now changed; but still, the secular clergy are never permitted to marry twice, unless they relinquish their function and become laymen.
Adam's Religious World. Mr. Gregory observes of the Greeks, “ They approve of the marriage of Priests, provided they enter into that state before their admission into holy orders. “ They condemn all fourth marriages.” Gregory's History of the Christian Church.
(Sée Note on Matt. xix. 11.)
1 Timothy iii. 7.
(UNITARIANISM.) " Snare of the accuser.”_Wakefield, so also Unitarian Version.
1 TIMOTHY iii. 16.
(UNITARIANISM.) “ And confessedly great is this mystery of Godliness, which was manifested in flesh, vindicated by the spirit, seen by messengers*, proclaimed among Gentiles, believed on in the world, taken up with glory." _Wakefield's Translation.
“Not Ocos, but ó or ós, is the reading of the Syriac, Coptic, Æthiopic, and Vulgate versions ; otherwise Okos would have stood very well, to the same sense as Matt. i. 23.”
"* Messengers--ayyedoic, viz. Apostles and preachers of the word, so called here, because our author was looking out for expressions to aggrandize the subject. See Acts iv. 20. X. 41.; Gal. iv. 14.; 1 John i. 1.; Rev. i. 20. &c.”
Wakefield. “ He who was manifested in the flesh, was justified by the Spirit, seen
by messengers, preached to the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received in glory f.”—Unitarian Version
“ The primate adopts the received text, God was manifested,' but in the margin he gives the reading retained here, which is also the reading in the text of Griesbach's second edition. This is supported by the Alexandrine and Ephrem. MSS. The Vatican is mutilated. The Clermont reads o that which. Later copies have Osos, God. • All the old versions,' says Dr. Clarke, (Doct. of Trin. No. 88, 89,) have who or which. And all the ancient
fathers, though the copies of many of them have it now in the text itself, Okoç, God's yet, from the tenor of their comments upon it, and from their never citing it in the Arian controversy, it appears, that they always read it ós) who or (0) which.- Note, it must not be judged from the present copies of the text in Nyssen and others, but from their manner of commenting upon the place, how the text was read in their days.' Abp. Newcome observes, that if we read (os) he who, we have a construction like Mark iv. 25.; Luke viii. 18.; Rom. viii. 32."
"* Seen by messengers.-By the Apostles, who were his angels or messengers to the world.”
«t Met with a glorious reception.-Benson, who refers to Acts xx. 13, 14. xxiii. 31.; Eph. vi. 15; 2 Tim. iv. 11, in support of this sense of the word avednoon. He interprets the Apostle's language of the multitudes which, in the Apostolic age, embraced the Christian religion.”
Note to the Unitarian Version.
1 Timothy iv. 14.
“ Presbytery." No. 1.
(CALVIN.—PRESBYTERIANS.) Calvin may be said to be the founder of Presbytery, having first established that form at Geneva * about 1541. John Knox and Andrew Melvil soon after introduced it into Scotland.
* See Spon Histoire de Genevé.--Edition of 1730.
One of the great points which prevented an union between the Lutherans and Calvinists, was the form of church government. The Lutherans admitted what they esteemed an Apostolical ordinance, viz. a diversity in rank and precedence among the clergy. The Calvinists, more addicted to 'ecclesiastical republicanism, preferred that form of government which is termed Presbyterian. · Although the established Calvinists adopt the Presbyterian form of government, many societies, such as the Independents, Anabaptists, &c. who generally profess the Calvinistic doctrines, have a form and discipline peculiar to themselves.
(SMECTYMNUUS.) In a celebrated treatise, written in the reign of King Charles I. under the title of Smectymnuus, a fictitious word, made up of the initial letters of the names of the authors, viz. Stephen Marshal, Edmund Calamy, Thomas Young, Matthew Newcomen, and William Spurstow, respecting the Apostolical institution of diocesan episcopacy, it was contended, that a primitive Bishop was no other than a parochial pastor, or a preaching Presbyter, without inequality, or any proper rule over his brethren.
In opposing the Bishop's sole right of ordination, and sole right of spiritual jurisdiction, the Smectymnuan divines contended, that Bishops and Presbyters were originally the same; that ordination to the office of a Bishop does not differ from the ordination of a Presbyter; that there are no powers conveyed to a Bishop from which Presbyters are secluded; nor any qualification required in the one more than in the other; that admitting Timothy
was a proper Bishop, which they deny, yet that he was ordained by the laying on of the hands of the Presbytery, as well as of St. Paul. 1 Tim. iv. 14. That the origin of the order of Bishops was from the Presbyters choosing one from among themselves, to be a stated president in their assemblies, in the second or third century; that St. Jerome declares, once and again, that in the days of the Apostles, Bishops and Presbyters were the same; that as low as his time, they had gained nothing but ordination; and that St. Chrysostom and Theophylact affirm, that while the Apostles lived, and for some ages after, the names of Bishops and Presbyters were not distinguished.
The two houses passed an ordinance, Oct. 2, 1644, for the ordination of ministers pro tempore, which appointed ten persons, being Presbyters and members of the assembly, and also thirteen who were Presbyters of London but not members of the assembly, to examine and ordain, by imposition of hands, all those whom they shall judge qualified to be admitted into the sacred ministry.
Any seven or more to be a quorum; and all persons so ordained, to be reputed ministers in the Church of England, sufficiently authorized for any office or employment therein, and capable of all advantages appertaining to the same.
Others had full powers given them to ordain pro tempore in the county of Lancaster. To obviate the reproaches of the Oxford divines, the following clause was added, that “if any person do publicly preach, or otherwise exercise any ministerial office, that shall not be ordained, or thereunto allowed by