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We have the following rule for performing
Place the numbers so that those of the same denomination may stand under each other; placing those of the highest denomina: tion on the left, and proceeding orderly towards the right till you have written the lowest denomination.
Begin with the right hand column, and find the sum as in simple addition, carrying as many to the next higher denomination from this sum, as this sum contains units of the next higher de. nomination, and proceed in every respect as in simple addition, except in carrying to the higher denomination, and keeping each denomination separate from the rest.
Before performing on compound numbers, you must learn the tables of weights and measures, which I will give you with an example annexed to each.
24 grains make 1 penny-weight, marked grs. pwt. 20 penny-weights 1 ounce, 12 ounces 1 pound,
Ib. By this weight are weighed jewels, gold, silver, corn, bread and liquors.
In this example I begin with the right hand column, and find its sum is 45, which is 45 grains, and because 24 grains make 1 penny-weight, I seek how many times 24 is contained in 45, and find it is once and 21 over; I set down 21, and carry I to the next higher denomination, which is pennyweights. I then find the amount of the column of pennyweights, and seek how many units of the next higher denomination are contained in it, and find it
is once and 15 over. I set down 15 and carry 1 to the next column, and proceed in this manner with all the other parts. Numbers in all the other weights and measures are added in the same manner, observing to carry, in all cases, from the lower to the next higher denomination, according to the quantum, which it takes of the lower tó make one of the next higher.
16 drams 16 oz. 28 lb.
make 1 ounce,
marked dr. oz. 1 pound,
Ib. 1 quarter,
. 1 hundred weight,
cwt. 1 ton.
By this weight are weighed all things of a coarse or drossy nature ; such as butter, cheese, flesh, grocery wares, and all metals except gold and silver.
The diameter of a Winchester bushel is 184 inches, and its depth 8 inches. One gallon, dry measure, contains 2685 cubic inches.
By this measure are measured salt, lead, 'ore, oysters, corn and other dry goods.
marked pts. qts.
butt. The ale gallon contains 282 cubic inches. In London the ale firkin contains 8 gallops, and the beer firkin 9; the other measures being in the same proportion.
marked pts. qts. 1 gallon,
gal. 1 tierce,
tier. 1 hogshead,
P. or b.
By this measure, brandy, spirits, perry, cider, mead, vinegar and oil are measured.
231 cubic inches make a gallon, and 10 gallons make an anchor.
3 barley corns make 1 inch, marked bar. c. in. 12 inches
ft. 3 feet
yd. 54 yards
pol. 40 poles
fur. 8 furlongs
mls. 3 miles
1 , . 360 degrees the circumference of the whole earth.
60 seconds make 1 minute, marked s. or". m.or'. 60 minutes 1 hour,
h, or 24 hours 1 day,
d. 7 days
1 week, 4 weeks
1 month, 13 months, 1 day and 6 hours, or
1 Julian year,
Y. 365 days, 6 hours, 12 calendar months make a year.
The following rules are occasionally useful, but not so much used as those already given.
make 1 scruple,
marked gr. sc.
dr. or 3. oz. or Z lb.
Apothecaries use this weight in compounding their medicines ; but they buy and sell their drugs by Avoirdupois weight. Apothecaries is the same as Troy weight, having only some different divisions.
LAND OR SQUARE MEASURE.
make 1 square foot. 9 feet
1 yard. 30% yards, or 2721 feet
1 pole. 40 poles
1 rood. 4 roods, or 160 rods, or 4340 yds, 1 acre. 640 acres !