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12. Express the relation which the cerebro-spinal system of nerves bears to the vegetative functions in the higher classes of animals, and give illustrations of this relation.

13. By what peculiarities is the function of the external integument of Batrachia distinguished? By what experiments have these peculiarities been demonstrated? and what is the condition of the life of these animals, which renders them necessary?

14. State the peculiarities in the organization of birds which adapt them for support and locomotion in the air. What special demands does this mode of existence make upon the functions of nutrition, respiration, and the generation of heat in them?

15. Describe the metamorphosis which cirripedia undergo. (Lepas anatifera.)

16. By what agency does ciliary motion appear to be produced? What purposes does it subserve? Give instances of its presence and uses in the higher and in the lower portions of the animal scale.


1. SHEW by examples that the theory of chemical equivalents is a necessary result from Richter's law of the mutual decomposition of two neutral salts.

2. The volumes and specific gravities of the elements of a binary compound being known, and the volume of the compound, its specific gravity may be calculated.

Prove this, in the case of the vapour of water.

3. Prove that when two compounds, having a common element, combine, the amount of the common element in the equivalent of the one, is, to its amount in the equivalent of the other, in a ratio which may be expressed in whole numbers.

4. When are two elements said to be Isomorphous ?

Shew that the equivalent of oxide of Chromium may be ascertained by its Isomorphism with Iron and Aluminum.

5. The sulphuric, sulphurous, and hypo-sulphurous acids, all form neutral salts with the same quantity of base. What hypothesis will account for this apparent anomaly?

6. What is the formula for the precipitate from common phosphate of soda by nitrate of silver? Why is the supernatant liquid acid?

7. Illustrate by formulæ the process for the fabrication of sulphuric acid. If sulphate of iron be added to a nitrate, what is the result on the farther addition of sulphuric acid?

8. Explain by formulæ the fabrication of Ferro-cyanide of potassium. What are compound radicals? Give instances of them.

9. Explain the doctrine of substitution, and shew that, in organic chemistry, the substitution of one element for another, even where the type is retained, is not limited by the electrical character of the elements.

10. The analysis of an organic compound gave, in 100 parts, 20 Carbon, 46.6 Nitrogen, 6.7 Hydrogen and 26.7 Oxygen: determine its formula.

11. If 5 lbs. of ice at 32o be added to 1 lb. of steam at 212o, what is the resulting temperature?

12. Explain the process of electro-plating.

Give a theory of electro-chemical decomposition, and state the objections to Davy's theory.


DEFINE tersely the following terms; and explain more fully the Illustrations called for in the first four questions.

1. Hypogynous. Give examples of flowers with hypogynous corollas, both where the stamens are free and where they are epi-petalous. Let one of each kind be thalamifloral and one of each corollifloral.

2. Anther. Name a British Order in which this is unilocular. Explain the peculiarities in that of Adoxa and Salvia.

3. Legume. Describe its chief modifications; giving examples.

4. Spur. Name the different organs to which such may belong, giving examples of each.

5. Among which of the Linnean Classes might the Natural Order Leguminosæ be distributed; stating a generic example in each case?

6. Correct the Linnean errors in the descriptions of the floral organs of Arum, Euphorbia, and any plant classed as Didynamia Gymnospermia.

7. Dividing petaloid monocotyledons (all of this class except Grasses and Sedges) into two groups, respectively including plants with perianths "Superior," and "Inferior," in which of these groups would you place an Arum, whose flowers are achlamydeous?

To what Natural Orders and Genera would you refer for the three following plants.

8. Planta exogena, calyce tubuloso 4-dentato, corolla monopetala limbo 4-partito, staminibus duobus, bacca biloculari.

Quare. The inversion of the ovule in the Natural Family to which this Genus belongs?

9. Planta endogena, perianthio 6-partito, laciniis exterioribus reflexis, interioribus erectis, staminibus tribus, ovario triloculari, stigmatibus tribus petaloideis, staminibus oppositis.

Quære. The inversion of the Embyro in the Natural Family to which this Genus belongs?

10. Planta exogena, calyce 5-sepalo, corollâ 5-petalà, staminibus quinque fertilibus, quinque sterilibus, monadelphis.

Quære. Is there any other British genus of the same order?

11. Describe technically and briefly, such parts only of the specimens labelled, A, B, C, D, E, F, as are here referred to.

Stem. General character.

Leuf. Arrangement. Stipulation. Form.

Inflorescence. General character. Bracteal appendages.

Flower. Peculiarities of Calyx, Corolla, Stamens, (especially noticing insertions). Pistil.

Fruit. General character.

Placentation. Dehiscence.

Seed. Albuminous or not. Inversion of Embryo.

Natural Order, with such brief diagnosis as may suffice for indicating it.

12. Describe the successive stages of development in the growth of a Bean, from the germination of the embryo to the maturation of the fruit. 13. Explain the changes which take place in Starch during the processes of steeping, malting and brewing.

14. Explain the process of respiration in plants.


1. STATE broadly the chief phenomena of the geographical and the vertical range of plants. In what respects does the distribution of Cellulares differ from that of Vasculares?

2. Explain, with examples, the difference between the two processes thus described by Linnæus (Philosophia Botanica, § 124). "Prolificatio fit duplici modo; (a) Prolificatio e centro, seu ex pistillo enato in prolem, uno pedunculo peragitur, fitque in floribus non Compositis: (b) Prolificatio e latere ex calyce communi proles plurimas pedunculatas emittens fit in Compositis Aggregatis proprie dictis." In what respects do both processes ultimately exemplify one common law?

3. Describe accurately the capitulum of Composite; and point out the form which each part assumes in Dipsacacea and Valerianacea. Illustrate

the true and the apparent nature of a superior calyx by reference to a plan belonging to either of these orders.

4. What are the chief modes of reproduction among Alge? How are they distinguished from the modes of reproduction in true Lichens? Has anything analogous to "alternate generations" been observed in plants?

5. Describe the principal forms of Parthenogenesis, and shew that they may all be reduced to the common type of sexual reproduction.

6. What is fat? Whence is it derived?

What are its uses?

7. State distinctly the function of the liver. What are the peculiarities of its relation to the circulatory system?

8. In what respects are gills similar to lungs, and in what are they different? Why are some fishes able to live in air a longer time than others?

9. Describe the structure of the cerebro-spinal axis in man.

10. Compare an Ascidian with a cylindrical Bryozoon.

11. Would you refer the Cirripedia to Articulata or to Mollusca? Justify your answer by reference to the essential characters of these two subkingdoms.

12. Compare the principal homologous bones of a lion and an eagle.

13. What groups of animal remains are found in Middle Palæozoic strata? Point out any remarkable signs of adaptation in their organization to the then probable state of the surface of the globe. How far do they vary with the mineralogical character of the beds?

14. What are vallies of denudation? Describe any one with which you may be acquainted, giving sections, and noticing any other accompanying disturbances of the Earth's crust.

15. Describe the Permian system as it appears in different parts of England. In what part of Europe is it most typically developed ?

16. Point out the chief probable centres and lines of volcanic action in the British Isles, giving instances of the evidence.

17. What are the essential constituents of albite, cobaltine, cryolite, dolomite, realgar, topaz?

18. Give instances of the several kinds of lustre in minerals. Whence does its importance arise? What is pleochroism?

19. Draw the figures of crystals of anatase and wavellite. What are the more important minerals belonging to their respective systems of crystallization?

20. How and by whom was the correspondence between the cleavage angles and the chemical composition of crystals discovered? What is the scientific importance of the discovery?

21. How and by whom was potassium discovered? Describe its chief properties and those of any two of its compounds.

22. Write a brief history of the theory of acids.

23. What is meant by the electric energy of chemical elements ? Describe and explain Davy's method of protecting the copper sheathing of ships. Wherein does it fail?

24. Describe the several substances known as "sugar". What properties do they possess in common? What is dextrine?

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