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ιδιαζόντως ωνόμασεν? (d) Investigate the meaning of τὴν ἐκ Λαοδικείας ἵνα καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀναγνῶτε (Col. iv. 16).
2. (a) What inference with respect to the composition of the Church at Rome may be drawn from the names of the persons saluted in the Epistle to the Romans? By what facts in its subsequent history is this inference confirmed? (b) Can you furnish any solution of a difficulty suggested by a comparison of the language of this Epistle with that of the Jews at Rome in Acts xxviii. 22? (c) What are the principal topics and illustrations which the Epistles to the Romans and Galatians have in common? From the differences between them can you derive any illustration of St Paul's own assertion, τοῖς πᾶσιν γέγονα πάντα, ἵνα πάντως Tivas owow? (d) Of the 1st Epistle to the Corinthians St Clement of Rome says: ἐπέστειλεν ὑμῖν διὰ τὸ καὶ τότε προσκλίσεις ὑμᾶς πεποιῆobat (i. 47). What view of the divisions at Corinth does this suggest? and what weight does it derive from what we know of the writer? Do you consider this view to be confirmed by St Paul's own words? Quote from the 2nd Epistle passages which seem to throw light on the nature of the pretensions of those who said ἐγὼ δὲ Χριστοῦ.
3. Illustrate (1) Longinus' description of St Paul as πρŵтоV πPOLOTαμενον δόγματος αναποδείκτου (explaining what you understand by it): (2) that peculiarity of the Apostle which has been characterized as going off at a word : (3) the two statements, ἄχρι τῆς ἄρτι ὥρας...κοπιῶμεν ἐργαζόμενοι ταῖς ἰδίαις χερσίν (1 Cor. iv. 11, 12); τῶν πτωχῶν ἵνα μνημονεύωμεν, ὃ καὶ ἐσπούδασα αὐτὸ τοῦτο ποιῆσαι (Gal. ii. 10).
4. (α) Ιάκωβος...ταῖς δώδεκα φυλαῖς ταῖς ἐν τῇ διασπορᾷ χαίρειν. In what other Apostolic document is the salutation xaípew found? Why is it remarkable? (b) Πέτρος...ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις διασπορᾶς. What reasons have been given, grammatical or otherwise, for not assigning to διασπορά here the specific meaning which it bears in (α)? (c) ἡ ἐν Βαβυλῶνι συνεκλεκτὴ καὶ Μάρκος ὁ υἱός μου. What is the traditional interpretation of these several terms? What others have been proposed in modern times? and on what grounds? (d) τοῦ καλέσαντος ἡμᾶς ἰδίᾳ δόξῃ καὶ ἀρετῇ. How have these words been brought to bear on the question of the genuineness of the Epistle in which they occur? (e) To what heretical perversions does St John specially refer in his Epistles? What light do other Epistles throw on the prevalence of the same or kindred errors in the same place? (f) St John the Divine.' Give the Greek term, and explain its application. By what construction have the words ἐγενόμην ἐν πνεύματι ἐν κυριακῇ ἡμέρᾳ (Apoc. i. 10) been made to describe the subject of the Apocalypse? Have you any objections to this construction?
5. (a) In what terms and for what purpose is Ps. lxviii. 18, 'Thou hast ascended on high, Thou hast led captivity captive, Thou hast received
gifts for men,' quoted in Eph. iv. 8? and Ps. xl. 6, 'Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened,' in Heb. x. 5? How do you explain these variations? (b) διὸ λέγει· Εγειρε ὁ καθεύδων καὶ ἀνάστα ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν καὶ ἐπιφαύσει σοι ὁ Χριστός. In what passage of the Old Testament has the original of these words been sought? What other origin has been assigned to them? (c) οὐ λέγει Καὶ τοῖς σπέρματ σιν, ὡς ἐπὶ πολλῶν, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐφ ̓ ἑνὸς Καὶ τῷ σπέρματί σου, ὅς ἐστι Χριστός. What exceptions have been taken to this argument? Defend and elucidate it. (d) Translate and explain:
Η δοκεῖτε ὅτι κενῶς ἡ γραφὴ λέγει, Πρὸς φθόνον ἐπιποθεῖ τὸ πνεῦμα ὃ κατῴκησεν ἐν ἡμῖν; μείζονα δὲ δίδωσι χάριν· διὸ λέγει, Ὁ Θεὸς ὑπερηφάνοις ἀντιτάσσεται, ταπεινοῖς δὲ δίδωσι χάριν.
6. (α) On Rom. xi. 33-36, ὦ βάθος πλούτου, κ. τ. λ., Origen remarks: “ Vides quomodo in ultimis [sc. ἐξ αὐτοῦ καὶ δι ̓ αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν τὰ πάντα] ostendit quod in omnibus quæ supra dixit signaverit mysterium Trinitatis." Exhibit this in detail. (b) τοῦ μεγάλου Θεοῦ καὶ Σωτῆρος ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. What is the traditional interpretation of this? Is it confirmed by grammatical considerations? What exceptions have been taken to it? (c) Determine grammatically the precise force, and point out the theological significance (1) of the tenses in δι ̓ ὑμᾶς ἐπτώχευσεν πλούσιος ὤν, ἵνα ὑμεῖς τῇ ἐκείνου πτωχείᾳ πλουτήσητε, (2) of the prepositions in Χριστὸς ἅπαξ περὶ ἁμαρτίας ἔπαθεν, δίκαιος ὑπὲρ ἀδίκων.
7. (α) ἐπεὶ τί ποιήσουσιν οἱ βαπτιζόμενοι ὑπὲρ τῶν νεκρῶν; εἰ ὅλως νεκροὶ οὐκ ἐγείρονται, τί καὶ βαπτίζονται ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν; What explanations, grammatically admissible, have been given of this? Which do you prefer? and why? (b) οἱ καλῶς προεστῶτες πρεσβύτεροι διπλῆς τιμῆς ἀξιούσθωσαν, μάλιστα οἱ κοπιῶντες ἐν λόγῳ καὶ διδασκαλίᾳ. What explanation of τιμὴ do you prefer? and why? What distinction of offices do some Presbyterian communities found upon this passage? What other passages do they refer to in support of it? What do you take to be the true meaning of the words? (c) Explain the following: (1) ἐγὼ γὰρ τὰ στίγματα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ ἐν τῷ σώματί μου βαστάζω. (2) ἀλλ ̓ εἰ καὶ σπέν δομαι ἐπὶ τῇ θυσίᾳ καὶ τῇ λειτουργίᾳ τῆς πίστεως ὑμῶν. (3) ἐξαλείψας τὸ καθ ̓ ἡμῶν χειρόγραφον τοῖς δόγμασιν ὃ ἦν ὑπεναντίον ἡμῖν. (4) προφητείας μὴ ἐξουθενεῖτε. (5) ἔργον ποίησον εὐαγγελιστοῦ. (6) ἐντρυφῶντες ἐν ταῖς *ἀγάπαις αὐτῶν. (7) οἵτινες οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τὰ βάθεα τοῦ σατανᾶ, ὡς λέγουσιν.
8. Give the original of the following passages. Correct anything which you think erroneous or inadequate in the versions; and give your reasons for doing so.
'I call God for a record upon my soul that to spare you I came not as *Discuss the readings in the two passages marked with an asterisk.
yet unto Corinth': 'we all with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory': 'the Scripture......preached before the Gospel unto Abraham, saying, &c.': sacramentum hoc magnum est, ego autem dico in Christo et in ecclesia': 'let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary humility and worshipping of angels, intruding into those things which he hath not seen': 'the dead in Christ shall rise first': 'He took not on Him the nature of angels, but He took on Him the seed of Abraham': 'the just shall live by faith; but if any man draw back, my soul shall have no pleasure in him': ‘neither as being lords over God's heritage': ‘every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself even as he is pure.'
9. Translate, with brief exegetical comments:
(α) Δικαιούμενοι δωρεὰν τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι διὰ τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ὃν προέθετο ὁ θεὸς ἱλαστήριον διὰ πίστεως ἐν τῷ αὐτοῦ αἵματι, εἰς ἔνδειξιν τῆς δικαιοσύνης αὐτοῦ, διὰ τὴν πάρεσιν τῶν προγεγονότων ἁμαρτημάτων ἐν τῇ ἀνοχῇ τοῦ θεοῦ, πρὸς τὴν ἔνδειξιν τῆς δικαιοσύνης αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ νῦν καιρῷ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν δίκαιον καὶ δικαιοῦντα τὸν ἐκ πίστεως.
(6) Διὸ ἀφέντες τὸν τῆς ἀρχῆς τοῦ Χριστοῦ λόγον ἐπὶ τὴν τελειότητα φερώμεθα, μὴ πάλιν θεμέλιον καταβαλλόμενοι μετανοίας ἀπὸ νεκρῶν ἔργων, καὶ πίστεως ἐπὶ θεὸν, βαπτισμῶν διδαχῆς, ἐπιθέσεως τε χειρῶν, ἀναστάσεώς τε νεκρῶν, καὶ κρίματος αἰωνίου. καὶ τοῦτο ποιήσομεν ἐάνπερ ἐπιτρέπῃ ὁ Θεός. ἀδύνατον γὰρ τοὺς ἅπαξ φωτισθέντας γευσαμένους τε τῆς δωρεᾶς τῆς ἐπουρανίου καὶ μετόχους γενηθέντας πνεύματος ἁγίου καὶ καλὸν γευσαμένους Θεοῦ ῥῆμα δυνάμεις τε μέλλοντος αἰῶνος καὶ παραπεσόντας πάλιν ἀνακαινίζειν εἰς μετάνοιαν, ἀνασταυροῦντας ἑαυτοῖς τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ Θεοῦ καὶ παραδειγματίζοντας.
State briefly the argument of Heb. cc. i.—v.; and explain what led to the digression at this point.
10. How do you account for the following constructions?
(1) εἴ τις ὑμᾶς εὐαγγελίζεται. (2) περιέχει ἐν τῇ γραφῇ. (3) εὕρηκα ἐκ τῶν τέκνων σου περιπατοῦντας ἐν ἀληθείᾳ. (4) χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος...καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστός... (5) τὴν γυναῖκά σου Ιεζαβέλ, ἡ λέγουσα ἑαυτὴν προφῆτιν καὶ διδάσκει...
THE FOUR GOSPELS AND THE ACTS OF THE APOSTLES.
I. TRANSLATE and explain the following passages, mentioning the connection in which they severally occur.
(1) ὅτι δὲ ἐγείρονται οἱ νεκροὶ, καὶ Μωσῆς ἐμήνυσεν ἐπὶ τῆς βάτου, ὡς λέγει Κύριον τὸν Θεὸν Ἀβραὰμ καὶ τὸν Θεὸν Ἰσαὰκ καὶ τὸν Θεὸν Ἰακώβ. Θεὸς δὲ οὐκ ἔστι νεκρῶν, ἀλλὰ ζώντων. πάντες γὰρ αὐτῷ ζῶσιν.
(2) πᾶς γὰρ πυρὶ ἁλισθήσεται, καὶ πᾶσα θυσία ἁλὶ ἁλισθήσεται. καλὸν τὸ ἅλας· ἐὰν δὲ τὸ ἅλας ἀναλον γένηται, ἐν τίνι αὐτὸ ἀρτύσετε; ἔχετε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἅλας, καὶ εἰρηνεύετε ἐν ἀλλήλοις.
(3) οὐδεὶς ἐπιβάλλει ἐπίβλημα ῥάκους ἀγνάφου ἐπὶ ἱματίῳ παλαιῷ. αἴρει γὰρ τὸ πλήρωμα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τοῦ ἱματίου, καὶ χεῖρον σχίσμα γίνεται.
(4) εἰ ἐκείνους εἶπε θεοὺς, πρὸς οὓς ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ οὐ δύναται λυθῆναι ἡ γραφὴ, ὃν ὁ πατὴρ ἡγίασε καὶ ἀπέστειλεν εἰς τὸν κόσμον, ὑμεῖς λέγετε, ὅτι βλασφημεῖς, ὅτι εἶπον, Υἱὸς τοῦ Θεοῦ εἰμι ;
ΙΙ. (1) ἵνα πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ Κυρίου διὰ τοῦ προφήτου λέγοντος, Εξ Αἰγύπτου ἐκάλεσα τὸν υἱόν μου. From which of the prophets is this taken? What other passage has been supposed to be here cited, and owing to what circumstance? Discuss the immediate reference of the prophet's words, and their fulfilment in Jesus Christ.
(2) ὅπως πληρωθῇ τὸ ῥηθὲν διὰ τῶν προφητῶν ὅτι Ναζωραῖος κληθήσεται. How do you explain this?
̓́Ερχεται οὖν εἰς πόλιν τῆς Σαμαρείας λεγομένην Συχὰρ, πλησίον τοῦ χωρίου ὃ ἔδωκεν Ἰακώβ Ἰωσὴφ τῷ υἱῷ αὐτῷ. ἦν δὲ ἐκεῖ πηγὴ τοῦ Ιακώβ. ὁ οὖν Ἰησοῦς, κεκοπιακῶς ἐκ τῆς ὁδοιπορίας, ἐκαθέζετο οὕτως ἐπὶ τῇ πηγῇ. ὥρα ἦν ὡσεὶ ἕκτη. ἔρχεται γυνὴ ἐκ τῆς Σαμαρείας ἀντλῆσαι ὕδωρ.
(1) What was the ancient name of Sychar? Where was it situated ? Το what mountain did the woman refer when she said οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν ἐν τούτῳ τῷ ὄρει προσεκύνησαν, and on what ground did the Samaritans assert its superior sanctity?
(2) πλησίον τοῦ χωρίου... Mention how Jacob became possessed of this portion. Explain the Septuagint version of Genesis xlviii. 22, ¿yw dè δίδωμί σοι Σίκιμα ἐξαίρητον ὑπὲρ τοὺς ἀδελφούς σου.
(3) Explain οὕτως, γυνὴ ἐκ τῆς Σαμαρείας, and ὥρα ἕκτη.
(4) Give a brief sketch of the history of the Samaritan nation, and of the points of dispute between them and the Jews.
IV. Give the Greek names of the twelve Apostles. How many lists of the Apostles are given in the New Testament? On what occasion, and in which Gospels is St Matthew called Levi? What is meant by ὁ Κανανίτης applied to Simon? What is the meaning of Ισκαριώτης? What is known from the New Testament of James the son of Alphæus? Under what form does the name Alphæus occur in St John's Gospel? With which of the Apostles has Nathanael been supposed identical, and why? Is the supposition confirmed by ancient testimony? Mention, and explain the name which our Lord gave to the brothers James and John. What indications have we in the New Testament of a corresponding character in these two Apostles?
V. On what days of the week before the Crucifixion did the following events occur? (1) the anointing by Mary, (2) the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, (3) the cursing of the fig tree, (4) the covenant of the rulers with Judas, (5) the institution of the Lord's supper.
(1) Where did this happen? Is it identical with that by the γυνή ἁμαρτωλὸς in St Luke?
(2) Whence are the words ώσαννά, εὐλογημένος, κ. τ. λ. taken? What does ωσαννὰ mean?
(3) Explain οὐ γὰρ ἦν καιρὸς σύκων.
(4) Translate ἔστησαν αὐτῷ τριάκοντα ἀργύρια. What does ἀργύ ρια mean?
(5) By which Evangelists is this related? What difficulty is connected with the following passages in St John's Gospel, and how do you explain it?
οὐκ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον, ἵνα μὴ μιανθῶσιν, ἀλλ ̓ ἵνα φάγωσι τὸ πάσχα.
Ὁ δὲ Σαῦλος......προσελθὼν τῷ ἀρχιερεῖ ᾐτήσατο παρ ̓ αὐτοῦ ἐπιστολὰς εἰς Δαμασκὸν πρὸς τὰς συναγωγάς, ὅπως ἐάν τινας εὕρῃ τῆς ὁδοῦ ὄντας......δεδεμένους ἀγάγῃ εἰς Ἱερουσαλήμ. ἐν δὲ τῷ πορεύεσθαι, ἐγένετο αὐτὸν ἐγγίζειν τῇ Δαμασκῷ, καὶ ἐξαίφνης περιήστραψεν αὐτὸν φῶς ἀπὸ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ· καὶ πεσὼν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἤκουσε φωνὴν λέγουσαν αὐτῷ, Σαούλ, Σαούλ, τί με διώκεις; ......σκληρόν σοι πρὸς κέντρα λακτί ζειν......οἱ δὲ ἀνδρες οἱ συνοδεύοντες αὐτῷ εἱστήκεισαν ἐννεοὶ, ἀκούοντες μὲν τῆς φωνῆς, μηδένα δὲ θεωροῦντες.
What other accounts of St Paul's conversion are given in the Acts? Explain τῆς ὁδοῦ. Account for the form Σαούλ. Explain the proverb σκληρὸν......, and its application here. Reconcile εἱστήκεισαν ἐννεοὶ...... θεωροῦντες with the parallel statements in the other accounts.
VII. Translate, with brief explanations where necessary:
(1) ναὶ Κύριε· καὶ γὰρ τὰ κυνάρια ἐσθίει ἀπὸ τῶν ψιχίων τῶν πιπτόντων ἀπὸ τῆς τραπέζης τῶν Κυρίων αὐτῶν.
(2) λίθον ὃν ἀπεδοκίμασαν οἱ οἰκοδομοῦντες, οὗτος ἐγενήθη εἰς κεφαλὴν γωνίας. παρὰ Κυρίου ἐγένετο αὕτη.
(3) εἰσί τινες τῶν ὧδε ἐστηκότων οἵτινες οὐ μὴ γεύσωνται θανάτου, ἕως ἂν ἴδωσι τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐν τῇ βασιλεία αὐτοῦ. (4) ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, εἰ δοθήσεται τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ σημεῖον.
(5) ὁ γὰρ Ηρώδης ἐφοβεῖτο τὸν Ἰωάννην......καὶ συνετήρει αὐτόν. (6) καὶ ἄλλον παράκλητον δώσει ὑμῖν, ἵνα μένῃ μεθ ̓ ὑμῶν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.