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the principle, that no State has a right to intervene in the internal concerns of any other independent State? The question refers to their negotiations respecting the Protestants in France, and the Roman Catholics in England.

8. State your opinion, and the grounds of your opinion, how far the Spanish Partition Treaties between Lewis the Fourteenth and William the Third were consistent with the principle of non-intervention.

9. Distinguish between Mediations, Good Offices, and Arbitraments. What examples of Mediations particularly distinguish the reign of Henry the Fourth?

10. What was the dispute in which Charles the Seventh acted as Arbitrator between Scotland and Norway? What was his award? What is the rule of International Law regarding Arbitraments to which that award was opposed ?

11. What is the distinction between the recent custom, and the ancient custom of the nations of modern Europe, respecting the intimation of an intended war? In what manner was the lawfulness of commencing war according to the recent custom, recognized by the Governments of France and England at the opening of the Seven Years' War?

12. So far as France was concerned, what were the justificatory causes, and what were the real causes, of the War of the League of Cambray? In entering into that war how far did France act in conformity with the Law of Nations as explained by Grotius ?


1. Mention the leading peculiarities of Des Cartes's philosophy, and his influence on succeeding philosophers. Point out the relation of Des Cartes to Hobbes. Who were the Cambridge Platonists ?

2. Explain the terms Nominalism and Realism, shewing how the opposition between them made itself felt in the Middle Ages.

3. What is Hume's doctrine of Cause and Effect? How was it modified by Brown?

4. Why is it always wrong to act against one's conscience, though not always right to follow it? Give an example.

Is it right for one who believes slavery to be wicked to assist a slave to escape against the laws of the country? 5. What does Coleridge mean by saying ( Table Talk, I. p. 182)

Every man is born an Aristotelian or a Platonist”? 6. Give brief accounts with dates of Gratian of Bologna, Richard Roll of Hampole, Jerome Savonarola, Stephen Langton, Franciscus Philelphus, and William Occam.

7. Give a brief sketch of the struggle for power between Henry II. and Thomas à Becket, mentioning the circumstances of the murder of the latter, and its immediate results.

8. When and by whom was Virginia discovered ? Give an account of the earliest settlements there. Which side did the colony take in the civil wars, and with what results ?

9. On what occasions have the states-general of France been summoned ?

10. Compare the limits of the empire of Charlemagne and that of Napoleon I.

11. What advantages have arisen from the division of labour ? Are there. any limits to it? How does this connect itself with the subject of commerce ? Examine the sophism against commerce, “That the wealth of a country cannot be increased by giving equal values for equal values.”

12. What would be the effect in a country of the pretended payment of its national debt by raising the denomination of the coin or by debasing its standard ? How was it that this expedient was adopted in Rome at the end of the first Punic war with success ? Has this ever been done in England ? 13. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of paper money.

What is the first instance on record of its employment?

14. What circumstances should be kept in view in the composition of taxes ? On what grounds is land considered a proper subject for taxation ? When was the English land-tax imposed ? Why is it just to tax professional men and landholders to the same extent?

15. Give an account of the laws regulating the export, import, and price of corn at Athens. What were the countries that supplied Athens with corn, and what is said to have been the average consumption of imported and home-grown corn ?

16. What was the character of the laws of the twelve tables ? Mention the circumstances of their enactment.

17. What are the grounds of natural parental authority ? Give the opinions of Grotius and Puffendorf on this point. What is the chief difference between the English and Roman father with regard to his domestic rights ?

In what respects did the relation of master and slave, according to the Roman Law, differ from that of father and son ? 18. “Nuda pactio obligationem non parit, sed parit exceptionem."

ULPIAN, Dig. II. 14. 7. Explain this. What are nude pacts ? Are they binding in law? Give reasons for your answer. What is the English common law respecting Wagers ?

19. Why is an enemy's property captured at sea confiscated, while this is not the case on land ?

What is the Jus Postliminii?

20. What are the ends of punishment? Can retribution be called an end of punishment? What is Blackstone's account of the difference between a civil injury and a crime? Do you consider it true?

Is depravity the sole measure of punishment? If your answer is in the negative, illustrate by an example.

21. Give a brief account of the origin and sources of Canon Law.

22. Explain the terms barratry, maintenance, champerty, mentioning the punishments for each of these offences.

23. Give an account of the 'Appeal of Murder and Trial by Battel'; on what occasion was the right of appeal abolished in England? When was the last time that the trial by battel was awarded ?

24. Explain the term Benefit of Clergy, pointing out its origin, to what persons, and in what cases it is allowed.

25. Give some account of the statute of Pramunire.

Chancellor's Medals.

February, 1856.

Examiners :
DR WHEWELL, Vice-Chancellor, Master of Trinity College.
Dr Okes, Provost of King's College.
Rev. E. ATKINSON, B.D. Master of Clare College.
Rev. W. H. BATESON, B.D. Public Orator, St John's College.
Rev. J. B. LIGHTFOOT, M.A. Trinity College,

TRANSLATE the following passages, adding explanations where necessary :

Beginning, Quare, ne plura de re minime loquar dubia,....
Ending, minus diligenter facti? quanto, aut quo scelere polluti?

Cic. De Harusp. Respons. p. 248.
Beginning, Multa etiam ex notatione sumuntur. Ea est.....
Ending, neque donationem sine acceptione intelligi posse.

Cic. Topica, p. 223.
Beginning, Fenus agitare, et in usuras extendere, ignotum,....
Ending, autumni perinde nomen ac bona ignorantur.

Tacit. Germ. XXVI.
Beginning, Sed in his omnibus cum elegans et venusta,....
Ending, breviter urbanitate, sed in quodam longiore actu.

QUINTIL. Inst. Orat. Lib. vi.
Beginning, Tabulis autem externis auctoritatem Romæ,....
Ending, sibi donari nolle talem vivum verumque.

Plin. Hist. Nat. Lib. xxxv.


Beginning, SUFFENUS iste, Varre, quem probe nosti,...
Ending, Sed non videmus, manticæ quod in tergo est.


Beginning, Illic clausa tenent stabulis armenta; neque ullæ...
Ending, Fermento atque acidis imitantur vitea sorbis.

Virg. Georg. III. v. 341.
Beginning, Cætera luxuriæ nondum instrumenta vigebant:...
Ending, Utile nunc iter est, Publiciumque vocant.

Ov. Fast. ν. 279.

Beginning, Nunc, si depositum non infitietur amicus,
Sinciput elixi, Pharioque madentis aceto.

Jυν, Sat. ΧΙΙΙ. 60.

TRANSLATE, and add short notes and illustrations where they may seem necessary:

Beginning, Toίσι μεν δή άλλοισι των θεών ούτω θύουσι, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, χείρ δε τη αν πέση κέεται, και χωρίς ο νεκρός.

HEROD. IV. c. 62."

Beginning, Καλώς εχόντων των νόμων, ώ άνδρες, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, γένηται, πάντα τα πράγματα συνταράξαι.

DEMOSTH. c. Timocr. p. 714.

Beginning, Τοσαύτα του κήρυκος ειπόντος, οι Αθηναίοι, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, ει δε εν τη εκείνων, αυτούς γιγνώσκειν το ποιητέον.

THUCYD. IV. C. 98.

Beginning, Αλλα ταύτα μεν λεγόμενα πάντες, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, την αρίστην εκάστου ανάλογον τούτων έχειν.

ARIST. Polit. VΙΙ. c. 1.

TRANSLATE these passages :

Beginning, Tοί δ' αύτε μάχην έχον αι δε μετ' αυτούς, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, δάκρυσι μυδαλέη. παρα δ' εύπυργος πόλις ανδρών.

HESIOD. Scut. Herc. v. 220. Explain the words-μεμάπoιεν-κατείεν-ρίπτασκoν-γουνοπαχήςάπλητον-κατενήνοθεν.

Beginning, Νήσος τις εστί πρόσθε Σαλαμίνος τόπων, κ.τ.λ.
Ending, έδραν γαρ είχε παντός ευαγή στρατού.

Æsch, Pers. v. 449. Explain and illustrate the grammatical construction in the lines

ενταύθα πέμπει τούσδ', όπως, όταν νεων

φθαρέντες έχθροί νήσον εκσωζοίατο, and examine the word evayn.

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