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Natural Sciences Tripos.
PROF. BOND, M.D. Corpus Christi College.
January 28, 1856.
1. WHAT is the mean density of the Earth, and what is its figure?
Explain the observations and experiments by which the figure and mean density of the Earth have been approximately determined.
2. At depths below the influence of the atmospheric temperature, what is the law of temperature as we sink below the surface? Combining this law with the actual figure of the Earth, can any argument be drawn from them respecting the internal fluidity of the Earth? State also the antagonist arguments which seem to prove that the Earth is in a solid condition to a great depth below its surface.
3. Describe the "Gulf stream," and the "Arctic or Glacial current;" and state some of their effects upon the "isothermal lines" in the British Isles, and the corresponding isothermal lines on the coasts of North America and of Norway.
4. Explain the cause of the variations of the rain-gauge in the eastern, central, and western parts of Britain; and specify and explain some of the cases of extreme variation.
5. The superficial deposits near Cambridge may be divided as follows: (1) Flint Gravel; (2) Brown Clay or Glacial Drift; (3) Fen Lands and River Alluvion. Explain these divisions, and their relative age. Enumerate the most remarkable Mammal remains found in each; pointing out the principal extinct species of the Gravel, and the species of the Fen Lands which have disappeared from the English fauna.
6. Give a tabular view of the Tertiary deposits of the Suffolk coast, of the London basin, and of the Hampshire basin; illustrating each view by an appeal to sections.
7. Give a similar tabular view of the Tertiary Series of Paris and of Belgium; and put the several groups in co-ordination with their corresponding English equivalents.
8. Prove by a quotation of fossil species, that there was a great change of climate between the period of the older and newer Tertiary deposits of England.
9. Enumerate, and illustrate by actual sections, the successive groups of the British Secondary Series, from the Cretaceous down to the Triassic. Enumerate some of the prominent fossil genera by which Secondary rocks are separated from Tertiary.
10. Explain the changes in the relative position of the Carboniferous beds, as they are developed in Wales; in Yorkshire; in the basin of the Tweed; and in the great coal-fields of Scotland.
11. Explain and illustrate by drawings, the terms Brachiopoda, Cephalopoda, Lamellibranchiata, and Gasteropoda. Point out the rank they
severally hold in the fauna of each geological period.
12. Enumerate and explain the Classes and Orders in the subkingdom of Vertebrata. Point out some of the leading facts connected with their development during successive geological periods.
13. Explain Owen's order of Enaliosaurians. What is their rank in the class of Reptiles? Describe the Ichthyosaurus. What species of that genus is most characteristic of the Cretaceous rocks of the neighbourhood of Cambridge? Enumerate the most remarkable Reptilian remains of the same rocks.
1. ENUNCIATE the law of symmetry in the anorthic system. How many faces has a simple form in this system? Describe the manner in which individuals of this system are united in twin crystals.
2. Arrange the collection of models of crystals according to their systems, separating the different hemihedral forms. Give the names or symbols of the different simple forms of which A, B, C, D, are combinations. Select from the models those which represent boracite fahlerz and pharmacosiderite.
3. Describe the different kinds of lustre observable in minerals, shewing how lustre depends upon the refractive power, transparency and structure of the mineral. Point out instances in which certain kinds of lustre accompany a similarity of chemical constitution.
4. To what system does a crystal belong which has a cleavage perpendicular to three other cleavages making equal angles with each other? To what system does a crystal belong which has two optic axes and three cleavages making right angles with each other?
5. Describe the phenomenon of pleochroism, and give instances of minerals in which it is observed. Describe the construction and use of
6. Describe the processes by which Daubrée obtained crystals of wollastonite, olivine, augite, corundum and spinelle; also the processes by which crystals of anglesite and of sulphate of oxide of silver have been formed.
7. Account for the presence of hydrous silicates in igneous rocks. How does Sartorius v. Waltershausen explain the occurrence of well-formed crystals of augite in volcanic ashes?
8. To which system do the crystals of ice belong? Describe briefly the atmospheric phenomena produced by the refraction of the light of the sun or moon through crystals of ice descending through the atmosphere. Trace the changes of density of HO in passing from the condition of a solid to that of a gas, and describe the effect of these changes in retarding the freezing of deep lakes.
9. Why is it probable that quartz crystallized from a liquid solution? Point out the errors of the models marked E, F intended to represent crystals of quartz. How does colourless quartz differ from glass in the power of transmitting invisible light? What effect has colour in the brown varieties of quartz on the transmission of radiant heat?
10. Mention the essential constituents of datholite, wavellite, andalusite, olivine, dioptase. Draw the figure of a crystal of dioptase exhibiting the faces of a hemihedral form.
11. Name the minerals marked A, B, C... ; state the systems of crystallization to which they belong respectively. Describe the colour of B, C, H, and the lustre of B, C, E, O, S, Y.
12. After what minerals are the substances marked G, H, K, L, M pseudomorphous
13. Describe the methods of testing for soda, potash, lithia, alumina, barytes, iron.
14. Name the substances which yielded the products 1, 2, 3... obtained by mixing, heating or fusing them with the reagents the names of which are annexed.
1. EXPLAIN the difference of arrangement of the digestive cavity in one of the hydroïd polyps (a Sertularia) and in one of the octactinea (an Alcyonium).
2. In which of these two orders of polyps are the sexual elements generated in distinct capsules, which sometimes maintain an independent life under the medusan form? To what order of medusæ do these last belong?
3. Describe the vascular water-apparatus in a star-fish, and the mode in which the water is received from without and distributed to the ambulacral appendages.
4. In Arenicola piscatorum what is the direction of the circulating fluid in the dorsal, the ventral, the intestinal vessels? With which of these trunks are the afferent and efferent vessels of the gills in connexion?
5. What are the parts of which the leg of a hexapod insect is composed? how are these principal parts modified in an arachnid and in a crustacean? 6. Describe the oral organs of a spider; to what parts in insects do they most probably correspond?
7. What is the essential difference between gills and lungs? Under what supposition is a certain division of the arachnids termed 'pulmonary', i.e. how are the air and blood related to these pulmonary sacs?
8. How is the respiratory cavity bounded in the common crab? Where is the aperture for the admission of water, where for its expulsion? By what means is the constant current of water secured?
9. Shew that the modes of production of the hard parts in Molluscs and in Insects are essentially different, and hence that, when the animals of these classes respectively are increasing in size, those of the one class must cast their hard covering, whilst those of the other only add to it.
10. What is the structure and situation of the gills in Octopus vulgaris? How are they supplied with blood? How is the mechanical part of the respiratory act performed?
11. What is the nature of the glandular appendages which surround the large veins in Cephalopods previous to their division to the gills? Where do their excretory ducts open?
12. Describe the pectoral fin and the osseous belt to which it is attached in an osseous fish, giving the general and special homologies of the bones.
13. How is respiration effected in the Batrachians that have no ribs, and in the Chelonians whose ribs are immoveable?
14. Define true and false ribs. In which classes of vertebrates are there false ribs in front of the sternum?
15. When a crocodile holds by its jaws its prey under water and so has its mouth open, by what special mechanism is the water prevented from entering the larynx, whilst respiration is going on through the nose above water?
16. Describe the third eye-lid in birds, and the muscles by which it is moved. What is peculiar in the proper muscles of the eye-ball in relation to its small mobility in the bird?
1. Ir is maintained that each functional act of any organ of the body involves the necessity, contemporaneously, of some change in the nutrition, corpuscular constitution of that organ. State the grounds and facts on which this assertion rests, and specially in reference to the muscles and brain.
2. The access of oxygen to bodies unendowed with life is continually effecting their decomposition and disintegration; in what way is this controlled, modified, or compensated in living bodies?
3. Distinguish by reference to the osteology of fishes those members of the skeleton, which are developed in strict conformity to the homology of the vertebral type, from those which are developed in accordance with the law of "irrelative repetition."
4. What provision is there in the articulata for the growth of the body, in the absence of the capacity of interstitial growth?
5. What proof is there that fatty matter can be elaborated in the animal œconomy from starchy and saccharine compounds?
6. Explain the mechanism of rumination.
7. Describe the course of the blood through the foetal liver and heart of the human subject, and the changes, which occur in the circulation through both these organs, subsequent to birth.
8. What differences are observable in the form and size of the bloodcorpuscles of mammalia, birds, reptiles, and fishes?
9. Contrast the mechanism of respiration in Fishes, Batrachia, Gasteropods, and Insects, specifying the relations of such mechanism to the circulation in each respectively.
10. In what consists the peculiarity of a Portal system? To what purposes is it subservient? In what other organ besides the liver does it occur, and in what animals?
11. Trace the modes in which the different proximate principles, as constituents of the food of mammalia, are converted or disposed of in the stomach and small intestines, stating what part in the process these two divisions of the alimentary canal respectively perform.