Εικόνες σελίδας
PDF
Ηλεκτρ. έκδοση

Heat, Air, and Light in the House," "The Weather," “Rocks and Soil,” “Plants,” and “Animals." Chapters XVII to XX are given to elementary Physiology and Sanitation. The book therefore contains the material needed by schools that desire to give a short course in Physiology at the end of the first year. Coming, as it does, after the elementary Physics and Chemistry of the earlier half of the book, and immediately after the chapters on “Plants” and “Animals,” the work in Physiology ought to mean far more to the pupil than if it were an isolated appendix to the first year's work.

The illustrations of the “First Year of Science” are unusually numerous and especially adapted to the text. They have been prepared with great care, for they are intended, by their direct appeal to the eye, to enlarge materially the teaching power of the text. To this end descriptive matter has been added to them and they have been made very simple. The parts of drawings have usually been designated by names rather than by letters.

Exercises are given at the end of each chapter and also in the body of each chapter except the first. The exercises are questions taken from the chapter; they encourage the pupil to apply to common phenomena what he has learned in the text and the laboratory work.

Summaries are placed at the end of each chapter to bring together in a bird's-eye view the leading topics of the chapter.

An appendix contains useful tables and a reference Glossary of terms used in the book.

The laboratory exercises are such as can be per

[blocks in formation]

formed with simple apparatus, and the directions are specific both as to the form of apparatus and as to the quantity of materials to be used. A special feature is a series of alternative experiments, in which the apparatus used is so simple that it can be made at home. If desired, most of these alternative experiments may be performed by the pupil at home. If the laboratory facilities of the school are limited, none but these simple experiments need necessarily be used. We have become so accustomed, in our well-equipped schools, to laboratory apparatus which has certain definite forms and requires certain set manipulations that we are likely to forget that the setting up of home-made apparatus is usually far more stimulating to the pupil than even the best of readymade equipment. Only by linking our science with everyday things can we hope to convince the pupil that science is only common sense applied to daily life.

The handbook on the “Teaching of First-Year Science” forms the third part of the book. It contains material intended chiefly for the teacher's use. Here are discussed the topics suitable for recitation and the methods of presenting them, the amount and kind of work to be expected of pupils, answers to exercises, and a list of experiments, carefully planned, to be performed by the teacher before, or, better, with the class. The handbook is designed to assist the teacher in every possible way in making the elementary science course profitable and stimulating.

In the preparation of this book the writer has necessarily consulted many textbooks of Science, and put himself under deep obligation to their authors. To all of

[ocr errors]

these he desires to express his thanks. He is especially grateful to his friends, Dr. Eugene C. Woodruff, of Pennsylvania State College, and Miss Marion Sykes, of the Chicago High Schools, for valuable criticisms and suggestions.

The author desires likewise to thank the many individuals and firms who have so generously assisted him in the procuring of illustrations. Among these are Drs. O. C. Farrington and C. F. Millspaugh, of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago; the International Stereograph Co., Decatur Ill.; Dr. S. W. Stratton, of the Bureau of Standards, Washington; Dr. Orville Wright, Dayton, Ohio; Mr. William D. Richardson, of Swift and Company; Professor Frederick Starr, of the University of Chicago; Professor Martha Van Rensselaer, of the Department of Home Economics, Cornell University; and many others whose names appear under the figures.

The drawings for the illustrations have been made by Messrs. William F. Henderson, Macknet Van Deventer, Otto Roth, Alex. Van Praag, Milford Davis, and Leland Smith, and by Miss Hila Ayres. The drawings for Figs. 88, 206, and some others were made by Miss Ruth Fuller. To all of these the author hereby expresses his appreciation and gratitude.

J. C. H.

[ocr errors]

Decatur, Illinois.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

Matter and Its Measurement

1

The Earth and Science. — Phenomena. The Scientific Way or

Method.- Matter.— Substances.— How We Measure Space and
Matter.— Common Units of Length.— The Metric System.- The
Standard Meter.— Metric Tables of Length, Area, and Volume.-
Larger Units of Length.— Weight. — Units of Weight. — Metric
Units of Weight. — Bureau of Standards. — Summary.- Exercises.

CHAPTER II.

Force and Energy

17

Gravity.- Gravitation.— Mass and Weight. - Falling Bodies.

Exercises. Force.— Force of Expanding Gases. — Work and Energy.

Power.— Inertia of Matter.— Flying from the Center.— Exer-
cises.— Cohesion and Adhesion.— The Surface of a Liquid. — Capil-
lary Action.— Density and Specific Gravity.- Buoyant Force of
Liquids.- Center of Mass or Gravity.— Summary.- Exercises.

CHAPTER III.

Air and Fire .

38

The Atmosphere.— Weight of Air.— Atmospheric Pressure; Ba-

rometer — Changes in Atmospheric Pressure.— Pumps.- Compressed
Air.— Exercises. — Collection of Gases.— Discovery of Oxygen.-
The Air a Mixture.— Burning and Oxidation.— Flames.- Prepara-
tion of Oxygen.— Properties of Oxygen.— Oxygen and Life.- Exer-
cises.— How Nitrogen is Prepared, — Properties of Nitrogen.— Nitro-
gen and Life.— Liquid Air.— How the Atmosphere is Purified.-
Sumniary.- Exercises.

CHAPTER IV.

Heat

: 59

Heat and Matter. Thermometers.— The Two Thermometer

Scales.-- Heat and Temperature.— Ways of Distributing Heat.-
Radiation.— Convection.- Exercises.— Physical States of Matter;
Solids.- Liquids.— Gases.— Kindling Temperature. — The Measur-
ing of Heat.- Heat and Life.- Clothing.- Sources of Heat. — Sum-
mary:— Exercises.

CHAPTER V.

Water

76

How Water Occurs in Nature.- Substances Dissolved in Natural

Water.— Drinking Water.— Hardness of Water.— Purifying Water.

Filtering.– Filtering City Water.- Exercises. — Why Ice Forms
Only at the Surface. — Artificial Ice.- Steam.— The Boiling Point
Changes with Pressure.— Solutions.- Properties of Solutions.-
Freezing Mixtures.- Solubility.-Crystals.-Summary.- Exercises.

CHAPTER VI.

Elements and Compounds .

94

Physical and Chemical Changes.— Composition of Water. -

Electrolysis of Water.— Elements and Compounds.— Mixtures.
Preparation of Hydrogen.- Properties of Hydrogen.- Burning of
Hydrogen.- Diffusion of Gases and Liquids.— Exercises.— Salt.-
Sodium.— Chlorine. — Hydrochloric Acid.— Ammonia. — Sulphur.
Number of Elements and Compounds.— Summary.- Exercises.

CHAPTER VII.

Carbon and its Compounds

110

Carbon as an Element.- Coal. — Uses of the Forms of Carbon.-

Hydrocarbons. - Petroleum.- Flashing Point.— Other Compounds

of Carbon.— Dry Distillation of Coal and Wood.- Exercises.

Carbon Dioxide.— Carbon Dioxide in the Air.- To Prepare Carbon

Dioxide. — Carbon Dioxide in Fermentation.- Baking Powders.-

Carbon Dioxide as a Fire Extinguisher.— Limestone. — Summary:

Exercises.

CHAPTER VIII.

Magnets and Electricity

125

Magnets. - Poles of a Magnet. — Magnetic Substances.— The

Magnetic Field.— The Earth a Magnet.- Exercises.— Electric
Charges from Friction.— Conductors and Insulators.— Attraction
and Repulsion.- Induction of Charges.— Electric Discharge. - Stor-
ing a Charge; Leyden Jar.- Electricity of the Atmosphere. — Light-
ning Rods.- Exercises. - Electric Currents.— Kinds of Cells.-Sal
Ammoniac Cell.— Currents and Magnetism.- Electro-Magnets.-
The Telegraph.- Electric Bell. — Changing the Current into Light. —
Electric Furnaces.— Electroplating.– The Dynamo.- Electric Mo-
tor.— Electric Power.— Summary.- Exercises.

[ocr errors]
« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »