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according advantages afford agriculture ancient appears applied arts attention Book capital carried causes chap circulation circumstances classes commerce commodities compared concerning condition consequence consideration considered continued course cultivation demand depends effects employed England equal established Europe exchange existence expense extent fact farms former France give given Government greater hand human idea illustration important improvement increase individuals industry inhabitants instance interest kind labour land latter laws less limit manner manufactures marriage means measure mentioned moral nature necessarily necessary object observations occasion operation opinion original particular passage period person Political Economy population possess present principles produce progress proportion quantity question reason relation remarks respect says seems Smith society species speculations subsistence sufficient supply supposed things tion trade truth various Wealth whole writers
Σελίδα 328 - The wisdom of a learned man cometh by opportunity of leisure: and he that hath little business shall become wise.' - 'How can he get wisdom that holdeth the plough, and that glorieth in the goad; that driveth oxen; and is occupied in their labours; and whose talk is of bullocks?
Σελίδα 350 - The value of any commodity, therefore, to the person who possesses it, and who means not to use or consume it himself, but to exchange it for other commodities, is equal to the quantity of labour which it enables him to purchase or command. Labour, therefore, is the real measure of the exchangeable value of all commodities.
Σελίδα 17 - What the state ought to take upon itself to direct by the public wisdom, and what it ought to leave, with as little interference as possible, to individual discretion.
Σελίδα 64 - In two centuries the population would be to the means of subsistence as 256 to 9; in three centuries as 4096 to 13, and in two thousand years the difference would be almost incalculable.
Σελίδα 391 - The natural price, therefore, is, as it were, the central price, to which the prices of all commodities are continually gravitating. Different accidents may sometimes keep them suspended a good deal above it, and sometimes force them down even somewhat below it. But whatever may be the obstacles which hinder them from settling in this center of repose and continuance, they are constantly tending towards it.
Σελίδα 407 - When the stocks of many rich merchants are turned into the same trade, their mutual competition naturally tends to lower its profit; and when there is a like increase of stock in all the different trades carried on in the same society, the same competition must produce the same effect in them all.
Σελίδα 323 - The woollen coat, for example, which covers the day-labourer, as coarse and rough as it may appear, is the produce of the joint labour of a great multitude of workmen. The shepherd, the sorter of the wool, the wool-comber or carder, the dyer, the scribbler, the spinner, the weaver, the fuller, the dresser, with many others, must all join their different arts in order to complete even this homely production.
Σελίδα 353 - Labour was the first price, the original purchase-money that was paid for all things. It was not by gold or by silver, but by labour, that all the wealth of the world was originally purchased; and its value, to those who possess it, and who want to exchange it for some new productions, is precisely equal to the quantity of labour which it can enable them to purchase or command.
Σελίδα 353 - The real price of everything, what everything really costs to the man who wants to acquire it, is the toil and trouble of acquiring it. What everything is really worth to the man who has acquired it, and who wants to dispose of it or exchange it for something else, is the toil and trouble which it can save to himself, and which it can impose upon other people.
Σελίδα 276 - The sovereign, for example, with all the officers both of justice and war who serve under him, the whole army and navy, are unproductive labourers. They are the servants of the public, and are maintained by a part of the annual produce of the industry of other people.