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treason unless on the evidence of two witnesses to the same overt act, or confession in open court.

Sec. 21. No special privileges or immunities shall ever be granted which may not be altered, revoked, or repealed by the legislature, nor shall any citizen, or class of citizens, be granted privileges or immunities which, upon the same terms, shall not be granted to all citizens.

Sec. 22. The provisions of this Constitution are mandatory and prohibitory, unless by express words they are declared to be otherwise.

Sec. 23. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people.

Sec. 24. No property qualification shall ever be required for any person to vote or hold office.

Sec. 25. The people shall have the right to fish upon and from public lands of the state and in the waters thereof, excepting upon lands set aside for fish hatcheries, and no land owned by the state shall ever be sold or transferred without reserving in the people the absolute right to fish thereupon, and no law shall ever be passed making it a crime for the people to enter upon the public lands within this state for the purpose of fishing in any water containing fish that have been planted therein by the state; provided, that the legislature may by statute, provide for the season when and the conditions under which the different species of fish may be taken. [New section adopted November 8, 1910.]

Sec. 26a. Should an amendment to the Constitution of the state of California by adding to article I two new sections to be numbered respectively section 26 and section 27, as proposed by initiative petition filed with and certified to the secretary of state, and relating to intoxicating liquors, be enacted at the general election held on Nov. 3, 1914, then the force and effect of said section 26 shall be suspended until Feb. 15, 1915, at which time it shall have full force and effect except that, as to the manufacture and transportation of intoxicating liquors for delivery at points outside of the

state of California only, the force and effect thereof shall be suspended until Jan. 1, 1916, at which time such manufacture and transportation also shall wholly cease and on and after said date said section 26 shall in all respects have full force and effect. (Amendment adopted November 3, 1914.)

NOTE.—The proposed amendment referred to in this amendment was not adopted, so that this section never became operative, although adopted.

ARTICLE II.

RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE. Section 1. Every native citizen of the United States, every person who shall have acquired the rights of citizenship under or by virtue of the treaty of Queretaro, and every naturalized citizen thereof, who shall have become such ninety days prior to any election, of the age of twentyone years, who shall have been resident of the state one year next preceding the election, and of the county in which he or she claims his or her vote ninety days, and in the election precinct thirty days, shall be entitled to vote at all elections which are now or may hereafter be authorized by law; provided, no native of China, no idiot, no insane person, no person convicted of any infamous crime, no person hereafter convicted of the embezzlement or misappropriation of public money, and no person who shall not be able to read the Constitution in the English language and write his or her name, shall ever exercise the privileges of an elector in this state; provided, that the provisions of this amendment relative to an educational qualification shall not apply to any person prevented by a physical disability from complying with its requisitions, nor to any person who now has the right to vote, nor to any person who shall be sixty years of age and upward at the time this amendment shall take effect. (Amendment adopted October 10, 1911.)

Sec. 2. Electors shall in all cases, except treason, felony, or breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest on the

days of election, during their attendance at such election, going to and returning therefrom.

Sec. 242. The legislature shall have the power to enact laws relative to the election of delegates to conventions of political parties; and the legislature shall enact laws providing for the direct nomination of candidates for public office, by electors, political parties, or organizations of electors without conventions, at elections to be known and designated as primary elections; also to determine the tests and conditions upon which electors, political parties, or organizations of electors may participate in any such primary election. It shall also be lawful for the legislature to prescribe that any such primary election shall be mandatory and obligatory. The legislature shall also have the power to establish the rates of compensation for primary election officers serving at such primary elections in any city, or city and county, or county, or other subdivision of a designated population, without making such compensation uniform, and for such purpose such law may declare the population of any city, city and county, county or political subdivision; provided, however, that until the legislature shall enact a direct primary election law under the provisions of this section, the present primary election law shall remain in force and effect. (Amendment adopted November 3, 1908.]

Sec. 3. No elector shall be obliged to perform militia duty on the day of election, except in time of war or public danger.

Sec. 4. For the purpose of voting, no person shall be deemed to have gained or lost a residence by reason of his presence or absence while employed in the service of the United States; nor while engaged in the navigation of the waters of this state, or of the United States, or of the high seas; nor while a student at any seminary of learning; nor while kept in any almshouse or other asylum, at public expense; nor while confined in any public prison.

Sec. 5. All elections by the people shall be by ballot or by such other method as may be prescribed by law; provided, that secrecy in voting be preserved. [Amendment adopted November 3, 1896.]

Sec. 6. The inhibitions of this Constitution to the contrary notwithstanding, the legislature shall have power to provide that in different parts of the state different methods may be employed for receiving and registering the will of the people as expressed at elections, and may provide that mechanical devices may be used within designated subdivisions of the state at the option of the local authority indicated by the legislature for that purpose. [New section adopted November 4, 1902.]

ARTICLE III.

DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS. Section 1. The powers of the government of the state of California shall be divided into three separate departments —the legislative, executive, and judicial; and no person charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one of these departments shall exercise any functions appertaining to either of the others, except as in this Constitution expressly directed or permitted.

ARTICLE IV.

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT.

Section 1. The legislative power of the state shall be vested in a Senate and Assembly which shall be designated "The Legislature of the State of California," but the people reserve to themselves the power to propose laws and amend. ments to the Constitution, and to adopt or reject the same, at the polls independent of the legislature, and also reserve the power, at their own option, to so adopt or reject any act, or section or part of any act, passed by the legislature. The enacting clause of every law shall be “The people of the State of California do enact as follows":

The first power reserved to the people shall be known as the initiative. Upon the presentation to the secretary of state of a petition certified as herein provided to have been signed by qualified electors, equal in number to eight per cent of all the votes cast for all candidates for governor at the last preceding general election, at which a governor was elected, proposing a law or amendment to the Constitution, set forth in full in said petition, the secretary of state shall submit the said proposed law or amendment to the Constitution to the electors at the next succeeding general election occurring subsequent to ninety days after the presentation aforesaid of said petition, or at any special election called by the governor in his discretion prior to such general election. All such initiative petitions shall have printed across the top thereof in twelve point black-face type the following: "Initiative measure to be submitted directly to the electors.”

Upon the presentation to the secretary of state, at any time not less than ten days before the commencement of any regular session of the legislature, of a petition certified as herein provided to have been signed by qualified electors of the state equal in number to five per cent of all the votes cast for all candidates for governor at the last preceding general election, at which a governor was elected, proposing a law set forth in full in said petition, the secretary of state shall transmit the same to the legislature as soon as it convenes and organizes. The law proposed by such petition shall be either enacted or rejected without change or amendment by the legislature, within forty days from the time it is received by the legislature. If any law proposed by such petition shall be enacted by the legislature it shall be subject to referendum, as hereinafter provided. If any law so petitioned for be rejected, or if no action is taken upon it by the legislature, within said forty days, the secretary of state shall submit it to the people for approval or rejection at the next ensuing general election. The legislature may reject any measure so proposed by initiative petition and propose a different one on the same subject by a yea and nay vote upon separate roll-call, and in such event both measures shall be submitted by the secretary of state to the electors for approval or rejection at the next ensuing general election or at a prior special election called by the governor, in his discretion, for such purpose. All said initiative petitions last above described shall have printed in

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