BUSINESS ARITHMETIC BY C. W. SUTTON DIRECTOR OF REFERENCE AND RESEARCH, CLEVELAND, OHIO CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL AND N. J. LENNES, Ph.D. PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA ALLYN AND BACON Chicago HARVARD COPYRIGHT, 1918 AND N. J. LENNES IAA Norwood Press Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. PREFACE reason a General Purpose of the Book. The main purpose of the authors in writing this book has been to make it of the greatest possible usefulness and convenience to both pupil and teacher in the actual work of classroom instruction. This general purpose has determined all its important characteristics. Material Excluded. There is clearly no room in such a book for material such as cost accounting and various other advanced topics that serve no purpose except to make a show of novelty. It is taken for granted that business arithmetic is taught at the beginning of a commercial course rather than at the end, and this book has been prepared with this clearly in mind. Drill in Fundamentals. Facility and accuracy can be attained only through drills continued over a long period of time. For this “drill in fundamentals” is given at the end of each chapter. There are also throughout the book many pages of miscellaneous problems which can be used as material for tests. No time limits have been suggested for these drills and tests. Each class should be made to do its best under the conditions of age, preparedness, and natural ability of its members. To make this possible the matter of time for drills and tests must be decided by each teacher. Purpose of Work Made Clear to Student. At the beginning of each chapter, and at other convenient places, reasons for studying each topic are made clear to the student. Throughout the course he is made to feel that he is entering a field where special accomplishments are required, which make it necessary for him to have a knowledge of certain matters which otherwise might have little or no interest for him. Emphasis on New Elements. In a topic such as Interest there is, strictly speaking, no new element of arithmetic. Thus, when a student understands thoroughly what is meant by interest, the rate of interest, and the base on which it is computed, the problem of finding interest is a problem which is easily solved. There is, however, an element of novelty in the matter of form, and upon this element the attention of the pupil is focused, not only in the treatment of interest, but in every practical application throughout the book. new Explanation of Industrial Usages. In the treatment of all practical topics there are given first, a clear discussion of its social, econ onomic, or physical aspects ; second, the most concise and most generally approved forms of solution; and third, enough examples to show the various special cases that may arise. A Practical Book. It is believed that the Commercial Arithmetic is truly practical because (1) it confines itself to the natural and legitimate field of a course in Commercial Arithmetic, (2) it affords adequate drill, and thus saves the teacher the trouble and annoyance of taking drills from auxiliary texts, (3) it makes the theory of Arithmetic simple, and connects the various subjects in a natural way, and (4) it provides approved forms of solutions of those problems which are of frequent occurrence in daily commercial practice. The belief that a real want exists for a straightforward treatment of the subject, without any of those extraneous things which have served to cover it up and which have made it unnecessarily difficult for the beginner, prompted the authors to produce this book. APRIL, 1918. C. W. S. N. J. L. . . VI. Drill in Fundamental Operations VII. Divisibility of Numbers. Factors, Multiples VIII. Fractions, Cancellation . IX. Addition and Subtraction of Fractions . X. Multiplication and Division of Fractions XI. Review Drill in Fundamental Operations XIII. Reduction of Fractions to Decimals XIX. Gross Profits and Loss. Discounts XX. Net Profits. Cost of Doing Business |