Ton metric, 199; common, 298; UNIT, arbitrary assumption of, 454; of fountains, 455; affect- WEIGHT: troy, 297; avoirdupois, VELOCITY of light, 68; measure of, 178, 179; of falling bodies, | Work done by mill-stream, 456. VOCABULARY. Abstract number. This phrase is employed to designate numbers used without reference to any particular unit, as 8, 10, 21. But all numbers are in themselves abstract whether the kind of thing numbered is or is not mentioned. Addition. The process of combining two or more numbers so as to form a single number. Aliquot part. A number which is contained an integral number of times in a given number. Thus, 5, 6, 12, 163, are aliquot parts of 100. Amount. The sum of two or more numbers. In Interest, the sum of principal and interest. Analysis. The separation of a question into parts, to be examined each by itself. Annuity. A sum of money that is payable yearly or in parts at fixed periods in the year. Antecedent. The first of the two terms named in a ratio. Area of a surface. The ratio of the surface to another surface assumed as the unit of measure; usually the square of the linear unit. Arithmetic. The science that treats of numbers and the methods of using them. Assets. All the property belonging to an estate, individual, or corporation. Average. The mean of several unequal numbers, so that, if substituted for each, the aggregate would be the same. Bank. An establishment for the custody, loaning, and exchange of money; and often for the issue of money. Bank discount. An allowance received by a bank for the loan of money, paid at the time of lending as interest on the sum lent. Bonds. Written contracts under seal to pay specified sums of money at specified times, issued by national governments, states, cities, and other corporations. ix Cancellation. The striking out of a common factor from the dividend and divisor. Combination. An arrangement of different things without reference to their order of sequence. Commission. Compensation for the transaction of business, generally reckoned at some per cent of the money employed in the transaction. Common denominator. A denominator common to two or more Common factor. A factor common to two or more numbers. its terms. Composite number. The product of two or more integral factors, each factor being greater than unity. Compound denominations. Several denominations used to express Compound interest. When the interest due is left unpaid, and con- Concrete number. A phrase without meaning. Things numbered are concrete, but the number is abstract. Consequent. The second of the two terms named in a ratio. Couplet. The two terms of a ratio taken together. Coupon. A certificate of interest attached to a bond, to be cut off when due and presented for payment. Creditor. A person or firm to whom money is due. Cube root. One of the three equal factors of a number. Customs. Duties or taxes imposed by law on merchandise imported, and sometimes on merchandise exported. Debtor. A person who owes money to another. Decimal. A tenth. In the ordinary notation, a figure in combina tion with others has only the tenth part of the value it would have if removed one place towards the left. Thus, in 476, the 4 means 4 times 100; the 7, 7 times 10; the 6, simply 6. Decimal fractions. Fractions of which only the numerators are written, and the denominators are ten or some power of ten. Decimal point. A dot placed after the units' figure to mark its place. Decimal system. The common system of numbers founded on their relations to ten, ten tens, etc. Denominator. The number which shows into how many equal parts a unit is divided. Difference. The number which, added to a given number, makes a sum equal to another given number. Discount. Allowance made for the payment of money before it becomes due. Also, the amount which the market value is below the face or nominal value. Dividend. In division, the given number which is equal to the product of a given factor (called divisor) and required factor (called quotient). In business, the share of profits which belongs to each owner of stock, according to his proportion of the whole capital. Division. The operation by which, when a product and one of its factors are given, the other factor is found. Divisor. The number by which a given dividend is to be divided. Draft. A written order directing one person to pay a specified sum of money to another. Drawee of a draft. The person to whose order the sum of money named in a draft is to be paid. Drawer of a draft. The person who signs the draft. Duty. A sum of money required by government to be paid on the importation, exportation, or consumption of goods. Equation. A statement that two expressions of numbers are equal. Equation of payments. The finding of an average time at which several payments may be justly made. Exchange. A system of paying debts, due to persons living at a distance, by transmitting drafts instead of money. Exponent. A small figure placed at the right of a number to show how many times the number is taken as a factor. Extremes. The first and last terms of a proportion or of a series. is the given number; they are assumed to be integral except in the extraction of roots. In commerce, agents employed by merchants to transact business. Figures. Symbols used to represent numbers in the common system of notation. Also diagrams used to represent geometrical forms. Firm. The name or title under which a company transact business. Fractions. One or more of the equal parts into which the unit is divided. Geometrical series. A series in which each term is obtained from the one preceding it by multiplying the preceding term by a constant factor. Grace. An allowance of three days, after the date a note becomes due, within which to pay the note. Gram. The unit of weight in the metric system, equal to 15.43235 troy grains. Greatest common measure. The greatest number which is a common factor of two or more given numbers. Improper fraction. A fraction whose numerator equals or exceeds the denominator. Index. A figure written at the left and above the radical sign to show what root of the number under the radical sign is required. A fraction written at the right of a number, of which the numerator shows the required power of that number and the denominator the required root of that power. Instalment. A payment in part. Insurance. A guarantee of a specified sum of money in the event of loss of property fire, storm at sea, or other disaster; or of loss of life. Integral number. A number which denotes whole things. Involution. The process of finding a power of a number. Least common multiple. The least number which is a common multiple of several given numbers. Liability. A debt, or obligation to pay. Line. Length without breadth or thickness. The path of a mov ing point. Liter. The unit of capacity in the metric system equal in volume to a cube each edge of which is one-tenth of a meter; it is equivalent to 1.05671 liquid quarts. |