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and krighted by the lord deputy, Sir Henry Corbet, with Notes, and a Life of the Author, Sidney, in 1570. He returned soon after to 8vo. 1808; and a Letter to W. Gifford, Esq., England, where he married a rich heiress. In on a late edition of Ford's Plays. He is said 1572 he sailed with a squadron of nine ships to also to have collected materials for a work inreinforce colonel Morgan, who meditated the re- tended to illustrate the Rise and Progress of the covery of Flushing. In 1576 he published his English stage, comprehending specimens of the book on the North-West Passage to the East minor dramatic writers anterior to the RevoluIndies. In 1578 he obtained an ample patent, tion, &c. The appearance, however, of a similar empowering him to possess in North America publication in periodical numbers, entitled Old any lands then unsettled. He sailed to New- Plays, deterred'him from publication. He died foundland, but soon after returned to England at Stamford, in Lincolnshire, in June, 1823, aged without success; nevertheless, in 1583, he em- forty-four. barked a second time with five ships, the largest GILD, v. a.
Sax. gildan ;'Goth. gilof which put back on account of a contagious Gil'der, n. s. da; from Gold, which see. distemper on board. He landed on Newfound- GIL'DING, n. s. To overlay with gold ; to land on the 3rd of August, and on the fifth took Gilt, n. s. & part.) brighten, or illuminate; possession of the harbour of St. John's. By vir- to recommend by adventitious ornaments: the tue of his patent, he granted leases to several person who lays on the gold; a coin from one people; and, though none of them remained shilling and sixpence to two shillings. there at that time, they settled afterwards in
- Yclothed was this mightie god of love consequence of these leases. On the 20th of
In silke, embroided full of grené greves; August be put to sea again, on board a small In whiche there was a fret of red rose leres, sloop; which on the 29th foundered in a hard The freshest sins the worlde was first begon : gale of wind. Thus perished Sir Humphrey His gilt here was yerouned with a sn. Gilbert; a brave officer, a good mathematician, Chaucer. Prologue to Legende of Good Fomen, a skilful navigator, and of a very enterprising
The room was large and wide, genius. He also was remarkable for his elo- As it some gilt or solemn temple were : quence, being much admired for his patriotic Many great golden pillars did uprear speeches in the English and Irish parliaments
The massy roof.
Spenser. His work, entitled A Discourse to Prove a Pas- Silvering will sully and canker more than gilding, sage by the North-West to Cathaia and the East which, if it might be corrected with a little mixture Indies, is a masterly performance, and is pre
of gold, there is profit.
Bacon. served in Hakluyt's Collection of Voyages, vol.
Gilders used to have a piece of gold in their mouth, to draw the spirits of the quicksilver.
Id. iii. p. 11. The style is superior to most, if not to all the writers of that age; and shows the
Our gayness and our gilt are all besmirched, author to have been a man of considerable
With rainy marching in the painful Geld.
AGILBERTINES, an order of religious, thus moche en el for too muchy curiosity : in my rags thou called from St. Gilbert, of Sempringham, in Lin- knowest none, but art despised for the contrary. colnshire, who founded it about 1148. The monks
Id. Timon of Athens. observed the rule of St. Augustine, and were
I am bound accounted canons; and the nuns that of St. Be- To Persia, and want gilders for my voyage. nedict. The founder erected a double monastery,
Shakspeare. or rather two contiguous to each other, the one For my part, if a lie may do thee grace, for men, the other for women, but separated by I'll gild it with the happiest terms I have. Id.
Thou did'st drink a very high wall. He founded thirteen monasteries of this order, viz. four for men alone, and
The stale of horses and the gilded puddle
Which beasts would cough at. nine for men and women together, which had in
Id. Antony and Cleopatra. them 700 brethren, and 1500 sisters. At the
To gild refined gold, to paint the lily, dissolution there were about twenty-five houses
To throw a perfume on the violet. Shakspeare. of this order in England and Wales.
When Britain, looking with a just disdain GILBOA, in ancient geography, mountains of
Upon this gilded majesty of Spain, Samaria, stretching from west to east on the
And knowing well that empire must decline, confines of the half tribe of Manasseh, and of
Whose chief support and sinews are of coin. the tribe of Issachar; and to the south of the
Waller. valley of Jezreel, beginning westward at the city
And the gilded car of day of Jezreel, at the foot of these mountains, reach
His glowing axle doth allay ing almost quite to the Jordan, six miles from
In the steep Atlantic stream. Milion. Scythopolis. They are famous for the death of Yet, oh! the' imperfect piece moves more delight; Saul and Jonathan, and the defeat of the Is- 'Tis gilded o'er with youth, to catch the sight. raelites by the Philistines.
Dryden. GILCHRIST (Octavius), F.S.A., a distin
The lightsome passion of joy was not that trivial, guished modern critic, was the son of an officer vanishing, superficial thing, that only gilds the appreof the third regiment of dragoon guards. hension, and plays upon the surface of the soul
South. He was born in 1779, at Twickenham, and
Purcbasing riches with our time and care, educated at Magdalen College, Oxford.
We lose our freedom in a gilded snare. principal works are, An Examination of the As
Roscornmen. sertions of Ben Jonson's enmity to Shakspeare, Her joy in gilded chariots, when alive; 8vo. 1808 ; an edition of the Poems of Bishop And love of ombre after death survive. Pore.
No more the rising sun shall gild the morn, it is nearly in the boiling state, about the sixth Nor evening Cynthia fiil her silver horn.
part of its weight of fine gold in thin plates, Id. Messiah.
heated red-hot, is to be immersed in it. The Could laureate Dryden Pimp and Pryer engage, mixture soon becomes homogeneous, and then it is And I not atrip the gilding off a knave,
allowed to cool. When cold it is to be put in a Uoplaced, unpensioned, no man's heir or slave!
piece of soft leather, and by gradual pressure Pope.
the fluid part of the amalgani, consisting almost Where the gilt chariot never marked its way.
wholly of mercury, may be forced through the We have here a gilder, with his anvil and hammer. pores of the leather, while the gold, combined
with about twice its weight of mercury, will This waving field is gilded o'er with corn, remain behind, forming a yellow silvery mass of That spreading tree with blushing fruit adorn. the consistency of butter. This, after being
Gay. bruised and ground in a mortar, or shaken in a But death is imaged in shadowy beams, strong phial, with repeated portions of salt and A picture is the past; even ere its frame
water, till the water comes away quite clear and Be gilt wbo sate bath ceased to be the same.
unsoiled, is fit for use, and may be kept for any Byron.
length of time, without injuring, in a corked GILD, or Guild. See Guild.
phial. It is of the utmost importance that the Gilding, as an adaptation of gold, in the fine materials of this amalgam, and especially the and mechanical arts, was not unknown in the mercury, should be perfectly pure, as the least ancient world. Pliny states, that the first attempts portion of lead or bismuth would very materially at the practice of the art seen at Rome was under injure the beauty of the gilding, by deteriorating the censorship of Lucius Mummius, after the the color of the gold, and filling it with black destruction of Carthage, when they began to gild specks. the ceilings of the temples and palaces; the 3. Gold in powder is prepared by three difcapitol being the first place on which this en- ferent methods; the first and most simple is, to richment was bestowed. But he adds, that put into a glass or earthen mortar some gold luxury advanced on them so hastily, that in a leaf, with a little honey, or thick gum-water, and little time you might see all, even private and to grind the mixture for a considerable time, till poor persons, gild the very walls, vaults, &c., of the gold is reduced to extremely minute fragtheir houses. They seem to have had the method ments; when this is done, the honey or gum may now practised of beating gold, and reducing it be washed away, leaving the gold behind in a into leaves; though they did not carry it to the flaky, or pulverulent state. A more effectual and same extent. Pliny says, that they only made quicker method of reducing gold to a state of 750 leaves of four fingers square out of a whole powder, is to dissolve it in aqua regia, or, as it is ounce. But he adds, that they could make more; now denominated, in nitro-muriatic acid, and then that the thicker leaves were called bracteæ Præ- precipitate it with a piece of copper. nestinæ, from a statue of Fortune at Præneste, cipitate, after being digested in distilled vinegar, gilt with such leaves; and the thinner sort brac- and then washed with pure water, and dried, is teæ questoriæ. The ancients seem to have had in the form of a very fine powder, and is said to no method of gilding bodies that would not en- work better, and is fitter for burnishing, than the dure the fire, but with whites of eggs or size, powder obtained from leaf-gold. The very finest neither of which will endure the water; so that ground gold is produced by heating very graduthey could only gild such places as were shel- ally the gold amalgam already described, in an tered from the moisture of the weather. The open earthen vessel, and containing the fire till Greeks called the composition with which they the whole of the mercury is evaporated; taking applied their gilding on wood leucophæum, or care that the amalgam shall be constantly stirred leucophorum; which is described as a sort of with a rod of glass, to prevent the particles of glutinous compound earth, serving in all proba- gold from adhering as the mercury flies off. bility to make the gold adhere, and bear polish- When the mercury is completely evaporated, the ing. But the particulars of this earth, its color, residual gold being then ground in a Wedgwoodingredients, qualities, &c., antiquaries and natu- ware mortar, with a little water, and afterwards ralists are not agreed upon. Homer mentions dried, is fit for use. the manner in wbich the horns of the ram brought by Nestor as an offering to Minerva,
PART I. were gilt.-Odys. I. iii. 492.
OF GILDING WITHOUT HEAT. The different states in which gold is used for Gilding is performed either with or without the
purposes of modern gilding are the follow- heat. By the first of these methods those subing :-(1.) In the shape of leaf gold of different stances are gilt which are not liable to alteration, degrees of thickness, and formed either of the by exposure to a moderate heat, such as metals, pure metal, or of an alloy of this with silver; (2.) glass, and porcelain. The second method is As an amalgam of gold; and (3.) In gold pow- practised with those substances, as wood, paper, der.
lead, &c., which would be destroyed by being 1. The leaf-gold is procured by the gilder raised to a temperature requisite for gilding the from the gold-beater, whose art consists in ham- former We shall first attend to the mechanical mering a number of thin rolled plates of the art of gilding on wood. metal, between skins, or animal membranes. This, both in oil and burnish, is at present at
2. The amalgam of gold is made by heating its highest perfection, and is executed in London in a crucible some pure quicksilver; and, when better than in any other part of the world. That
which is brought from France, and other parts of till a smooth surface is obtained, remove the the continent, is by no means equal to the Lon- water with the brush, and squeeze it into the don work; not that it is to be inferred from pan: what remains may be taken off with the hence, that gilding is well executed by all who sponge, which will complete the smoothing of undertake it in the metropolis. Many men, who that piece. Proceed in the same manner with have practised this art all their lives, are unable similar portions; for, if too much be wetted at a properly to gild a common picture-frame. time, the whitening becomes soft and unfit to
Of burnished gilding on wood.—To begin bear the pumice-stone; the work must then be with picture frames or mouldings, which are the set aside to dry. simplest. In an earthen pan, that will hold a In carved work, the operations of whitening quart, take three half-pints of strong size, make and smoothing differs somewhat from the preit warm, and add some of the best whiting ceding. After the thin white is dry, the coats powdered fine; mix them with a brush till they that follow must be rather weaker, and not so become thoroughly incorporated, and of the con- thick as for frames or mouldings; they are to be sistency of thick cream; put a little of this mix- laid on by carrying the brush over the work in ture, with an equal quantity of size, half the former an even and smooth, but not flowing manner. strength, into another pan, heat it till nearly boiling, To smooth, or produce the surface that is and, with a brush, lay it over the whole work; required, pieces of lime-wood, or fir, soaked in this is called thin whitening the work, and makes water instead of pumice, are used, shaped round, a ground for the other operations. When the flat, or angular, as may be found necessary, wood is not clean, it is usual to wash it all over occasionally wrapping round them strips of with a sponge dipped in hot water, before the linen cloth. In smoothing, care must be taken thin white is applied, which precaution will pre- not to rub off too much of the whitening, or vent the chipping up of the preparation. The the gilding will look poor, and it will prevent coat of thin white should be particularly well the burnishing of those parts thereby brought too dried; after which the work is to receive four near the wood. The drying may be hastened in more coats of that which is made of the consis- summer by the sun, in winter by placing the tency of thick cream; it must be warm, but not work before the fire; not too near, or the whitenso hot as for the first white, taking care that one ing will chip. coat is dry before another is applied. Here Now mix a little strong size, with four times it is necessary to observe that, throughout as much water, in a half pint earthen pan; these this process, one coat must be dry before proportions should be adapted so as to make it another is applied, whatever may be the compo- three parts full; add a quantity twice the size of sition used. The sixth coat, which is also of a large walnut, and half as much prepared thick white, must be laid on by passing the yellow stone ochre: mix them well together brush in a smooth, even, and flowing manner, with a brush, and coat the work once over, when over two feet of the work at a time, in order to dry, rub it slightly with glass-paper, half-worn gain a surface, and facilitate the smoothing, here- out, to improve the surface; then proceed to mix after to be described. Before the whitening is and lay on the gold-size. In another half-pint dry, the flat parts should be rubbed down with a earthen pan, half full of clear size, mix a quanchisel, the hollows with a gouge, and the rounds tity of burnished gold-size, twice as big as a large with the finger, or fingers, as is most convenient; walnut, with which coat the work twice over. should the hollows be too large for a gouge, the When dry, burnish the parts intended to be matfinger will answer every purpose. When dry, ted with a burnishing stone. (The burnishing any superfluous whitening that may have fallen is performed by the friction of a curved polished over the edges of the mouldings, &c., may be flint, or agate set in ferules with wooden handles, pared off with a chisel or a gouge, according and termed burnishing stones.) Then give it as the parts are situated; then give it a seventh another coat of the same gold-size. But this coat, similar to the preceding, and it will be must now be reduced by adding to it about two ready for smoothing, which should be performed tea-spoons full of water, and as much gold-size in the following manner :
as you can take upon the point of a knife. Coat Take some close-grained pumice-stone, and. those parts only that are intended to be burnished: with a sash saw cut it into pieces about three or and here it must be observed, that in laying goldfour inches long (if the work be very small, an size on carved work after it is yellowed, those. inch, or inch and a half will do), rasping or parts should be missed that are too small to filing them to fit the different mouldings. The receive the gold from the pencil, such as the flats are to be made by rubbing a piece of the small eyes of foliage, &c., to which effect must pumice on a smooth stone, making the sides at afterwards be given with high-colored or-moulu; right angles, that it may smooth two sides at and proceed to lay on the gold with a cushion, the same time. During these operations, the knife, and tip, as will be described in oil gildpumice-stone must be frequently dipped in ing. But in burnish gilding, camels’-hair penwater. Lay the pieces, thus prepared, in a large cils must be used, dipped in clear water, to wet earthen pan full of water, not less than two the work as fast as the gold can be laid on. quarts, take a hogs’-hair brush and a sponge, The hollows and fats must be gilt first, and be both of convenient sizes, dip the brush in the perfectly dry before the other parts can be prowater, and wet about two feet of the work at a ceeded with, when the work is all gilt and dry, time, taking the mouldings alternately; then, buruish the parts intended. And should there with the pumice already fitted, rub up and down be any defects which can only arise from the work not having been carefully wetted, or from care should be taken to get the gold on as fas! grease, those parts must be rubbed off to the as possible. whitening, with linen wrapt round the finger. In order to ascertain its fitness for receiving When they are dry, they must be gold-sized, gilt, the gold, the work must be touched with the and burnished as before stated.
finger : if it feel somewhat adhesive or clammy, Those parts not intended to be burnished are but not so as to be brought off by the finger, it technically called mats, and are to be proceeded has the tack, or in other words, is in a fit state with in the following manner :-Reduce a little for gilding; but if it be so clammy as to come clear size with hot water, so that when cold it off on being touched, or have any inclination will not set; this being the weakest size used in thereto, it is not sufficiently dry: if it have no burnish-gilding, much care should be taken that sucking quality, it is too dry, and must be sized it be not too strong, or it will show all the joints over again before it can be gilt. In laying on of the gold. When dry, lay on a coat of this weak the gold, a tip is used which must be previously size, and when again dry, rub it over with cotton. rubbed with a little tallow-grease to make it hold, In double gilding, which is the best style, the but it must be so little as to make no appearance. matted parts should be again gilt, using water to When the surface to be gilt, whether round, wet as before; after which, rub them again with hollow, or flat, is sufficiently large and plain to cotton, and coat them over again with the same contain whole leaves, they may be taken from weak size. Then give one coat of clear size, to the book, which must be held in the left hand, keep the gold firm, or a coat of or-moulu com- by the part that is sewed, the leaves of it turned pletes the process. Observe, camels’-hair pen- carefully over, and kept always so steady, that cils only are used after the gold is laid on, and the gold may be undisturbed, and lie perfectly care must be taken in sizing the matted parts not fiat. Take the tip in the right hand, touch the leaf to touch those that are burnished, which cannot of gold about half an inch deep on the side opbe improved after the burnishing-stone. posite the sewing of the book, both hands must then
If it be necessary to embellish the frames or be moved to the place meant to be gilt. Having laid work to be gilt in burnished gold, with compo- the edge of the leaf already attached to the tip, sition, it may be had in London, soft from the upon the work, which is always considered as press, and can be put on after the smoothing, having the tack, it will be caught and held fast with a little hot thick whitening, or weak glue. by the gold size, and the tip will be left at liWhat is squeezed out round the edges in press- berty; the book must be slowly drawn away, ing it close, may be taken off with a brush and followed as it moves by the tip which is now cold water: it must then have a coat of thin used gently to press the gold close to the work, white, to remove any grease, and be finished like until the whole leaf is on, which must be rethe rest of the work. The composition may also peated until those parts large enough to receive be put on oil-gold work that is not to stand in a leaf, are all gilt. This method may be acthe weather, but does not require the thin white, quired in an hour's practice. and must be finished in the manner of oil-gild- For those parts that are too small for the ening; composition is easily moistened when dry, tire leaf, it is necessary to use a cushion, upon by wrapping it in a wet linen cloth, for twenty- which about half a book of gold may be blown four hours.
out, one leaf at a time, each one carefully turned Of oil gilding to stand in the weather. The until it lies nearly flat, when, by breathing as object to be gilt, whether metal, stone, or wood, near as possible on the centre, it will become must be coated three times over with a mixture smooth and even, and must be cut in strips, of linseed oil, white-lead, and a small quantity with a knife used for the purpose, according to of spirits of turpentine; if it be wood, it should the widths of the different members and mouldbe previously rubbed with glass-paper, or fish- ings, and then laid on with the tip. As the skin. When the last coat is dry, the work should work advances, or when it is gilt all over, it must be gold-sized ; take any quantity of gold-size, be pressed close with a bit of unspun cotton, and with a common hogs’-hair brush, kept in then brushed over with a dry, soft, hogs’-hair water for the purpose, mix it with boiled linseed brush, one previously used a little in the whitenoil till it is so thin that, when a little of it be laid ing, will best answer the purpose, in order to on the work to be gilt, the white paint before put clear away any loose particles of the gold leaf. on, will appear through, though it must not be If any defective parts appear, those which canmade so thin as to lose the tinge of the yellow- not be mended by pressing upon them the loose ochre: then proceed to lay it on sparingly, with gold just brushed off (which may be done with fine hogs’-hair brushes, proportioned to the parts the brush in hand, or a bit of cotton), must be of the work. When the gold-size is good, it covered in the following manner :-Cut a leaf of will dry in twelve hours; if laid on in the evening gold into small square pieces, proportioned to it will be fit for gilding the next morning. the defects, and with the camel's' hair pencil Sometimes in winter, and when the gold-size is slightly moistening the tip of it, by putting it to fresh made, it will take two or three days; to the lip, place a piece on each faulty part, which prevent this, an expedient may be used, un- must be again pressed with the cotton. The known to the generality of gilders, i. e. mixing work is then finished unless the faulty parts are with it a small quantity of japanners' gold-size, too dry to receive the gold; when they must be which will hasten the drying, but in this instance, again gold-sized and gilt, as before directed. when it begins to have the tack, hereafter to be In general boys do not acquire the method of explained, it dries very quickly; therefore, great using the gold on the cushion in less than three
months, though a person determined to accom- Ten or twenty pounds may be made at a time. plish it may do so in one week.
The gold size must be moistened once a month Picture frames, and other work in oil-gilding or oftener with clean water to prevent it from that is not to be exposed to the weather, to be getting dry, in which case it would be necessary well done, must be prepared, as far as smoothing, to grind it again. Care should be taken in sein the same way as work to be gilt in burnished lecting these ingredients. The best black lead gold. When smooth, and after being rubbed dust, from the saw of the pencil-makers, is most fit with glass-paper, it must be coated twice over for the purpose. In choosing the clay take that with size, rather weaker than that used for whit- which has the least grit : it may be discovered ening, that which is stale answers best. The by putting a little into the mouth, the darkest gold size must be laid on as before directed in is generally the best, of which the greatest choice oil-gilding, and, when the work is gilt, pressed is to be had at the pipe-makers. The softest with the cotton, and brushed over. If faults red chalk, such as is used for drawing, must be appear, they must be treated thus:- Take a little chosen, though the gold size may be very well weak size, as directed in burnish-gilding, coat made without any, as its principal use is to the work all over when dry, wet each part where heighten the color of the gold when burnished. a fault appears with clear water, and lay on it a Prepared pipe-clay and yellow stone ochre.piece of gold, with a camels’-hair pencil, as be- The pipe-clay must be chosen and ground, as fore described. This is not to be pressed with directed in making gold size; then laid by for the cotton, but gently rubbed with it when com- use in a covered earthen pan, and occasionally pletely dry, which it will be in half an hour (as moistened as the gold size. The stone-ochre will all the coats that are used for gilding, except must be of the best quality, and prepared in the oil gold size), when give the work another coat same manner. of the weak size, then one of clear size which To make or-moulu.- In half a pint of clear completes the gilding ; but the effect is conside- water, gently boil two ounces of the best gamrably heightened with a coat of or-monlu, such boge powdered fine, for five minutes, strain it as is used to finish the matted part of the bur- through a linen cloth, and put it into a corked nished gilding.
bottle. Take one ounce of saffron, half an ounce To make strong size.—Take a clean saucepan of turmeric, and one quarter of an ounce of of any size most convenient, fill it nearly with dragon's blood, boil them in one pint of clear water, when heated as much as the hand can water for fifteen minutes, now and then stirring bear, keep putting in cuttings of parchment them from the bottom; strain them also through a which best answer the purpose, or glovers' white linen cloth, and put them into a corked bottle. Put leather shreds, pressing them down well with about five or six knobs of starch into a clean half the hand, till they are within an inch and a half pint earthen pan, make them into a paste, with a of the surface of the water; boil them slowly teaspoon-full of clean water, using the finger; for one hour and a half, and the strong size will then add water till the pan is three parts full, be made; pass it through a hair sieve into a pan, boil it for one minute, and it will be clear like and set it aside for use, the same parchment or clear size: now blow off a scum that will arise shreds will again yield the same quantity of size, from the boiling, and put it immediately into stale size stinks and is unfit for use. Clear size another pan; add four drops of the gamboge lidiffers only from the preceding in these particu- quor, two drops of the repass, stir them round, lars, it must be made in smaller quantities; the and the or-moulu is made and fit for use. parchment or shreds must be washed in several The eyes of foliage, &c., in carved work, must waters milk warm, till quite clear. It should be touched with a little of the gamboge liquor, boil only fifteen minutes; be passed through a called high-colored or-moulu, unmixed with any finer sieve, and when reduced care must be thing else. taken that the water is perfectly clean.
The or-moulu in general use, though it is by no To make gold size for burnished gilding.–Take means the best, is made by dissolving the gamone pound of pipe-clay, put it into an earthen boge in spirits of wine, instead of water, which pan full of water, when soaked; pour off the will give it the appearance of clear varnish: but water and grind it on a stone with a muller, when dropped into clear size to be substituted in such as is used by house-painters; now and then this case for starch, it will be yellow; the quansprinkling it with water as it becomes dry. Care tities of the ingredients are alike in both cases. must be taken that no dirt or grease be on the Plaster-figures, vases, busts, &c., are gilt both stone or muller, and, as it is ground, put it into in burnished gold and oil-gilding, by coating another pan; then take half an ounce of the them first with very hot weak size, and afterbest black lead, the eighth of an ounce of mutton wards four times over with hot clear size : if any suet, pound them together with the muller, and holes appear, they must be evenly filled up with proceed to grind them particularly well, using putty, made of strong size and whiting; the rest water as before directed for the pipe-clay: when of the process is the same as after smoothing in ground, put them into a smaller pan; grind half both cases. an ounce of the best red chalk, and mix the To make oil gold-size.- Put as much linseed black lead, suet, and chalk, well together on the oil into a broad earthen vessel as will cover the stone, with a pallet knife, and add to them the bottom an inch deep, and add to it as much waclay, until these ingredients are thoroughly ter as will occupy four or five inches ; let the mixed; when put them into a covered earthen vessel containing this, be exposed to the weather pan to prevent dust or dirt, to be used as wanted. for three or four weeks, occasionally stirring it