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time served in the army in the Low Countries. That broke the violence of his inient,
He afterwards went to France, where be became the weary soul from thence it would discharge.
enamoured of a Scottish lady, and married her.

At length he returned to Eugland, and settled A perilous gash, a very limb lopt off.
once more in Gray's Inn, where he wrote most of

Shakspeare. his poems. The latter part of his life he spent lists : But Newton on a sudden gave him such a gash

Hamilton drove Newton almost to the end of the in his native village of Walthamstow, where he

on the leg, that therewith he fell to the ground. died in 1578. His plays, first printed separately,

Hayward. were afterwards reprinted with other poems, in Where the Englishmen at arms had been defeated, 2 vols. 4to. in 1577 and 1587.

many of their horses were found grievously gashed or Gascoigne (Sir William), chief justice of gored to death.

Id. the king's bench under Henry IV., a celebrated But the ethereal substanre closed, judge, who, being insulted, it is said, on the bench Not long divisible; and from the gash by the then prince of Wales, afterwards Henry A stream of nectareous humour issuing flower, V., with great coolness and intrepidity committed

Milton. him to prison.

It is not well authenticated that Streaming with blood, all over gashed with wounds, the prince struck Sir William, as represented by He reeied, he gruaned, and at the altar fell.

Philips. Shakspeare; but all authors agree that he inter

See me gashed with knives, rupted the course of justice to screen a lewd

Or seared with burning steel. servant. Sir William died in 1413. Several of

Rowe's Royal Conu. his remarks and decisions are referred to in the

I was fond of back-sword and cudgel play, and I law books.

now bear in my body many a black and blue gash and GASCONADE, n.s. & v. n. From the Gas

Arbuthnot. cons, a people remarkable for boasting. A boast GAS'KINS. See GalliGASKINS. or bravado: to brag, or swagger.

GASP, n. s. & v. n. Goth. geisfd ; Dan.gispe, Was it a gasconade to please me, that you said your to sob ; or probably from Sax. geapan, to yawn. fortune was increased to one hundred a-year since I To open the mouth wide for inspiration whether left you ?

Swift. convulsively or not; to breathe with difficulty: GASCONADE, a river of North America, to desire anxiously; but this use is hardly to be having a southern course into the Missouri, justified, as not being analogous to nature. about 100 miles above its confluence with the His fortunes all lie speechless, and his name Mississippi. It can be ascended from its mouth Is at last gasp.

Shakspeare. Cymbeline.
hy boats about 100 miles, and is 157 yards wide Ah, Warwick, Montague hath breathed his last ;
and twenty feet deep where it enters the Mis- And to the latest gasp cryed out for Warwick.
souri. On its banks are a number of salt-petre

The rich countrymen in Austria were faint and

Brown's Travels.
GASCONY, a ci-devant province of France, gasping for breath.

The sick for air before the portal gasp. bounded by Guienne on the north, by Langue

Dryden. doc on the east, by the Pyrenees on the south,

They raised a feeble cry with trembling notes ; and by the Bay of Biscay on the west. It had But the weak voice deceived their gasping throats. its name from the Gascons, its ancient inhabitants.

Id. After these were subdued by the Franks, they The gasping head fies off ; a purple flood had for some time dukes of their own, who were Flows from the trunk.



Dryden's Æneid. subject to the duke of Aquitaine; but both were The ladies gasped, and scarcely could respire ; at last dispossessed by the kings of France. It The breath they drew no longer air, but fire. Dryden. produces corn, wine, fruit, tobacco, hemp, bran A scantling of wit lay gasping for lifc, and groaning dy, prunes, &c.; and abundance of fine timber beneath a heap of rubbish. in the department of the Landes. Gascony is

I lay me down to gasp my latest breath; watered by the Garonne and Adour, besides

The wolves will get a breakfast by my death. Id. smaller streams, and becomes hilly towards the And with short sobs he gasps away his breath.

He staggers round, his eyeballs roll in death, south, the mountains containing mines and

Id. Æneid. warm springs. Bourdeaux and Bayonne are the

Pale and faint, principal harbours, and the former is one of the He gasps for breath ; and, as his life filows from him, best trading ports in France. The principal ar Demands to see his friends.

Addison's Cato, ticles of export are wine, brandy, and vinegar ; If in the dreadful hour of death, fruit, wool, linseed, pitch, cork, and wood : If at the latest gasp of breath, marble, iron, and coloring earths of all kinds, are

When the cold damp bedews your brow, also sent from the neighbourhood of the Pyrenees.

You hope for mercy, shew it now. Addison,

The Castilian and his wife had the comfort to be Since the revolution Gascony forms the departments of the Upper Pyrenees, the Gers, the Lan- under the same master, who, seeing bow dearly they des, and part of those of the Lower Pyrenees, the loved one another, and gasped after their liberty, deUpper Garonne, and the Lut and Garonne.

manded a most exorbitant price for their ransom. It

Id. Spectator. is ascertained to have a territorial extent of 11,000

He now with pleasure views bis gasping prize, square miles.

Gnash his sharp teeth and roll bis blood-shot eyes. GASH, v. a. & n. s. Fr. hacher, to cut; Belg.

Gay. gihash. To make a wide and open wound; the

Parting day wound so made.

Dies like the Dolphin, whom each pang imbues He glancing on his helmet, made a large

With a new colour as it gasps away. and open gash therein; were not his targe,

Byron. Childe Harold,


GASPAR STRAIT and Island, a passage and tesians or Gassendians. He left nine volumes of island in the Eastern seas, between the east coast his philosophical works. 1. Three on Epicurus's of the island of Banca, and the west coast of the Philosophy, and six which contained his own. island of Billiton. The island is high and con- 2. Astronomical Works. 3. The Lives of Nispicuous, about five miles long; and the strait, cholas de Peiresc, Epicurus, Copernicus, Tycho about fourteen leagues broad, is divided into Brahe, Puerbachius, and Regiomontanus. 4. two arms, and connects the China and Java seas. Epistles, and other treatises. All his works were

GASPE, a district and county of Lower Ca- collected together, and printed at Lyons, in 1658, nada, North America, on the south side of the St. in 6 vols. folio. He died at Paris, in 1655, aged Lawrence, which lies between 64o and 66° 30' sixty-three. W. long., and between 47° 20' and 49° 10' N. GASSICOURT (Charles Louis Cadet de) a lat. It is bounded on the west by the district of nodern French philosopher, and advocate, who Quebec, on the east and north-east by the had the singular good fortune to survive the river and gulf of St. Lawrence, and on the south whole of the revolution, was the son of an apohy the province of New Brunswick and the bay thecary of Paris. M. Gassicourt first attracted of Chaleurs. It sends one member to the pro- notice by a pamphlet, published in 1797, on the vincial parliament; and is divided into two Theory of Elections. Then followed other essays parts by a ridge of mountains, which run north on political and miscellaneous subjects, among east. The tract on the northern declivity of these which was one On the Private Life of Mirabeau; mountains to the St. Lawrence is rough and bar- St. Geran, a Critique on the New Modes of ren; being almost covered with impenetrable Thinking, Writing, and Speaking, introduced forests. The south-east side of the ridge is also into France by the Changes of the Times; and uneren and rugged in many parts. In 1808 the others on the Influence of the Masonic Societies population amounted to 3200, and between 300 in the Process of the Revolution; and the Four and 400 fishermen. New Carlisle is the princi- Ages of the National Guard. About the same pal town.

period appeared a volume of Travels in NorGaspe, a bay of the above district, in the gulf mandy, and a Dramatic Sketch, pourtraying the of St. Lawrence, between Cape Gaspe and principal characters who Hourished under Louis Whale Head. It runs about sixteen miles into XIV. and his successor, entitled The Supper of the land, and is about five miles broad. Two Moliere. On the death of his father, himself a other inlets, called the north-west and south-west man of scientific pursuits and the personal friend arms, penetrate from the end of it a considerable of Buffon, Lalande, and Condorcet, he seems to way into the interior, and receive the waters of have diverted his attention from politics to the numerous streams from the mountains. This study of chemistry and physics. "He edited bis bay is deep and well sheltered; capable of af- father's treatise on Domestic Pharmacy, and a fording protection to a large number of ships. Forinulary on the same subject; and gave the The shores are lofty.

world a New Dictionary of Chemistry, afterwards GASPE is also the name of a cape on the coast introduced into the Polytechnic school. This of Canada, in the gulf of St. Lawrence. Long. book appeared first in 1803. He followed the 64° 10' W., lat 48° 35' N.

French army into Anstria in 1809, and subseGASSENDI (Peter), a celebrated philosopher quently wrote an account of the Campaign, durof France, was born at Chantersier in Provence, ing which he invented a military instrument in 1592. His parents sent him to school at called les baquettes. The modern plan for the Digde, where he soon made such extraordinary organisation of the French board of health owes progress in learning, that some persons, who had its origin to him, and he had not only the satisseen specimens of his genius, removed him to faction of seeing it eagerly adopted, but that of Aix, to study philosophy under Fesay, a learned obtaining the appointment of Reporting Secreminor friar. He was afterwards invited to be tary. In this capacity be continued till his death, professor of rhetoric at Digne, before he was which took place at Paris in the sumnier of quite sixteen years of age; and he had been en 1823. Besides the productions enumerated, gaged in that office but three years when, Fesay Gassicourt was the author of a series of epistles dying, he was made professor in his room at Aix. on London and the English Nation; and å treaThere he composed bis Paradoxical Exercita- tise on the application of the Physical Science to tions; which coming to the hands of Nicholas Military Purposes. He was also a material conPeiresc, Gassendi was first made canon of the tributor to a variety of useful and scientific pubchurch of Digne and D.) and then obtained lications; and assisted in founding the Lyceum, the rectorship of the church. Gassendi's fond- afterwards the Athenæum, at Paris. ness for astronomy increased with his years; and, GAST, Sax. gast. Vide aghast. To terrify. bis reputation daily increasing, he was, in 1645, When he saw my best alarmed spirits appointed royal professor of mathematics at Pa- Bold in the quarrel's right, roused in the encounter, ris. This institution being chiefly designed for Or whether gasted by the noise I made, astronomy, he read lectures on that science to Full suddenly he Aed. Shakspeare, King Lear. crowded audiences. He, however, did not hold GASTEROSTEUS, the stickleback, in ichthis place long; for a dangerous cough, and in thyology, a genus of fishes belonging to the order flammation of the lungs, obliged him, in 1647, to of thoracici. There are three rays in the memreturn to Digne for the benefit of his native air. brane of the gills: the body is carinated ; and Gassendi combated the metaphysics of Descartes; there are some distinct prickles before the back and divided with that great man the philoso- fin. There are thirteen species, distinguished by phers of bis time, almost all of whom were Car- thenumber of prickles on the back. One of these, Vol. X.


G. aculeatus, stickleback, bansticle, or sharp- or other round transparent vessels, within which ling, is common in many of the British rivers. certain figures appear by magic art. It is thus In the fens of Lincolnshire, and some rivers that called, because the figure appears as in the belly proceed from them, they are found in prodigious of the vessels. quantities. At Spalding, once in seven or eight GASTUNI, a town of Greece, in the Morea, years, amazing shoals appear in the Welland, and over against the island of Zante. It has a castle come up the river in form of a vast column. on the Igliaco, and contains 3000 inhabitants, They are supposed to be the multitudes that have who cultivate the vine, cotton, and silk, with been washed out of the fens by the floods of se- great industry. The environs are very fertile. veral years, and collected in some deep place, About six miles to the east are found the ruins till, overcharged with numbers, they are periodi- of the ancient Elis. Twelve miles east of Chiacally obliged to attempt a change of place. The renza. quantity is so great that they are used to manure GAT, the preterite of get. the land, and trials have been made to get oil Moses gat him up into the mount. from them. An idea may be conceived of this.

Ex, xxiv. 13. vast shoal, hy being told that a man, having beenG at, East, a channel W.N. W. of the island employed by a farmer to take them, once ob- of Walcheren, Netherlands, between the Caloot tained for a considerable time 4s. a day, hy sell- Sand and the Querns Flat. It has from four to ing them for a halfpenny per bushel. This spe- five fathoms water. cies is seldom two inches long: it has three sharp GATA, CAPE, a promontory on the coast of spines upon the back, that can be raised or de Granada, Spain, forming the eastern limit of the pressed at pleasure. The color of the back and bay of Almeria, and consisting of a mass of rocks, sides is an olive green; the belly white; but in twenty-four miles in circuit, and thirteen in some the lower jaws and belly are of a bright breadth. In the centre of this promontory there crimson.

are four hills, called the Sacristan, the Two GASTRELL (Francis), bishop of Chester, was Friars, the Captain, and the White Mountain; born in 1662, appointed preacher to the society and, about fifty paces from the beach, a rocky of Lincoln's Inn in 1694, and made bishop of mass 200 feet high, crystallised in pieces tiat Chester in 1714. He preached a course of ser- have four or five plates chased one within another. mons for Boyle's lectures; engaged in the Tri- They are of the color of ashes, from eight to nitarian controversy with Mr. Collins and Dr. fourteen inches long, with a large grain that takes Clarke; and published two popular pieces enti- a good polish. The other side of the promontled Christian Institutes, and A Moral Proof of tory, is called El Puerto de la Plata. Long 20 a Future State. He also vindicated the rights of 22: W., lat. 36° 43' N. the university of Oxford against the archbishop GATAKER (Thomas), a learned critic and of Canterbury, in the appointment of the warden divine, born in London, in 1574. He studied at of Manchester College; and opposed the violent St. John's College, Cambridge, and was afterproceedings against bishop Atterbury in the wards, chosen preacher.at Lincoln's Inn; which house of lords, though he disliked the bishop's he quitted, in 1611, for the rectory of Rotherhithe. principles. He died in 1725.

In 1620 he made a tour through the Low CounGASTRIC, adj. The root of all these tries; and, in 1624, published in London a work, GASTRO'RAPHIA, n. s. words is the Gr. yasno, entitled Transubstantiation declared by the conGASTROT'OMY, n. s. the belly. It is used fession of the Popish Writers to have no neces

GASTRON'OMY, n. s. ) in composition with sary foundation in God's Word. He wrote alse pattw, to sow up; reuvw, to cut, and vouos, a a defence of this discourse. In 1642 he was aplaw or rule, and in these cases refers to sewing pointed one of the assembly of divines, and was wounds, making incisions, or laying down laws engaged with them in writing annotations upon in reference to the stomach or belly.

the Bible. He died in July, 1654, in the eightieth The gastric juice of an owl, falcon, or kite, will not year of his age. He published also, 1. A Dissertouch grain.

Palcy's Theology. tation upon the Style of the New Testament. GASTRIC Juice, a thin pellucid liquor, which 2. De Nomine Tetragrammata. 3. De Dipthongis, distils from certain glands in the stomach, forsive Bivocalibus. 4. An Edition and Translathe dilution, &c., of the food.

tion of Marcus Antoninus's Meditations. 5. A It is soluble in water, has a slight saline taste, Collection of Sermons, in folio; and many other and is quite limpid. Its peculiar property is that works. of dissolving the food in the stomach into a GATE, n. s. ? Gate and way; Sax. geat. milky liquid called chyle. After death this sol- GATEWAY, n. s. SA frame of timber or other vent power even acts upon the stomach itself. material upon hinges giving access to a city, By evaporation it is reduced to a dry mass, castle, dwelling or field : also an avenue or openwhich gives out in destructive distillation ammo- ing itself. nia and empyreumatic oil, leaving carbonaceous

That other gate was kept by Shame, matter, which contains muriate of soda and other

Whiche opened, as it was couthe neutral salts.

Towardes the parté of the southe. GASTROMANCY, GASTROMANTIA, from

Chaucer. Romaunt of the Rosa.

She then the cities sought from gate to gate, yasno, the belly, and havrela, divination, a kind And everie one did aske, did he him see. of divination practised among the ancients, by

Spenser. Fuerie Queene. means of words coming, or seeming to come, out Auria had done nothing but wisely and politically, of the belly. There is another kind of gastro in setting the Venetians together by the ears with the mancy, which is performed by means of glasses, Turks, and opening a gate for a long war. Knolle.

Kaowest thou the way to Dover ?

and all that is above ground exposed to the -Both stile and gate, horseway, and footpath. action of the weather should be well covered


with one or two good coats of oil-paint. The Open the gate of mercy, gracious God!

exper.se of this preparation is but trifling, while My soul flies through these wounds to seek thee. Id.

the benefit is very great. Gateways between inclosures are so miry, that they cannot cart between one field and another.

According to Parker, the substance of a gateMortimer's Husbandry.

post should be from eight to ten inches square, He feeds yon almshouse, neat but void of state, or, for very heavy gates, a foot square would Where age and want sit smiling at the gate. Pope.

not be too large. If made of still larger size it Gates, in agriculture, are the convenient is better. And he says, that the steadiness of a moveable parts of fences, generally formed of gate-post depends, in a great measure, upon the timber or iron, which are designed to give the depth to which it is set in the ground, which freest inlet or outlet to enclosures, and at the ought to be nearly equal to the height of it. same time to keep in cattle and admit of being But the posts may be kept in their places by a

Five or six feet is, in general, fully sufficient. securely closed

The great object is generally said to be to com- strong frame-work placed under the ground, exbine strength with lightness in their construction. tending between the posts. The common sort are constructed of timber, and, whatever kind may be used, it is essential that it be well seasoned, as without attention in this respect they are soon warped in their structure by the heat of the sun : they should also be well and correctly put together. Oak is anedoubtedly the best sort of wood for the purpose, where durability is the object; though some of the lighter kind of woods, as deal, willow, &c., will often last a great length of time, and from their lightness they are not so apt to destroy themselves. The lighter gates are made towards the head or opening part, the better, provided they be sufficiently strong for the pur pose they are to serve; and, on this account, the The common slip-bar gate is, perhaps, the top bars may in many cases, as where horses are most durable of any, especially where the gateto be kėpt, be left considerably stronger than posts are of stone, with proper openings for the the others. If this be not done, they are liable reception of the bars. The only objection is to be broken by the animals rubbing their necks the trouble of opening and shutting this gate ; upon them, except where they are made very which, when servants or others are passing high. Gates are generally made eight and a through it in a hurry, occasions its being frehalf or nine feet in width, and from five to six quently left open. In other respects it is preferfeet in height; the bars being three or four feet able to every other description of gate, says the broad, and five or six in number. To prevent above writer, both in the original cost and small animals getting through, a smaller bar is greater durability. It is to be noticed, however, sometimes introduced between the two lower- that upon the verge of a farm or estate, especially most ones. At the ordinary prices of wrought where it is bounded by a high road, the slip-bar iron and oak, the former will be found of doubt- gate will not answer, as it does not admit of ful economy, and cast iron gates are too heavy, being locked, or secured in the same way as and too liable to be broken, for agricultural other gates. But the chained slip-bar gate, purposes, but they are frequently used for orna- though more expensive, is not liable to this mental gates, to divide pastures.

objection. Here the bars are connected by a The posts to which gates are attached should, chain down the middle of the gate, and therein all convenient cases, says Mr. Loudon, bé fore, if one bar is padlocked to the post, none of formed of stone; as this material, when hewn them can be moved till that one is unlocked. and properly constructed, will last for ages. Parker's compensation-hinge for gates is When formed of wood, oak or larch are the much in use, and forms an excellent corrective best sorts. The latter, where suitable, should be to their falling; all that is necessary when the used without removing the bark, which has been gate sinks at the head is to screw it up by the found to add greatly to their durability. In nut ny till it regains its original position. some places it is customary to plant trees for gate-posts, and, after they have attained a certain size and thickness, to cut them over about ten feet above the surface: where the trees thrive, they form the most durable of all gate-posts; in many instances, however, they misgive, and much trouble is necessary to repair the defect. Where the posts are made of dead timber, they should always be strong, and the wood well prepared; that part which is let into the earth should also be defended, by dipping it in coarse oil, or giving it a coat of pyrolignous liquor ;


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A gate should have one fall to the hanging A cheap, simple, and effective spring-lalch post to make it catch, and another to a point at consists of a bolt which is loose, and plays à right angle with the gateway, so as to keep it freely in two mortised openings in the upright open. To effect this, having set the post per- bars, and is kept in place by a spring. The pendicular, let a plumb-line be drawn upon it: gate may be shut from either side, when the bar, on this line, at a proper height, place the hook, striking against the projection on the falling post so that it may project three inches and a half is pushed back, till, arriving at the mortise, the from the face of the post; and at a convenient spring forces it in, and the gate is shut securely. distance below this place the lower hook an inch Such a gate is easily opened by a rider. This and a half to one side of the perpendicular line, is a good latch for the common field-gates of a and projecting two inches from the face of the farm. post; then place the top loop, or eye, two inches Double, or folding gates, are sometimes confrom the face of the hanging stile, and the bottom sidered to be much more durable than those of loop three inches and a half. A gate thus hung the swing kind; because the hars, being only will have a tendency to shut in every position; half the length, render the joints of the gate not because if the weight of the gate be represented so liable to be broken, or the hinges to be so by a diagonal line from the heel to the head, this, much strained. On the other hand, such gates by the resolution of forces, is resolvable into other require more opening and shutting, and the two lines, one perpendicular, and the other latter operation is troublesome to perform, when horizontal; the former representing that part of both halves have fallen at all from the perpendithe weight which presses in a perpendicular cular. These gates are not, therefore, in such position, and the latter that part of the weight general use in agriculture, as the swing kind; which presses in a horizontal direction, and but are common only as gates to parks, &c. gives the gate a tendency to shut.

Clarke's window-sash gate is the last invention The fastenings

we shall notice. It is suspended by two weights, of gates, it is ob

and opens and shuts exactly on the principle of served by Parker,

a window-sash. The weights may be of stone are as various as

or cast iron; the pulleys are of iron, and nine the blacksmiths

inches diameter. "It was applied in the first who construct

instance to a cattle-court; but has since been them the subject

erected in different situations. Its advantages occupied his at

the inventor states to be the following:

It is tention in conner

easy to open b, or shut a; remains in whatever ion with the hang

situation it is placed; is not liable to be beaten to ing of gates, and

pieces by the action of the wind; shuts always he has introduced

perfectly close, whatever be the height of the various improve

straw or dung in the court or gateway; a cart ments. One of the

may be driven quite close on either side before most secure is a spring latcha, opened by opening; is perfectly out of the way when fully a lever 3, which works in a groove of the open, and not liable to shut on what is passing; upper bar of the gate, and therefore cannot be the gate bottom not liable to decay by being rubbed open by cattle; while, by means of a immersed in the dung, as is commonly the case knob at the end of the lever, and rising up with cattle court-gates; not liable to go out of against the top of the upright bar c, so that cat- order; may be erected in a hollow place, where tle cannot touch it, it is very easily opened by a swinging-gate could not open either outwardly persons on horseback with or without a stick it or inwardly; and is likely to be more durable whip.

than ordinary gates. See diagram.

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Gates, in a military sense, are made of strong the troops can go out of the town unseen by the planks, with iron bárs, to oppose an enemy. enemy, when they pass to and from the relief of They are generally made in the middle of the the duty in the outworks, or on any other occacurtain, whence they are seen and defend- gion which is to be concealed from the besiegers. ed by the two faoks of the bastions. They Public Gates are those passages, through the should be covered with a good ravelin, that they middle of such curtains, to which the great roads may not be seen or enfiladed by the enemy. of public ways lead. The dimensions of these These gates, belonging to a fortified place, are are usually about thirteen or fourteen feet high, passages through the rampart, which may be and nine or ten feet wide, continued through shut and opened by means of doors and a port the rampart, with proper recesses for foot pascullis. They are either private or public. sengers to stand in, out of the way of whee: car

Private Gates are those passages by which riages.

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