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till the oil appears of the consistency of treacle;
PART II. it must then be separated from the water, put into a long bottle, or separating funnel used by OF GILDING BY MEANS OF HEAT. the chemists, and placed in such a degree of heat as will render it perfectly fluid. The clear
This is performed both with leaf and with part should then be poured off
, and it will be fit liquid gold; the former after the same manner for use.
Take any quantity of the best yellow- in which silver leaf is fixed and burnished by the stone ochre, and a fourth part of white lead, French platers on brass. See Plate. The mix them with the oil on a Aag, using a muller metal for this purpose must be previously and pallet knife : this mixture is oil gold-size, it cleansed and polished : then heated to about the must be put into an earthen vessel, and covered temperature of melted lead, and covered with a with water, to prevent it from skinning. This double layer of gold leaf; when a blood-stone gold-size is very troublesome to make; it does burnisher, applied gently at first and gradually not arrive at its highest perfection, until six or increasing the pressure, will cause the surfaces seven years old.
of gold and copper to touch each other and The gilding of books and paper has been stated adhere. Successive layers, to a third or fourth, in our article Book-BINDING, to be a distinct are thus laid on and burnished. But this method occupation. Generally isinglass size, strong has been thought tedious, and is subject to the gu.n-water, or glovers'-size, are employed in this great difficulty of using a sufficient pressure art; but, as the gum-water and weaker sizes are without injuring the evenness of the gilded surapt to run beyond the edge, isinglass, melted face. Gold wire, as it is called, is thus made, howwith the addition of some common proof spirit ever, very commonly and successfully. The copof wine, and a sixth part of honey or sugar-candy per bar, before it is committed to the wire-drawer, is preferred; to which must be added a third of is plated with gold, by having several leaves bole armeniac well powdered.
successively burnished upon it, and, though then The following composition has been also re- subjected to the strong compression that takes commended :-Take bole armeniac and sugar- place in wire-drawing, the gold and copper are candy well powdered; mix them with the whites so perfectly united, as to form, in a manner, one of eggs, beaten to an oily consistence; and the substance, and extend together. cement will be fit for use. In applying any of
Gilding metals with liquid gold is sometimes these cements, the paper, in quires or in books, termed water gilding. We have already described should be well cut and polished on the edges to the best mode of preparing the amalgam. Silver be gilt; and well screwed down by a press; in is prepared to be thus gilt by soaking it in warm this state it is to be brushed over, first with a dilute muriatic acid, so that the surface may be little of the cement without the sugar-candy or rendered perfectly clean; it is next washed in tie bole; and, when that is dry, either with the clean water, two or three times changed, in order cement above given, or any other solution of to free it from the whole of the acid; and being gum or size with the proper proportion of the afterwards dried, and made moderately warm, a bole ; after which it may be suffered to dry; and little gold amalgam, also warm, is evenly spread then water-polished, by rubbing it with a fine upon it, and is found immediately to adhere. In linen rag slightly moistened. It is then fit for applying the amalgam, the operator uses a little receiving the gold, provided it be moistened at knife, or a brush made of brass wire. Giving that time; and the leaves may be laid on, being the work a gentle heat before the fire, he dabs cut according to the breadth which they are to or spreads the amalgam with the brush. The cover, and pressed closely down with cotton. metal is now set over the fire, upon a grate, or When thoroughly dried, it is polished bur- in a sort of cage, under which is a pan of charnished.
coal, yielding a heat sufficient for evaporating Japanners' gilding may be performed on al- the mercury; which, rising in fumes, leaves the most any substance, whether metal, wood, gold alone adhering to the work. Successive leather, or paper; nor is there any preparation layers of this kind are frequently spread. necessary, besides making the surface, on which When the mercury is so far evaporated that the size is to be laid, smooth, and perfectly clean. the surface becomes uniformly pale, the metal is Then spread japanners' size, mixed with a due rubbed with a scratch-brush composed of sine proportion of oil of turpentine and verinilion, brass wire, till its surface is made clean and with a brush over the work, if the whole surface smooth. Then it is covered over with a compois to be gilt; or draw with it, by means of a sition called gilding-wax, and again exposed to pencil, the proper figure desired, avoiding care- the firé till the way be burnt off. This applicafully any other parts; when it is almost dry, so tion is designed to heighten the color, and it is as to be capable, by its clamminess, of receiving repeated till that effect is produced. The wax the gold, dip a piece of wash-leather, wrapped is a mixture of common bees'-wax, red ochre, round the finger, in the gold powder, and rub it verdigris, and green vitriol, or alum, and prolightly over the sized work; or spread the pow- motes the perfect dissipation of the mercury. der with a soft camels’-hair pencil; and with a The work must be now covered over, while heated, camels’-hair when the work is dry, brush away with a composition, consisting of equal quantities the loose powder. If leaf-gold is used, the me- of nitre, green vitriol, sal ammoniac, and verdithod of sizing must be the same as for the pow- gris, finely powdered, and mixed up into a paste ders; but care is necessary in laying on, that the with water or urine. The mixture manifests its size be in a proper state of dryness.
effects by smoking, and, if the color of the gilding
be not now sufficiently heightened, a succeeding completely both the vapor of the fuel, and the application rarely fails to complete it.
fumes of such matters as are placed upon it. For the gilding of copper, &c., in button • If such a furnace is made of strong forged making, see BUTTONS.
(not milled) iron plate, it will be sufficiently When iron is to be gilt by amalgamation it is durable. The upper end of the chimney may generally first coated with copper; which, with reach above a foot and a half higher than the all its combinations with zinc, having less affinity level of the fire; over this is to be placed a with mercury than silver, must not be expected larger tube, leaving an interval of an inch or to adhere to the amalgam so perfectly as that more all round between it and the chimney, and metal, nor to afford at last so even a surface. reaching to the height of ten or twelve fcet; the
The difficulties of well gilding iron, or rather higher the better. The external air, passing up steel, by amalgamation are also great on other between the chimney and the outer pipe, prevents accounts.--If simple burnishing down be had the latter from being much heated, so that the recourse to, the heat requisite for this purpose mercurial fumes will condense against its sides will, in many cases, bring the temper of the into running quicksilver, which, falling down to steel too low: the parts of the steel to be gilded the bottom, is there catched in a hollow rim, are often, therefore, pencilled over with nitrate formed by turning inwards a portion of the lower of mercury, by which they are covered with a part, and conveyed by a pipe at one side into a slightly adhering coating of mercury; then the proper receiver. amalgam is applied, and the gilding finished in the For the gilding of china ware, see PORCELAIN: usual way. The objection to this process is, that for gilding on enamel, and glass, ENAMELLING : a considerable heat is required, though inferior for gilding letters and figures in books, ILLUMIto that requisite for burnishing down, and that, NATING. even with all possible care, the gilding is apt Ornaments of brass are varnished in a manner to scale off. An improvement on this method termed gold lacquering, to distinguish them from is previously to trace the figure of the gilding those that are really gilt. When silver leaves, on the steel with a brush charged with a strong thus varnished, are put upon leather, it is called solution of sulphated copper, which is made to gilt leather; and many picture-frames have no adhere with considerable firmness by means of other than this counterfeit gilding, which may be the burnisher; and thus the gilding is, in part, discovered by washing it with rectified spirits of performed upon the copper. Another method wine; for the spirit will dissolve the varnish, of gilding upon steel is suggested in the Phil. and leave the silver leaf of its own whiteness. Mag. xi. p. 144, and seems capable of greatly For plain picture frames, thick tin-foil may be improving the art. It depends upon the fact, used instead of silver; the tin-leaf fixed on with that if sulphuric ether and nitro-muriate of gold glue is to be burnished, then polished with emery are mixed together, the ether will by degrees and a fine linen cloth, and afterwards with putty separate from the acid nearly the whole of the applied in the same manner; being then lacgold, and retain it in solution for some time in quered over with the varnish five or six times, it nearly a metallic state. Ether, therefore, thus looks like gold. See LACQl'ERING. Inferior or charged with gold, is spread; by means of a pen false gildings are also made with thin leaves of or fine brush, on the surface of highly polished copper or brass, called Dutch leaf. In this mansteel ; the ether presently evaporates, leaving the ner are made most of the kinds of what is called gold behind in close contact with the steel, and gilt paper. the adhesion, as in other cases, is finished by the The following aocount of factitious gilding for application of the burnisher. If the expense of chain-bridges, and other works of iron, was comthe ether is an object, the best oil of turpentine municated by John Robison, Esq. F.R.S.E. to may be used instead.
Dr. Brewster's Edinburgh Philosophical Journal Dr. Lewis makes the following remarks on of last year (1826): gilding by amalgamation : “ There are two prin "The Moochees and Nuqquashes of India, who cipal inconveniences in this business: one, that are the makers and painters of a variety of obthe workmen are exposed to the fumes of the jects whose purposes require ability to stand the mercury, and generally, sooner or later, have effects of the weather, use an application in ortheir health greatly impaired by them; the namenting their works, which, in appearance, other, the loss of the mercury; for, though part nearly equals gilding, and costs little more than of it is said to be detained in the cavities made common paint. It appears to me that this apin the chimneys for that purpose, yet the greater plication might be useful in some cases in this part of it is lost. From some trials I have made, country, particularly in chain-bridges, and other it appeared that both these inconveniences, par- works where iron of a smooth surface is exposed ticularly the first and most considerable one, to the atmosphere. I therefore use the freedom might be, in a good measure, avoided, by means of troubling you with what I recollect on the of a furnace of a due construction.'
subject. He suggests, therefore, the communication of a In preparing the factitious gilding in the furnace with its chimney under the grate, instead small way, a quantity of pure tin is melted, and of over the fire: then the ash-pit door, or other poured into a joint of bamboo, perhaps a foot apertures beneath the grate, being closed, and long, and two or three inches in diameter, close the mouth of the furnace left open, the current at both ends, except the perforation at which the of air, which otherwise would have entered tin is poured in, which is instantly plugged up. beneath, enters at the top, and, passing down The bamboo is then violently shaken, which, if through the grate to the chimney, carries with it well managed, soon makes the metal assume th:
form of a very fine gray powder : this being (Jer. viii. 21, xlvi. 11, li. 8.) The merchants who sifted, to separate any coarse particles, is mixed bought Joseph came from Gilead, and were carup in thin melted glue, and, if I recollect right, rying balm into Egypt, Gen. xxxvii. 25. is levigated on a stone with a muller. The re GILES (John), D. D. & M.D., a native of sult is poured into dishes (commonly cocoa nut- St. Albans, who flourished in the thirteenth censhells) to settle, and the superfluous moisture tury, and was the first Englishman who entered poured off.
among the Dominicans. He was physician in • When to be applied, it should be of the con- ordinary to Philip IV. of France, and was prosistence of thin cream, and is laid on with a soft fessor of medicine in the universities of Paris brush, like ordinary paint. When dry, it appears and Montpelier. In his Latin Tracts he is like a coat of common gray water color. This is styled Johannes Ægidius. gone over with an agate-burnisher, and then Giles (St.), the tutelar saint of Edinburgh, forms a bright uniform surface of polished tin; was a native of Greece, who flourished in the a coating of white or colored roghun (oil-varnish) sixth century, and was descended of an illustriis immediately laid over it, according as it may ous family. On the death of his parents he gave be intended to imitate silvering or gilding.' all his estate to the poor; and travelled into
GILDAS, surnamed the Wise, a celebrated France, where he retired into a wilderness near British monk, born in Wales in 511. Where the conflux of the Rhone with the sea, and conhe was educated is uncertain. Some say he tinued there three years. Having obtained the went over to Ireland; others, that he visited reputation of extraordinary sanctity, various France and Italy. All agree that, after his re- miracles were attributed to him; and he founded turn to England, he became a most assiduous a monastery in Languedoc, known long after by preachen of the gospel. Du Pin says he founded the name of St. Giles's. In the reign of James a monastery at Venetia in Britain. Gildas is II. Mr. Preston of Gorton, whose descendants the only British author of the sixth century still possess an estate in the county of Edinburgh, whose works are printed. His History of Bri- obtained an arm of this saint; which relic he tain is valuable on account of its antiquity, and bequeathed to the church of Edinburgh. In as containing the only information we have con- gratitude for this donation, the magistrates cerning the times of which he wrote; though his granted a charter in favor of Mr. Preston's heirs, style is inelegant.
by which the nearest heir of the name of Pres GILDO, a general in Mauritania, who was ton was entitled to carry it in all processions. raised by the emperor Theodosius to the chief They also obliged themselves to found an altar command in Africa. When the empire was in the church of St. Giles's, and appoint a chapdivided between Arcadius and Honorius, the lain for celebrating an annual mass for the soul two sons of the last-mentioned emperor, he was of Mr. Preston; and likewise, that a tablet persuaded to acknowledge the authority of Arca- containing his arms, and an account of his pious dius, the master of the east, although his alle- donation, should be put up in the chapel. giance was due to Honorius. The Roman GILGAL, in ancient geography, a place besenate, upon the revolt, denounced him a public tween Jericho and Jordan, noted for the first enenemy. He was subdued by Stilicho; and the campment of the Israelites on this side Jordan, war which terminated in his discomfiture was about a mile from Jericho. It sometimes also celebrated by Claudian in his poem de Bello denotes Galilee. Joshua xii. 23. Gildonico. He was seized and thrown into pri
GILL, n. s. Sax. nægel; Lat. (barb.) gillo, son, where he saved himself from his impending gello. A liquid measure; the fourth of a pint. fate by a voluntary death.
They measure their block-tin by the gill, which GILEAD, the son of Machir, and grandson containeth a pint.
Careu. of Manasseh. His posterity had their inherit Every bottle must be rinsed with wine : some, out ance allotted them in the mountains of Gilead, of mistaken thrift, will rinse a dozen with the same : so named from him.
change the wine at every second bottle : a gill may be enough.
Swifi. GILEAD, a descendant of the above mentioned patriarch, and the father of Jephthah.
Gill, n. s. Not improperly, as Dr. Johnson GILEAD, BALM OF. See Amenis.
suggests, from gillian, the Old English way of The mountains of Gilead were part of that writing Julian or Juliana. The appellation of a ridge which runs from mount Lebanon south- woman in ludicrous language. ward, on the east of the Holy Land; gave their
I can, for I will, name to the whole country which lies on the east
Here at Burley s'th' Hill,
Give all of the sea of Galilee, and included the mountainous
Each Jack with his Gill. region, called in the New Testament, Trachonitis.
Ben Jonson · Gypsies. Jer. (xxii. 6) seems to say, that Gilead begins from mount Libanus. Jacob, at his return from
Gill, n. S. Lat. chelidonium. The name Mesopotamia, came in six days to the mountains
Gill-HOUSE. I of a plant; ground-ivy; malt
} of Gilead (Gen. xxxi. 21. &c.) where this patri- liquor medicated with ground-ivy. Gill-house arch, with Laban his father-in-law, raised a heap is the place where it is sold. of stones, in memory of their agreement and
Thee shall cach ale house, thee each gillhouse mour, covenant, and called it Galeed, i.e. “an heap of And answering ginshops sourer sighs return. Pope. witnessess,' and which Laban called Jegar saha Girl (John), D.D., a Protestant dissenting dutha. These mountains were covered with minister of the Baptist denomination, was born trees abounding with gum, called the balm of at Kettering, N 23rd, 1697. de was early Gilead, which the Scripture much commends. sent to a grammar-school in the neighbourhood,
where he very soon surpassed boys much his 'Till they, of farther passage quite bereft. seniors; and after he had left school, though Were in the mesh with gills cnlangled left. King. bis time was daily devoted to the business of Like the long bag of flesh hanging dową from the his father, yet he so far improved his leisure gills of the people in Piedmont.
Swifi. hours, as to be able, before he was nineteen, to Gills of Fish. See Zootomy. read all the classical authors that fell in his way. GILLES (Peter), a learned and enterprising On Nov. 1st, 1716, he made a public profession French author, born at Albi in 1490. After of his faith before the Baptist church at Ket- studying the Latin and Greek languages, philotering, and was baptized by Mr. Thomas Wallis. sophy, natural history, &c., he travelled gh Of this church Mr. Gill had not been long a France and Italy. In 1533 he dedicated a work member before he was called to the ministry: to Francis I., wherein he advised that monarch soon after which, he removed to Higham Ferrers, to send learned men to travel into foreign counto pursue his studies under Mr. Davis; but his tries for the improvement of science; in consestay there was soon interrupted by an invitation quence of which the king sent Gilles into the to London, to preach to the Baptist church at Levant. But having received no remittances Horslydown, over which he was ordained pastor from France, during his journey, he was at last in 1719, which office he sustained upwards of obliged to enlist, for subsistence, in the army of fifty-one years. Mr. Gill had not been long in Soliman II. In another voyage he was taken London, before rabbinical learning, of which he by a pirate, and carried into Algiers. By the had acquired considerable knowledge, became generosity of Cardinal Armagnac he obtained his an object of his pursuit. To facilitate his pro- liberty; after which he went to his benefactor gress through the intricacies of this labyrinth, he at Rome, where he died in 1555. contracted an acquaintance with one of the most GILLORI, an island on the coast of West learned Jewish rabbis. He read the Targums, Florida, divided from Dauphin island by a very the Talmuds, the Rabbot, their ancient commen- narrow channel. Between Gillori and the main taries, the book Zohat, and whatever else of this land, on the west side of Mobile River, is a kind he was able to procure. Of the Oriental chain of small islands, and oyster-shells, through languages he made himself complete master: in which is a passage of four feet, called Passe au short, there was no branch of knowledge that Heron. could either enlarge or enrich biblical learning, GI'LLYFLOWER, n. s. Corrupted from which he did not attempt and attain. In 1748 Julyflower, or from Fr. giroflée. he published a Commentary on the New Testa
In July come gillyflowers of all varieties. ment, in 3 vols. folio. This work attracted the
Bacon. attention of the University of Aberdeen; and Gillyflowers or rather Julylowers, so called froma procured for him, without either his solicitation the month they blow in, may be reduced to these or his knowledge, a diploma, creating him D.D. sorts ; red and white, purple and white, scarlet and He died at Camberwell in 1771, aged seventy- white.
Mortimer's Husbandry. three. In 1718 the Dr. had married Mrs. Fair is the gillyflower of gardens sweet, Elizabeth Negus; by whom he had many chil
Fair is the marygold, for pottage meet. dren, two of whom only survived him. Mrs.
Gay's Pastorals. Gill died in 1764. His works are, 1. A Com- GILLYFLOWER. See CHEIRANTHUS, and Dsmentary on the Old and New Testament, in 9 ANTHUS. vols. fol. 2. A Body of Divinity, in 3 vols. GILOLO, or Gillolo, called also Halama4to. 3. The Cause of God and Truth, 4 vols. hera, is the largest of the Spice Islands. In its 8vo. 4. A Treatise concerning the Prophecies of shape, which is very irregular, it most resembles the Old Testament, respecting the Messiah. 5. Celebes, being formed of four peninsulas, enclosA Dissertation on the antiquity of the Hebrew ing three large bays on the east : the interior is Language, Letters, Vowel Points, and Accents. occupied by high mountains rising in peaks. It 6. Sermons on the Canticles, folio; besides a abounds in sago and fruit trees, buffaloes, deer, great number of sermons and controversial goats, and wild hogs; and is well inhabited. pieces on different subjects.
Towards the south it is said to have nutmeg and GILLS, n. s. Goth. geil, gil, a fissure; Span. clove trees. When captain Forrest visited it, in agulla ; Lat. gula. The apertures at each side 1774, its dominion was divided between the of a fish's head; the flaps which hang below the kings of Ternate and Tidor, and consequently beak of a fowl; the flesh under the chin. under the influence of the Dutch ; at present,
The turkeycock hath great and swelling gills, and however, it seems to be governed by several indethe hen hath less. Bacon's Natural History. pendent chiefs. North of Gillolo is the island
In many there is no paleness at all; but contrari. of Mortay, covered with sago trees, but thinly wise, redness about the cheeks and gills, which is by inhabited. The Moluccas Proper form a chain the sending forth of spirits in an appetite to revenge. along the west side of Gillolo. The town of
Ossa, on the south side of the bay of that name, The leviathan,
is in E. long. 120° 22', and N. lat. 0° 45'. The Stretched like a promontory, sleeps or swims,
imports of the island are iron, cutlery, piece And seems a moving land, and at his gills Draws is, and at his trunk spouts out a sea.
goods, and China ware; the exports spices, ediMilton.
ble birds'-nests, tortoise-shell, pearl, seed, and He bath two gill-fias; not behind the gilla, as in sago, most fishes, but before them.
GILPIN (Bernard), an English divine, was Fishes perform respiration under water by the gills. descended from an ancient and honorable family
Ray. in Westmoreland, and born in 1517. Being
brought up in the Roman Catholic religion, rather difficult. Every year he regularly visited he, for some time, defended it, and, at Ox- the most neglected parishes in Northumberland, ford, held a disputation with Hooper, afterwards Yorkshire, Cheshire, Westmoreland, and Cumbishop of Worcester, and martyr for the Protes- berland, preaching in each for two or three days. tant faith; but, after another disputation with And wherever he came he visited all the gaols, Peter Martyr, began seriously to examine the few in the kingdom having then any appointed contested points.
Presented with the vicar- minister. In the debateable land also, where no man age of Norton, in Durham, he resigned it, and would even travel who could avoid it, Mr. Gilpin went abroad to consult eminent professors on never failed to spend some part of every year. both sides; and, after three years' absence, re- The disinterested pains he took among these turned a little before the death of Mary I. satis- barbarous people, and the good offices he was fied in the doctrines of the Reformation. He was always ready to do them, drew from them the kindly received by his uncle Dr. Tonstall, bishop warmest and sincerest expressions of gratitude. of Durham; who soon after gave him the arch- One instance is related, that shows how greatly deaconry of Durham, and rectory of Effington. he was revered.-By the carelessness of his serThough the persecution was then at its height, vants, his horses were one day stolen ; and, the he boldly preached against the vices, errors, and news being quickly propagated, every one excorruptions of the times, especially in the clergy, pressed the highest indignation at the theft. The on which a charge, consisting of thirteen articles, thief was rejoicing over his prize, when, by the was drawn up against him, and presented in form report of the country, he discovered whose to the bishop. But Dr. Tonstall dismissed the horses he had taken. Terrified at what he had cause in such a manner as to protect his nephew done, he instantly came trembling back, confessed without endangering himself
, and, soon after, the fact, returned the horses, and declared he presented him to the rich living of Houghton le believed the devil would have seized him directly Spring. He was again accused to the bishop, had he carried them off knowing them to have and again protected; when his enemies laid their been Mr. Gilpin's.' Although his income was complaint before Dr. Bonner, bishop of London, never more than £400 a year, and out of this he who immediately gave orders to apprehend him. had to support his open house and liberal hospiUpon this, Mr. Gilpin prepared for martrydom; tality, yet he founded and endowed a large gramand ordering his steward to provide him a long mar school, to which he also devoted a great part garment, that he might make a decent appear- of his personal attention. One day, returning home, ance at the stake, set out for London. He, how- he saw in a field several people crowding together; ever, broke his leg on the journey, which pro- and judging something more than ordinary had tracted his arrival until the queen's death. Being happened, he rode up, and found that one of the immediately set at liberty, he returned to Hough- horses in a team had suddenly dropped down ton, where he was received by his parishioners dead. The owner of it declaring how grievous with the sincerest joy. Upon the deprivation a loss it would be to him, Mr. Gilpin bade him not of the popish bishops, he was offered the see ot be disheartened: I'll let you have,' said he, that Carlisle, which he declined ; and, confining his horse of mine,' pointing to his servant's. Ah! attention to his rectory, discharged all the duties of master,' replied the countryman,“my pocket will his function in the most exemplary manner. He not reach such a beast as that.' • Come, come,' was particularly anxious to improve the minds said Mr. Gilpin, 'take him, take him; and when of the younger part of his flock; pressing them I demand my money, then thou shalt pay me. to mix religion with their labors, and, amidst This excellent divine, who deservedly obtained the cares of this life, to have a constant eye upon the glorious titles of the Father of the Poor, and the next. He attended to everything which the Apostle of the North, died in 1583, in the might be of service to his parishioners, and was sixty-sixth year of his age. very assiduous in preventing law-suits. His hall GILPIN (Rev. William), M. A., descended is said to have been often thronged with people, from the above, was born at Carlisle in 1724. who came to him about their differences. His He received his education at Queen's College, hospitable manner of living was the admiration Oxford, where he took his degree of M. A. in of the whole country. - He spent in his family 1748. Afterwards he kept a grammar-school at every fortnight forty bushels of corn, twenty Cheam in Surrey; but at length obtained a prebushels of malt, and a whole ox; besides a pro- bend in the cathedral of Salisbury, and the portionable quantity of other provisions. Stran- vicarage of Boldre, in the New Forest, Hamp gers and travellers found a cheerful reception. shire. Here he died, April 5th 1804. His liteAll were welcome that came : and even their rary reputation is principally founded on his beasts had so much care taken of them, that Picturesque Tours. His principal works were it was said, “If a horse was turned loose in The Life of Bernard Gilpin, 1751, 8vo.; The any part of the country, it would immediately Lives of John Wicliff, &c., 1764, 8vo., which make its way to the rector of Houghton's.' Every was translated into German; Lectures on the Sunday, from Michaelmas to Easter, was a pub- Catechism of the Church of England, 1779, lic day with him. During this season he wished 2 vols. 8vo.; Remarks on Forest Scenery, to see all his parishioners and their families. For 2 vols. 8vo.; Observations relative to Picturtheir reception he had three tables well covered: esque Beauty, made in 1772, on several parts of the first for gentlemen, the second for husband- England, particularly the mountains and lakes of men, and the third for day-laborers. This piece Cumberland and Westmoreland, 2 vols. 8vo.; of hospitality he never omitted, even when losses Observations relative to Picturesque Beauty, or a scarcity of provisions made its continuance made in 1776, on several parts of Great Britain,