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considerably to increase the number of the inha- timated at considerably above £100,000. In bitants; and the consequent necessity for addi- 1781 the revenue arising from the post-office was tional houses caused the town to spread down £4341; at present it is usually about £36,000. the High Street, towards the present cross; and In 1821 the population was 147,043; the last thence along the Salt-market, the Gallow-gate, calculation, made by M'Cleland in 1824, raises and the Tropgate. Notwithstanding this in- it to 170,000. crease of buildings, however, Glasgow at this Since the erection of Glasgow into a burgh time held but ap inferior rank among the towns in 1180 its constitution has undergone many of Scotland; for it would appear that, in 1556, alterations. In 1268, however, it appears that when the royal burghs were taxed by the order the town was governed by a provost and bailies. of queen Mary, it held only the eleventh From the year 1450, when the town and paplace.
trimony of the bishops were incorporated down In 1652 a great fire broke out which destroyed to the Reformation, the bishops, or certain lay the greater portion of the Salt-market, Trongate, lords, in their right nominated the magistrates. and High Streets, the houses of which were at that In 1633 the parliament declared the burgh to be time formed chiefly of wood, and nearly 1000 royal, with a power of electing their magistrates; families were thus ruined. It would appear, yet we find their right afterwards disturbed by however, that in 1695 Glasgow had in some Cromwell and the privy council. In 1690 the measure recovered from her disasters; for, at the town was again declared free by a charter of assessment of the burghs that year, she was William and Mary, confirmed by an act of parrated as the second in Scotland in point of liament in the same year, to the effect that the wealth. About this period the buildings in the town council should have power to elect their Trongate extended no farther west than the Tron- own magistrates. The constitution of the burgh church. The town continued to increase but underwent some alterations at the convention of very slowly for a considerable period; and, in- royal burghs in 1801, and is now declared to be deed, it is not till the union of the two kingdoms, as follows :—The affairs of the burgh shall be 'which, by throwing open the trade to America, governed by a provost and three bailies of the gave a vast impulse to the west of Scotland, that merchants' rank and two bailies of the trades' we find any important additions made to the rank; twelve counsellors of the merchants' and city. About the commencement of the last cen- eleven of the trades' rank; a master of works, tury several new streets were opened up, an ad- who must be of the merchants' rank, and a treaditional church was erected, and a few street surer of the merchants' and trades' rank, alterlamps were introduced for the first time. In nately. The dean of guild and a convener of 1752 the first four-wheeled gentleman's carriage the trades house, are counsellors er officio during appeared in use. Subsequent to the middle of the the first year they are in office, after which they last century, however, the increase of Glasgow must be elected ordinary counsellors. The lord in wealth, populavion, and extent has been rapid provost and the five bailies are charged with and unprecedented. The wealth which began the executive, while the magistrates and council to be acquired in the trade to Virginia has con- conduct the other affairs the community. tinued to accumulate and increase by the in- This burgh of itself does not return any repretroduction of various manufactures; and by the sentative to parliament. The magistrates and cultivation of a commerce which now connects council of the burghs of Glasgow, Rutherglen, the city with every corner of the civilised world. Dumbarton, and Renfrew, elect one member Since the period to which we have alluded, among them; in the event of equality, each streets, squares, and public buildings have been burgh takes the casting vote in rotation. yearly added, and are still adding to the splendor The revenue of the burgh of Glasgow arises of the city. Religious and charitable institutions; from various sources, but chiefly from what is associations for the improvement of manufac- called the common good; wbich consists of an tures and commerce; and societies for the dis- impost of two-pennies Scots on the Scotch pint semination of science and literature, have been of ale or beer sold within the burgh--ladles and formed on a scale worthy of the wealth and en- multerres which are certain dues on grain, meal, terprise of the inhabitants.
and fruit brought into it—dues from the public İn 1712, a few years after the union, the rental washing-house-rents of markets, church seats, of property within the burgh was £7840 2s. 6d. houses, mills, and lands—feus of lands, feudal sterling; in 1824-5 it was, as taken from the go- casualties, and ground annuals—fees from burvernment surveys, £279,600 sterling. The value of gess-entries, &c. &c. The expenditure is inheritable property within the burgh, taking it at curred by burgh assessments—criminal prosecutwenty years purchase of the government rental, tions, alimenting criminal prisoners, and exwhich, as it is always below the real rent, may be pense of the prison-contribution to the police assumed as a fair criterion, is £5,592,000 sterling. establishment-expense of the ecclesiastical and The property tax, when last exacted, which was civil establishment of the grammar school in 1815, was £82,000 sterling; of which £24,000 repairs of heritable property-interest of money, sterling was raised from property, and £58,000 and general improvements. The revenue usually sterling from business. The assessed taxes were exceeds the expenditure; but, in the ecclesiastical formerly about £30,000 per annum, but in conse- department, it falls considerably short. The quence of the late reductions they amount only following tables show the particulars and total at present to about £20,000. The total amount amount of the revenue and expen liture from of stamp duties collected in Glasgow may be es- 1817 to 1824.
S. 2 6
£ $. d. 348 6 8 442 12 0 389 4 0 372 3 11 359 13 10 448 11 494 13 6 452 8
£ 921 1149 1104 851 974 544 931 1197
d. 6 4 3 10 2 9 9 2
£ 539 18 188 4 109 7 75 10 81 19 152 14 323 10 383 4
£ $. d. £ S. d. 315 00 15,111 18 5 340 00 15,358 7 1 340 00 | 16,482 4 10 368 00 15,689 8 10 301 10 0 16,428 2 1 200 00 10,286 4 0 360 0 0 16,459 17 9 315 001.15,985 12 9
S. 11 9 6
S. d. 109 1
91 2 2
£ 819 7 6 1009 4 10 926 16 5 870 7 6 808 0 0 409 0 0 800 0 0 800 0 0
d. 10 11 11 3 5 5
S. 1969 1 1635 16 3051 16 3552 19 2302 18 1588 10 1630 4 1546 2
£ S. d. 688 2 0 576 17 8 231 10 3 241 7 1 255 4 1 206 9 9 236 16 5 271 0 0
£ 2226 2806 2761 2480 3555 1204 3267 2500
9 7 2 10
£ S. d. 14,818 16 0 14,892 14 4 16,346 14 2 18,161 127 18,058 3 1 10,577 02 15,393 0 0 15,605 18 9
18 4 7 11
5 8 3
Feu Duties and
Rents of Lands,
Dues of Markets,
Slaughter-house, Pastorage, &c., in
Washing-house, Green and Show
Ladles and Mal Stations.
Impost on Ale
* The city books were regularly balanced on the 31st of December, annually, till 1822, when an act of Parliament was passed, requiring that in future the accounts of every
£ S. d.
* See Note to preceding Table.
the inhabitants of the city and county.
In addition to the revenue of the purgh, the tained in these that the verdict of the jury magistrates are entrusted in whole, or in part, refers. with the administration of several other funds. The sheriff's court, in which the sheriff and viz. that arising from the navigation of the river his substitute, who are both lawyers, preside, Clyde, assessment for the maintenance of the has jurisdiction in civil as well as criminal poor, statute labor conversion fund, portage of matters within the county. A court for ordinary the bridges, &c.
civil procedure is held every Wednesday during By the constitution of the burgh, besides the the sitting of the supreme court at Edinburgh, magistrates and council, two other distinct and once a fortnight during vacation. In this bodies are recognised, the merchants' and trades' court the procedure is entirely in writing, and houses. The merchants' house consists of all the members of the faculty of procurators are the merchant-burgesses who have paid their re- the practitioners before it. Besides this, for all gular fee to the funds of the house. The dean civil matters which require despatch, access may of guild, by courtesy styled the lord dean of be had to the judges each day, and the proceguild, is president of this house. The mem- dure, in such cases, is summarily despatched, bers have only the privilege of attending one and does not wait for the ordinary court days. meeting in the course of the year, and of sharing In trying criminal matters, which infer capital in the election of twenty-four members of the or corporal punishment or banishment from the dean of guild's council. This council consists county, the sheriff sits with a jury of fifteen of the dean of guild, the provost, the three persons, though he investigates and punishes merchant bailies, the collector, and the twenty- the more petty crimes by fine or short imprisonfour merchants nominated councillors; and to ment without the intervention of a jury. The this body is intrusted the administration of the decisions, both civil and criminal, of the sheriff, whole funds and affairs of the house throughout like those of all other local judges, are subject to the year. The funds arise chiefly from rents, the review of the court of session or court of fees, ground annuals, interest, entry-money of justiciary at Edinburgh. The town court, in members and burgesses, donations and mortifi- which one of the magistrates, with the assistance cations. The trades' house consists of the dea- of a legal assessor, presides, meets each Friday con-convener, who is president, the late con- during session, and once a fortnight during vavener, the two trades' bailies, the present and cation for the despatch of business. The powers · late collector, the present and late deacons of and the forms of this court are precisely similar the different incorporated trades, and twenty- to those of the sheriffs, but are limited within six assistants nominated from the incorporations. the liberties of the city. Here the members of To these members the whole civil and political the faculty of procurators likewise practice. interests of the house are entrusted. The affairs The magistrates also judge in criminal matters, of finance are placed under the management of but, as they limit their right to petty delinquenthe convener, the deacons, and extraordinary cies, they never use the intervention of a jury. members of the house; these latter are the The dean of guild's court takes cognizance of trades' bailies, collector, and members who all disputes arising between neighbouring prohave passed the chair, or been at any time in prietors of heritable property within the burgh, the magistracy. The funds of this body arise encroachments on streets, insufficiency of buildfrom sources similar to those of the merchants' ings, and adjustment of weights and measures. house, Glasgow has the advantage, not only of The court consists of the dean of guild, who several local courts of law, where questions of is president, four members from the merchants' every description, from the most important to house, and four from the trades' house, who are the most trifling are decided; but is visited half styled the dean of guild's brethren. They are yearly by branches of the supreme justiciary assisted in their decisions by a legal assessor. and civil jury courts. These courts make their The court meets on Thursdays, and the procecircuits in the months of April and September. dure is nearly similar to that before the sheriff In the justiciary court all criminal matters and magistrates' court. In the water bailie arising in the counties of Lanark, Renfrew, or court, which is open daily, all questions of a Dumbarton, considered to be of an aggravated civil and cirminal nature connected with marinature, are tried before two presiding judges, time affairs, and occurring within the jurisdicand a jury of fifteen persons chosen from the tion of the court, which extends on the river city, and from other portions of the county of from the harbour at Glasgow to the Clough Lanark or the adjoining counties of Renfrew light-house, twenty-six miles below the town, and Dumbarton. The judges of this court have are decided. The justices of the peace, as elselikewise a power of reviewing all questions be- where, hold petty and quarter sessions in the low the value of twenty-five pounds brought city, in which all infringements of the excise before them from any of the inferior local laws, game laws, disputes between master and courts. The civil jury court is but of recent servant, and questions of county police are inintroduction into Scotland, and has been adopted vestigated and decided. Besides the local courts in imitation of the English courts. In this before enumerated, in which questions of great court all questions arising out of matters of fact value and of nice legal import are often tried, are tried before a presiding judge and twelve courts are weekly held on separate days by the jurymen, whose verdict must be unanimous. sheriff, the magistrates, and the justices of the Issues are prepared previous to the trial in a peace, for the investigation and discussion of concise yet comprehensive manner; and it is petty claims, at which the parties attend perto the truth or falsehood of the statements con- sonally, and a vivâ voce decision is given by
the presiding judge. In these small debt courts, cently received: it is in the Gothic style, and from particularly the sheriff's, which is but of recent designs by Mr. Rickman of Birmingham. The origin, a vast number of petty claims are dis Catholic chapel, which is in the pointed style, is cussed; and justice is thus quickly, and at a a very fine structure, and richly decorated both trifling expense, administered among the poorer externally and internally. Glasgow and its classes. The taste for litigation among the inha- neighbourhood possess eight chapels connected bitants of this wealthy city, may be in some de- with the established church, and upwards of gree estirnated from the following statement. thirty belonging to different denominations unExclusively of the suits carried on in the sheriff's connected with the establishment; besides sevecourt, justice of the peace court, and police ral others where the worship is conducted by court, 5798 processes were instituted in the lay elders. Some of the chapels recently erected, magistrates' courts within the royalty, in 1815, by dissenting congregations, are handsome viz. ordinary town court, 1658; summary town buildings, and good specimens of the various court, 608; criminal cases in the town court, orders according to which they are erected. 720; dean of guild court, ninety; maritime The most ancient of the three bridges is situated court, 109; conscience small-debts court, 1053; at the foot of Stockwell Street, and was erected convene small-debts court, 1560. Since 1815 in the year 1345 by William Rae, then bishop there is every reason to believe that litigation of Glasgow. In the year 1777 an addition of has increased, particularly before the sheriff, ten feet was made to its breadth, by which it was since the institution of his small-debts court. strengthened, and the passage was rendered more
It is not to be expected, in an article so limited convenient for carriages. Being the great as the present, that any very minute account of thoroughfare, however, to the city from the south, the numerous public buildings of the city can be it was still found too narrow, and was theregiven; or that even the names of many of them fore, in 1820, again widened in a very ingenious can be mentioned. The most important, how- manner. The whole former breadth of the bridge ever, are the cathedral, which stands on a rising is now allotted for carriages, and, the old parapets ground in the north-east division of the city, having been removed, a new series of cast iron and is a very magnificent specimen of the early arches have been added to each side, on which English style of architecture, and is the only pavements of stone, for the convenience of foot perfect specimen but one of the ancient reli- passengers, are supported. The other stone gious edifices, which the misdirected zeal of the bridge, at the foot of Jamaica Street, was erected Scottish reformers has spared. It is a cross in 1768 from designs by Mr. Milne, and appears church with remarkably short transepts, having to combine strength with simple elegance. It a very beautiful tower and spire at the intersec- is in contemplation at present to widen it in the tion, and a smaller tower at the north-west end. same manner as the other bridge has been Much pains have been taken of late years in widened. In 1803 the third bridge, which is of preserving and repairing it. The greatest inter- timber, and much admired for the simplicity of nal length of the building from east to west is its structure, was thrown across the Clyde at the 319 feet; the breadth sixty-three feet; the height foot of Saltmarket Street, for the accommodation of the nave ninety feet; and of the choir eighty- of foot passengers only. This useful structure, five feet. The edifice is supported by 147 pil notwithstanding that much money and great care lars, and lighted by 157 windows. It at present have been yearly expended in keeping it in reaccommodates two congregations, thus serving pair, seems to be now too much decayed to be for two city parish churches. One of these con- longer used with safety. The magistrates have, gregations is accommodated in the choir, now therefore, very wisely closed it as a thoroughfare. called the inner High Church; the western part In 1814 an act of parliament was obtained for of the nave, an internal wall having been erected, building a bridge near the site of one which fell accommodates the other congregation, and is ere it was completed in 1795; and designs were called the outer High Church. The portion of procured from Mr. John Rennie; but nothing the nave between the entrance to the choir and farther has yet been done with regard to it. the outer High Church is used as a vestibule or The town-hall buildings are situated at the place of entrance for both churches. The crypt, cross. The basement story forms an arcade with certainly the finest in the kingdom, and situated a rusticated front; the upper part is in the Ionic immediately beneath the choir, is used as a bu- order, and the hall itself is elegantly fitted up. rying ground for the heritors of the barony parish. It contains portraits of the kings and queens of Besides the cathedral, Glasgow contains ten Scotland, and other public characters; the bust other parish churches, among which St. An- of bis late majesty, and a statue of the late Mr. drew's, St. George's, and St. David's, deserve to Pitt by Flaxman. be noticed as being ornamental to the city. St. The trades'-hall buildings, in which the fourAndrew's was founded in 1739, is a pretty exact teen incorporated trades hold their meetings, copy of St. Martin's in the Fields, Westminster, were erected in 1791, by designs from Mr. and is considered the best specimen of the com- Robert Adams. The front consists of a centre posite order in Scotland. St. George's was built building and two wings, the former having two in 1807, from designs by Mr. William Stark: stories, supported by a rustic basement. The the original design, however, was considerably whole is crowned by a dome, terminating in a injured by some unfortunate deviations which lantern, which has a very fine effect. The merwere considered necessary to be made in erecting chants of Glasgow have, at present, no hall of the building. St. David's, erected in 1825, is their own in which to hold their meetings; their one of the greatest ornaments the city has re- former hall stood in the Bridgegate, but, as nei
ther its situation nor condition was considered is ornamented with a species of demi-rusticated suited to their wealth and respectability, the work; the royal arms in basso relievo, gilt, are building was taken down, and the ground sold placed over the gate, and consols, supporting a some years ago; the steeple, however, one of the broad balcony, are formed at each side. The finest in the city, has been allowed to remain. entire of the façade is terminated on the south Many proposals have been made for building a by the principal's house, and on the north by new hall and an exchange, and a committee for that occupied by the professor of oriental lanthe accomplishment of these objects has been in guages. The eastmost range of buildings, having existence for some years, but they have not, as become unfit for the purposes intended, were yet, done more than plan.
taken down in 1811, and a magnificent range, in The jail, court-hall, and public offices, situated the Doric order, erected on their site. This at the west end of the green, were erected in new erection contains the coinmon hall, anato1810, from designs by Mr. William Stark. This mical theatre, and rooms for the humanity, Greek, building is of the Doric order, the portico in logic, chemistry, medical, and mathematical front possessing very nearly the proportions of classes. The grounds to the east of the univerthe celebrated Parthenon. The columns are sity, called the college garden, are laid out in placed on colossal steps; and there is a recess walks and shrubbery for the use of the professors divided from the portico by a screen of columns and students. The Macfarlane observatory is like the pronaos of the ancient temple. These situated at the east end of them. At the west buildings are of a quadrangular form, and con- end of these grounds, and imm iately in front tain halls for the several courts of justice, and of that part of the college buildings mentioned ample accommodation for the whole civil and as having been erected in 1811, stands the edifice criminal establishments. The entry to the jail provided for the splendid bequest left by the is by the west front. This portion contains two celebrated Dr. William Hunter to the university. court yards, seventy-four fire rooms, fifty-eight The portico, forming the principal front of this cells, and two apartments for prisoners under building, which contains the Hunterian Museum, sentence of death, so completely cased with iron is a very fine specimen of the Roman Doric. that it is not necessary to put the criminals in The other fronts of the building exhibit a simchains. There are also a chapel, a military guard- plicity and elegance which render many views of house, and a dwelling for the governor of the it little if at all inferior 10 the principal front. jail. The following tables show the number of The interior corresponds, in a remarkable degree, persons incarcerated in Glasgow Jail for debt or to the beauty of the exterior. It exhibits the crime from the year 1815 to the year 1822 inclu- same simplicity and the same elegance. The sive:
saloon, for paintings, is particularly fine in its Persons incarcerated for debt,
form, proportions, and decorations, while, at the
same time, it is admirably adapted for exhibiting Years. Persons. Years Persons.
the collection which it contains.
The royal infirmary, both from its appearance 1815 405
1819 779 and situation, has a very imposing effect. In 1816 458
1820 742 form it is somewhat of a parallelogram with pro1817 433 1821
838 jections at each end, having a pediment in the 1818 320 1822 832 centre, supported by pillars of the Corinthian
order; a spacious dome terminates the building,
which consists of four stories. It was constructed Persons incarcerated for crime,
to accommodate 150 patients, yet, some years
ago, it was found insufficient to admit the numeYears. Persons. Years Persons.
rous applicants. A large addition has therefore
been made to the building, which, while it does 1815 944
not injure its appearance, adds a third part to 1816 1044
the accommodation. 1817 1021 1821 1196
The lunatic asylum is a plain edifice, consist1818 1016
ing of a central building and four ranges of wards
projecting diagonally from it. Its dome and The city and county bridewell recently erected general proportions are considered very beautiful. (the old buildings having been found inadequate) Hutcheson's hospital, erected in 1803 from deis in the Gothic style of architecture. It con- signs by Mr. David Hamilton, is also a very sists of a central compartment and two projecting respectable addition to the buildings devoted to wings. The former contains the governor's purposes of benevolence in Glasgow. The thehouse, offices, and a chapel. The wings, in which atre is one of the largest and most elegant in the the delinquents are kept, is thus under the con- kingdom out of London; and the assembly rooms stant inspection of the governor, while the im- are, in design and accommodation, worthy of the portant object of solitary confinement is com- city. pletely effected.
There can be little question that the situaThe university buildings, and the houses for tion of Glasgow has tended in a high degree to the accommodation of the professors, are situated advance her in the scale of commercial cities. on the east side of the High Street. The build- Placed on the border of one of the richest coal ings, and the quadrangles which they circum- and mineral fields in the island with which it scribe, occupy a space equal to 9556 square communicates by a canal, and connected on the yards. The centre gate, in the principal front, one hand with the Atlantic by the Clyde, and on