« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
considerably to increase the number of the inhabitants; and the consequent necessity for additional houses caused the town to spread down the High Street, towards the present cross; and thence along the Salt-market, the Gallow-gate, and the Trongate. Notwithstanding this increase of buildings, however, Glasgow at this time held but an inferior rank among the towns of Scotland; for it would appear that, in 1556, when the royal burghs were taxed by the order of queen Mary, it held only the eleventh place. In 1652 a great fire broke out which destroyed the greater portion of the Salt-market, Trongate, and High Streets, the houses of which were at that time formed chiefly of wood, and nearly 1000 families were thus ruined. It would appear, however, that in 1695 Glasgow had in some measure recovered from her disasters; for, at the assessment of the burghs that year, she was rated as the second in Scotland in point of wealth. About this period the buildings in the Trongate extended no farther west than the Tronchurch. The town continued to increase but very slowly for a considerable period; and, indeed, it is not till the union of the two kingdoms, which, by throwing open the trade to America, gave a vast impulse to the west of Scotland, that we find any important additions made to the city. About the commencement of the last century several new streets were opened up, an additional church was erected, and a few street lamps were introduced for the first time. In 1752 the first four-wheeled gentleman's carriage appeared in use. Subsequent to the middle of the last century, however, the increase of Glasgow in wealth, populawion, and extent has been rapid and unprecedented. The wealth which began to be acquired in the trade to Virginia has continued to accumulate and increase by the introduction of various manufactures; and by the cultivation of a commerce which now connects the city with every corner of the civilised world. Since the period to which we have alluded, streets, squares, and public buildings have been yearly added, and are still adding to the splendor of the city. Religious and charitable institutions; associations for the improvement of manufactures and commerce; and societies for the dissemination of science and literature, have been formed on a scale worthy of the wealth and en
terprise of the inhabitants. n 1712, a few years after the union, the rental of property within the burgh was £7840 2s. 6d.
sterling; in 1824-5 it was, as taken from the government surveys, £279,600 sterling. The value of heritable property within the burgh, taking it at twenty years purchase of the government rental, which, as it is always below the real rent, may be assumed as a fair criterion, is £5,592,000 sterling. The property tax, when last exacted, which was in ić. was £82,000 sterling; of which £24,000 sterling was raised from property, and £58,000 sterling from business. The assessed taxes were formerly about £30,000 per annum, but in consequence of the late reductions they amount only at present to about £20,000. The total amount of stamp duties collected in Glasgow may be es
timated at considerably above £100,000. In 1781 the revenue arising from the post-office was f4341; at present it is usually about £36,000. In 1821 the population was 147,043; the last calculation, made by M“Cleland in 1824, raises it to 170,000.
Since the erection of Glasgow into a burgh in 1180 its constitution has undergone many alterations. In 1268, however, it appears that the town was governed by a provost and bailies. From the year 1450, when the town and patrimony of the bishops were incorporated down to the Reformation, the bishops, or certain lay lords, in their right o the magistrates. In 1633 the parliament declared the burgh to be royal, with a power of electing their magistrates; yet we find their right afterwards disturbed by Cromwell and the privy council. In 1690 the town was again declared free by a charter of William and Mary, confirmed by an act of pariiament in the same year, to the effect that the town council should have power to elect their own magistrates. The constitution of the burgh underwent some alterations at the convention of royal burghs in 1801, and is now declared to be as follows:—The affairs of the burgh shall be governed by a provost and three bailies of the merchants' rank and two bailies of the trades' rank; twelve counsellors of the merchants' and eleven of the trades' rank; a master of works, who must be of the merchants' rank, and a treasurer of the merchants' and trades' rank, alternately. The dean of guild and a convener of the trades house, are counsellors er officio during the first year they are in office, after which they must be elected ordinary counsellors. The lord provost and the five bailies are charged with the executive, while the magistrates and council conduct the other affairs of the community. This burgh of itself does not return any representative to parliament. The magistrates and council of the burghs of Glasgow, Rutherglen, Dumbarton, and Renfrew, elect one member among them; in the event of equality, each burgh takes the casting vote in rotation.
The revenue of the burgh of Glasgow arises from various sources, but chiefly from what is called the common good; which consists of an impost of two-pennies Scots on the Scotch pint of ale or beer sold within the burgh—ladles and multerres which are certain dues on grain, meal, and fruit brought into it—dues from the public washing-house—rents of markets, church seats, houses, mills, and lands—seus of lands, feudal casualties, and ground annuals—fees from burgess-entries, &c. &c. The expenditure is incurred by burgh assessments—criminal prosecutions, alimenting criminal prisoners, and expense of the prison—contribution to the police establishment—expense of the ecclesiastical and civil establishment—of the grammar school— repairs of heritable property—interest of money, and general improvements. The revenue usually exceeds the expenditure; but, in the ecclesiastical department, it falls considerably short. The following tables show the particulars and total amount of the revenue and expenditure from 1817 to 1824.
* See Note to preceding Table. + Since Whitsunday, 1824, the City has been freed from the expense of Bridewell; the act of Parliament, lately passed, ordaining it to be supported by an assessment on the inhabitants of the city and county.
In addition to the revenue of the burgh, the magistrates are entrusted in whole, or in part, with the administration of several other funds, viz. that arising from the navigation of the river Clyde, assessment for the maintenance of the poor, statute labor conversion fund, portage of the bridges, &c. By the constitution of the burgh, besides the magistrates and council, two other distinct bodies are recognised, the merchants' and trades’ houses. The merchants' house consists of all the merchant-burgesses who have paid their regular fee to the funds of the house. The dean of guild, by courtesy styled the lord dean of guild, is president of this house. The members have only the privilege of attending one meeting in the course of the year, and of sharing in the election of twenty-four members of the dean of guild's council. This council consists of the dean of guild, the provost, the three merchant bailies, the collector, and the twentyfour merchants nominated councillors; and to this body is intrusted the administration of the whole funds and affairs of the house throughout the year. The funds arise chiefly from rents, fees, ground annuals, interest, entry-money of members and burgesses, donations and mortifications. The trades' house consists of the deacon-convener, who is president, the late convener, the two trades' bailies, the present and late collector, the present and late deacons of the different incorporated trades, and twentysix assistants nominated from the incorporations. To these members the whole civil and political interests of the house are entrusted. The affairs of finance are placed under the management of the convener, the deacons, and extraordinary members of the house; these latter are the trades' bailies, collector, and members who have passed the chair, or been at any time in the magistracy. The funds of this body arise from sources similar to those of the merchants' house. Glasgow has the advantage, not only of several local courts of law, where questions of every description, from the most important to the most trifling are decided; but is visited half yearly by branches of the supreme justiciary and civil jury courts. These courts make their circuits in the months of April and September. In the justiciary court all criminal matters arising in the counties of Lanark, Renfrew, or Dumbarton, considered to be of an aggravated nature, are tried before two presiding judges, and a jury of fifteen persons chosen from the city, and from other portions of the county of Lanark or the adjoining counties of Renfrew and Dumbarton. The judges of this court have likewise a power of reviewing all questions below the value of twenty-five pounds brought before them from any of the inferior local courts. The civil jury court is but of recent introduction into Scotland, and has been adopted in imitation of the English courts. In this court all questions arising out of matters of fact are tried before a presiding judge and twelve jurymen, whose verdict must be unanimous. ssues are prepared previous to the trial in a concise yet comprehensive manner; and it is to the truth or falsehood of the statements con
tained in these that the verdict of the jury refers. The sheriff's court, in which the sheriff and his substitute, who are both lawyers, preside, has jurisdiction in civil as well as criminal matters within the county. A court for ordinary civil procedure is held every Wednesday during the sitting of the supreme court at Edinburgh, and once a fortnight during vacation. In this court the procedure is entirely in writing, and the members of the faculty of procurators are the practitioners before it. Besides this, for all civil matters which require despatch, access may be had to the judges each day, and the procedure, in such cases, is summarily despatched, and does not wait for the ordinary court days. In trying criminal matters, which infer capital or corporal punishment or banishment from the county, the sheriff sits with a jury of fifteen persons, though he investigates and punishes the more petty crimes by fine or short imprisonment without the intervention of a jury. The decisions, both civil and criminal, of the sheriff, like those of all other local judges, are subject to the review of the court of session or court of justiciary at Edinburgh. The town court, in which one of the magistrates, with the assistance of a legal assessor, presides, meets each Friday during session, and once a fortnight during va
cation for the despatch of business. The powers .
and the forms of this court are precisely similar to those of the sheriffs, but are limited within the liberties of the city. Here the members of the faculty of procurators likewise practice. The magistrates also judge in criminal matters, but, as they limit their right to petty delinquencies, they never use the intervention of a jury. The dean of guild's court takes cognizance of all disputes arising between neighbouring proprietors of heritable property within the burgh, encroachments on streets, insufficiency of buildings, and adjustment of weights and measures. The court consists of the dean of guild, who is president, four members from the merchants' house, and four from the trades' house, who are styled the dean of guild's brethren. They are assisted in their decisions by a legal assessor. The court meets on Thursdays, and the procedure is nearly similar to that before the sheriff and magistrates' court. In the water bailie court, which is open daily, all questions of a civil and cirminal nature connected with maritime affairs, and occurring within the jurisdiction of the court, which extends on the river from the harbour at Glasgow to the Clough light-house, twenty-six miles below the town, are decided. The justices of the peace, as elsewhere, hold petty and quarter sessions in the city, in .. all infringements of the excise laws, game laws, disputes between master and servant, and questions of county police are investigated and decided. Besides the local courts before enumerated, in which questions of great value and of nice legal import are often tried, courts are weekly held on separate days by the sheriff, the magistrates, and the justices of the peace, for the investigation and discussion of petty claims, at which the parties attend personally, and a vivä voce decision is given by
the presiding judge. In these small debt courts, particularly the sheriff's, which is but of recent origin, a vast number of petty claims are discussed; and justice is thus quickly, and at a trifling expense, administered among the poorer classes. The taste for litigation among the inhabitants of this wealthy city, may be in some degree estimated from the following statement. Exclusively of the suits carried on in the sheriff's court, justice of the peace court, and police court, 5798 processes were instituted in the magistrates' courts within the royalty, in 1815, viz. ordinary town court, 1658; summary town court, 608; criminal cases in the town court, 720; dean of guild court, ninety; maritime court, 109; conscience small-debts court, 1053; convene small-debts court, 1560. Since 1815 there is every reason to believe that litigation has increased, particularly before the sheriff, since the institution of his small-debts court. It is not to be expected, in an article so limited as the present, that any very minute account of the numerous public buildings of the city can be given; or that even the names of many of them can be mentioned. The most important, however, are the cathedral, which stands on a rising ground in the north-east division of the city, and is a very magnificent specimen of the early English style of architecture, and is the only perfect specimen but one of the ancient religious edifices, which the misdirected zeal of the Scottish reformers has spared. It is a cross church with remarkably short transepts, having a very beautiful tower and spire at the intersection, and a smaller tower at the north-west end. Much pains have been taken of late years in preserving and repairing it. The greatest internal length of the building from east to west is 319 feet; the breadth sixty-three feet; the height of the nave ninety feet; and of the choir eightyfive feet. The edifice is supported by 147 pillars, and lighted by 157 windows. It at present accommodates two congregations, thus serving for two city parish churches. One of these congregations is accommodated in the choir, now called the inner High Church; the western part of the nave, an internal wall having been erected, accommodates the other congregation, and is called the outer High Church. The portion of the nave between the entrance to the choir and the outer High Church is used as a vestibule or place of entrance for both churches. The crypt, certainly the finest in the kingdom, and situated immediately beneath the choir, is used as a burying ground for the heritors of the barony parish. Besides the cathedral, Glasgow contains ten other parish churches, among which St. Andrew's, St. George's, and St. David's, deserve to be noticed as being ornamental to the city. St. Andrew's was founded in 1739, is a pretty exact copy of St. Martin's in the Fields, Westminster, and is considered the best specimen of the composite order in Scotland. St. George's was built in 1807, from designs by Mr. William Stark: the original design, however, was considerably injured by some unfortunate deviations which were considered necessary to be made in erecting the building. St. David's, erected in 1825, is one of the greatest ornaments the city has re
cently received: it is in the Gothic style, and from designs by Mr. Rickman of Birmingham. The Catholic chapel, which is in the pointed style, is a very fine structure, and richly decorated both externally and internally. Glasgow and its neighbourhood possess eight chapels connected with the established church, and upwards of thirty belonging to different denominations unconnected with the establishment; besides several others where the worship is conducted by
lay elders. Some of the chapels recently erected,
by dissenting congregations, are handsome buildings, and good specimens of the various orders according to which they are erected. The most ancient of the three bridges is situated at the foot of Stockwell Street, and was erected in the year 1345 by William Rae, then bishop of Glasgow. In the year 1777 an addition of ten feet was made to its breadth, by which it was strengthened, and the passage was rendered more convenient for carriages. Being the great thoroughfare, however, to the city from the south, it was still found too narrow, and was therefore, in 1820, again widened in a very ingenious manner. The whole former breadth of the bridge is now allotted for carriages, and, the old parapets having been removed, a new series of cast iron arches have been added to each side, on which pavements of stone, for the convenience of foot passengers, are supported. The other stone bridge, at the foot of Jamaica Street, was erected in 1768 from designs by Mr. Milne, and appears to combine strength with simple elegance. It is in contemplation at present to widen it in the same manner as the other bridge has been widened. In 1803 the third bridge, which is of timber, and much admired for the simplicity of its structure, was thrown across the Clyde at the foot of Saltmarket Street, for the accommodation of foot passengers only. This useful structure, notwithstanding that much money and great care have been yearly expended in keeping it in repair, seems to be now too much decayed to be longer used with safety. The magistrates have, therefore, very wisely closed it as a thoroughfare. In 1814 an act of parliament was obtained for building a bridge near the site of one which fell ere it was completed in 1795; and designs were procured from Mr. John Rennie; but nothing farther has yet been done with regard to it. The town-hall buildings are situated at the cross. The basement story forms an arcade with a rusticated front; the upper part is in the Ionic order, and the hall itself is elegantly fitted up. It contains portraits of the kings and queens of Scotland, and other public characters; the bust of his late majesty, and a statue of the late Mr. Pitt by Flaxman. The trades'-hall buildings, in which the fourteen incorporated trades hold their meetings, were erected in 1791, by designs from Mr. Robert Adams. The front consists of a centre building and two wings, the former having two stories, supported by a rustic basement. The whole is crowned by a dome, terminating in a lantern, which has a very fine effect. The merchants of Glasgow have, at present, no hall of their own in which to hold their meetings; their former hall stood in the Bridgegate, but, as neither its situation nor condition was considered suited to their wealth and respectability, the building was taken down, and the ground sold some years ago; the steeple, however, one of the finest in the city, has been allowed to remain. Many proposals have been made for building a new hall and an exchange, and a committee for the accomplishment of these objects has been in existence for some years, but they have not, as yet, done more than plan.
The jail, court-hall, and public offices, situated at the west end of the green, were erected in 1810, from designs by Mr. William Stark. This building is of the Doric order, the portico in front possessing very nearly the proportions of the celebrated Parthenon. The columns are placed on colossal steps; and there is a recess divided from the portico by a screen of columns like the pronaos of the ancient temple. These buildings are of a quadrangular form, and contain halls for the several courts of Justice, and ample accommodation for the whole civil and criminal establishments. The entry to the jail is by the west front. This portion contains two court yards, seventy-four fire rooms, fifty-eight cells, and two apartments for prisoners under sentence of death, so completely cased with iron that it is not necessary to put the criminals in chains. There are also a chapel, a military guardhouse, and a dwelling for the governor of the jail. The following tables show the number of persons incarcerated in Glasgow Jail for debt or crime from the year 1815 to the year 1822 inclusive:
Persons incarcerated for debt,
| year. Persons. Years' Persons. 1815 405 1819 779 1816 458 1820 742 1817 433 1821 838 1818 320 1822 832 Persons incarcerated for crime, Years. Persons. Years' Persons. 1815 944 1819 1323 1816 1044 1820 1221 1817 1021 1821 1196 1818 1016 1822 1150
The city and county bridewell recently erected (the old buildings having been found inadequate) is in the Gothic style of architecture. It consists of a central compartment and two projecting wings. The former contains the governor's house, offices, and a chapel. The wings, in which the delinquents are kept, is thus under the constant inspection of the governor, while the important object of solitary confinement is completely effected.
The university buildings, and the houses for the accommodation of the professors, are situated on the east side of the High Street. The buildings, and the quadrangles which they circumscribe, occupy a space equal to 9556 square yards. The centre gate, in the principal front,
is ornamented with a species of demi-rusticated work; the royal arms in basso relievo, gilt, are o over the gate, and consols, supporting a road balcony, are formed at each side. The entire of the façade is terminated on the south by the principal's house, and on the north by that occupied by the professor of oriental languages. The eastmost range of buildings, having become unfit for the purposes intended, were taken down in 1811, and a magnificent range, in the Doric order, erected on their site. This new erection contains the common hall, anatomical theatre, and rooms for the humanity, Greek, logic, chemistry, medical, and mathematical classes. The grounds to the east of the university, called the college garden, are laid out in walks and shrubbery for the use of the professors and students. The Macfarlane observatory is situated at the east end of them. At the west end of these grounds, and immediately in front of that part of the college buildings mentioned as having been erected in 1811, stands the edifice provided for the splendid bequest left by the celebrated Dr. William Hunter to the university. The portico, forming the principal front of this building, which contains the Hunterian Museum, is a very fine specimen of the Roman Doric. The other fronts of the building exhibit a simlicity and elegance which render many views of it little if at all inferior to the principal front. The interior corresponds, in a remarkable degree, to the beauty of the exterior. It exhibits the same simplicity and the same elegance. The saloon, for paintings, is particularly fine in its form, proportions, and decorations, while, at the same time, it is admirably adapted for exhibiting the collection which it contains. The royal infirmary, both from its appearance and situation, has a very imposing effect. In form it is somewhat of a parallelogram with projections at each end, having a pediment in the centre, supported by pillars of the Corinthian order; a spacious dome terminates the building, which consists of four stories. It was constructed to accommodate 150 patients, yet, some years ago, it was found insufficient to admit the numerous applicants. A large addition has therefore been made to the building, which, while it does not injure its appearance, adds a third part to the accommodation. The lunatic asylum is a plain edifice, consisting of a central building and four ranges of wards projecting diagonally from it. Its dome and general proportions are considered very beautiful. Hutcheson's hospital, erected in 1803 from designs by Mr. David Hamilton, is also a very respectable addition to the buildings devoted to purposes of benevolence in Glasgow. The theatre is one of the largest and most elegant in the kingdom out of London; and the assembly rooms are, in design and accommodation, worthy of the city. There can be little question that the situation of Glasgow has tended in a high degree to advance her in the scale of commercial cities. Placed on the border of one of the richest coal and mineral fields in the island with which it communicates by a canal, and connected on the one hand with the Atlantic by the Clyde, and on