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the other with the North Sea and German Ocean by the Forth and Clyde navigation, its leading advantages are peculiarly great. Previously to 1707 the foreign trade of Glasgow, such as it was, was chiefly confined to Holland and France. The union of the kingdoms having, however, opened the colonies to the Scotch, the merchants of Glasgow immediately engaged in a trade with Virginia and Maryland. . The city soon became a mart for tobacco, and the chief medium through which the French obtained their supplies. This trade was suspended by the breaking out of the American war, and the merchants of Glasgow were obliged to engage their capital in other pursuits. Until about the year 1775 many attempts had been made without effect to open a connexion with the West Indies. In that year the imports from that quarter into the Clyde were as follows: sugar 4621 hogsheads and 691 tierces; rum 1154 puncheons and 193 hogsheads; cotton 503 bags. The increase of trade which has taken place since that period may be appreciated from the following statement of imports, taken from the custom-house books for the year 1815. Exclusive of grain, hemp, tallow, &c., from the Baltic through the great canal, sugar 540,198 cwt. 2 qr. 25 lbs. ; rum 1,251,092 gallons; cotton wool 6,530,177 lbs. The import duties on these and other articles amounted to £563,058 2s. 6d. They employed 448 ships, the tonnage of which was 79,219 tons and 4868 men. The exports during the same period to America, the West Indies, and different parts of Europe, amounted to £4,016,181 12s. 23d. In this traffic were employed 592 ships, 94,350 tonnage, and 6,476 men. Previous to 1718 the commerce of Glasgow was carried on in vessels chartered from the English i. In that year the first ship built on the anks of the Clyde belonging to the city crossed the Atlantic. At the close of the American war an intercourse was opened with the different states of the American union, and this trade together with that to Canada and Nova Scotia has become both valuable and important to the merchants of Glasgow. In the spring of 1816 the first ship which sailed direct from Scotland to the East Indies was despatched to Calcutta by Messrs. James Finlay, and Co. Since then a number of Glasgow merchants have engaged in the trade to India. Twenty-two banks and branches of banks do business in the city, many of them to a considerable amount. Linens, lawns, cambrics, and other articles of similar fabric were the staple manufacture in Glasgow till 1785, when the introduction of fine muslins from yarn spun by mule-jennies, gave to the city a new branch of trade. The progress of the cotton manufacture after its introduction was very rapid, and has come to be of great importance; the manufactures of Glasgow not only supplying their own export merchants, but having opened extensive connexions with London and other parts of England, and even with the continent. In the year 1818 there were fifty-four mills for spinning cotton, containing 600,000 spindles, belonging to Glasgow, situated either in the city or country adjacent. Since then the number has increased to 737,500 spindles. In the summer of 1825
there were in the city or neighbourhood fifty-four loom factories, of which thirty were in full operation and twenty partly filled with machinery. The gross number of power looms then working amounted to 7400, producing about 37,000 pieces weekly, or 1,924,000 pieces containing 48,100,000 yards per annum. The number of hand looms employed by Glasgow manufacturers was calculated in 1819 at 32,000 but of these only 18,537 were situated in Glasgow or its neighbourhood, the rest being in different small towns around the country. In 1802 the manufactures of Bandana handkerchiefs was established by Messrs. Monteith, Bogle, and Co.; and this branch of trade, which has become very important, has hitherto been confined to Glasgow. There are at present thirty-eight calico printing establishments in Glasgow and its vicinity, in which Britannias, black and purple shawls of various widths, handkerchiefs of various sizes and patterns, and garments are printed. The excise duties paid on printed goods for the year ending July 1825 was £380,421 0s. 10d. Glasgow possesses twenty-two iron foundries, besides several other large establishments for the manufacture of steam engines, and of cotton, flax, and wool, machinery. The manufacture of steam engines has become very extensive from the number employed in manufactures and in steam navigation, besides a considerable demand from other parts of the kingdom. From a calculation made by M'Cleland, in April 1825, there were then employed in connexion with the city 310 steam engines, aggregating 6406 horse power. There are sixteen brass foundries carried on, in one of which the casting of tower or turret bells is executed with great skill and success. For the dressing, upmaking, and finishing, of cotton goods there are twelve calender houses containing thirty-two calenders worked by steam, and twenty lapping-houses, which are able on a moderate computation to calender 296,000 yards in a day, and to dress 530,000 yards. The Clyde was the first river in Europe on which steamboats began to sail; and since their introduction, in 1811, an immense number have been constructed by Glasgow engineers, some of them at great cost and for various parts of the world. At present there are upwards of sixty plying on the river belonging to the city. The flour mills belonging to the corporation of bakers are probably the most complete in Britain; there are nineteen pairs of stones moved by water, and six by steam, by which 65,000 quarters of wheat can with ease be annually manufactured into flour. In 1815 90,000 bolls of wheat were manufactured into flour. The granaries are calculated to contain from 30,000 to 35,000 bolls of grain. The chemical manufactories of Glasgow are deserving of much more particular notice than we can afford to bestow on them. The works of Messrs. Charles Tennant, and Co. are understood to be the largest of the kind in the world, covering many acres of ground. About 1000 large carboys of concentrated sulphuric acid are said to be manufactured weekly, besides a corresponding quantity of oxymuriate of lime for bleaching, crystals of soda, and soaps. There are besides several other similar establishments, though on a smaller scale, which together manufacture a supply of chemical !". adequate not only to the bleaching and dyeing manufactories of Scotland, but capable of supplying the paper manufacturers of London, and many calico printers in Lancashire. The works of Mr. Charles Macintosh are celebrated for cudbear of the finest quality, made from lichens gathered in great quantities in Sardinia, Sweden, and Norway: his crystals and prussiate of potassa are unrivalled for their beauty and purity, and his Prussian blue cannot be excelled. The chemical works of Messrs. Turnbull and Ramsay are famous for the manufacture of pyroligneous acid of the finest quality, and for superb crystals of bichromate of potassa, used for dyeing the brilliant chrome yellow on calicoes. At a little distance from the city are several large chemical manufactories, particularly those belonging to Mr. Macintosh at Hurlett and at Campsie, where alum and copperas are prepared on a very extensive scale. There is also a similar manufactory carried on near Hurlett by Messrs. Wilson. There are also twelve large distilleries in the city and suburbs, besides others on a smaller scale, and several breweries. The coal trade is carried on to a very great extent, and vast quantities are exported to the West Indies, and other parts of the world. There seems to be little doubt that much benefit has accrued to Glasgow from the institution of its chamber of commerce and manufactures, the earliest establishment of the kind made in the island. It was incorporated by royal charter in 1783. The object .*. institution is to keep a watchful eye on whatever may be supposed to affect the commercial interest of Glasgow, or its neighbourhood; and, at the same time, to serve as the organ of communication between the manufacturing and commercial body of the district, acting either generally or separately, and the legislature, or any departments of the state. The art of printing was first introduced into Glasgow by George Anderson in 1630. A century afterwards Robert Foulis, and soon after his brother Andrew, were appointed printers to the university. They both possessed considerable genius, taste, and literary enterprise, and are celebrated for printing a series of the classics in a style of beauty and elegance previously unrivalled in Britain. At present the university printing-office is the largest in Scotland, with the exception of that of king's printer in Edinburgh. The following newspapers are here in present circulation:-The Journal, published every Friday; the Herald, on Monday and Friday; the Courier, and the Chronicle, on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday; the Free Press, on Wednesday and Saturday; and the Scots Times, and Saturday Evening Post, every Saturday. The police establishment is as efficient as any in the kingdom. It consists of a superintendant, collector, treasurer, clerk, and surveyor; three constables, twenty-eight officers, 100 watchmen, and twelve patrol-men, besides the superintendants of lamps, weighing-machines, and fireengines. The latter has fifty firemen under him, with a suitable equipment of fire-engines and water-butts. The executive power, and the
administration of all the other affairs, is vested in the magistrates and twenty-four general commissioners. The establishment is supported by an assessment on dwelling-houses, shops, or warehouses, and a sum contributed yearly from the city funds. The receipts for the year ending June, 1825, were £14,069 17s. 7d., the disbursements £12,884 2s. 2d. Among the literary institutions of Glasgow, the university, long so famous, deserves the first notice. It possesses professors of great talent in every branch of human learning. In the year 1819 there were 1264 students attending it. In the Andersonian institution lectures are regularly delivered on natural philosophy, chemistry, and mechanics; other A. such as anatomy, mathematics, and botany, have occasionally been introduced. This institution has two §.; there is a course of lectures elivered to ladies yearly, and another to mechanics. It was the first institution in the world in which scientific instruction at a cheap rate was delivered to the laboring man. The mechanics' institution arose out of a difference which occurred in the mechanics' class of the Andersonian institution. The new institution has been incorperated by the magistrates, and is at present in a very flourishing condition. In it lectures are delivered to about 800 students, on mechanics, chemistry, mathematics, and geography, natural history, popular anatomy, and political economy. In the public grammar-school there are six classes, viz. the rector's, for Latin and Greek; four others for Latin; and a commercial class: the school is generally attended by from 500 to 600 students. Glasgow possesses several literary and scientific societies, among which the college library, the literary and commercial, the philosophical, the medical, and the dilettanti societies, are the most conspicuous. The royal botanic garden, consisting of nearly six acres and a half of ground, contains 9000 distinct named species of plants, besides 3000 un-named; the plants in pots amount to 60,000; grasses 500; the collection of bulbous plants contains upwards of 900 species and varieties. Besides the college library, which is very valuable; Stirling's public library, containing upwards of 7000 volumes; the Glasgow public library, which contains 6000 volumes; and the foreign library, the object of which is to form a collection of all valuable works in the modern European languages; there are a great variety of circulating libraries for the use of the inhabitants. In the year 1819 there were 239 teachers, besides those in the public seminaries already alluded to, who taught privately various branches of education in the city and suburbs; from this, some estimate may be formed of the extent to which education is sought after. The public institutions, and benefit societies, which are establisned in this city for the relief of the necessitous are so numerous, and of so complicated a nature, that it is impossible to do more than mention the names of a few of them. The Merchants' and Trades' houses, Faculties of Physicians and Surgeons and Procurators, and the fourteen incorporated trades, bestow considerable sums on the poor connected with their respective bodies. A. and destitute people, and children, are supported in the Town's hospital, besides a large number of out-door pensioners, who are relieved weekly. Hutcheson's hospital, besides educating and clothing poor children, distributes yearly, to 200 individuals, pensions varying from f5 to £25. Large sums are yearly raised by subscription for the support of the Royal Infirmary, Lunatic Asylum, Magdalen Asylum, Lock Hospital, Humane Society, Dispensary, &c. In addition to these, the general session, the Highland, Buchanan, Graham, Stirlingshire, Dumfriesshire, Ayrshire, &c., societies, and a variety of benevolent and benefit societies, are careful in providing for the wants of the poor entitled to apply to them. It has been calculated by M“Cleland, whose general accuracy leaves little doubt as to the correctness of the result, that in the year 1818-19 the sum of £35,711 6s. 7d. was expended by the various public charities, including the free schools and public hospitals: that £102,020 19s. 4d. was distributed in private charity; and £2272 11s. 3d. was raised for the support of the various religious societies: thus making a grand total of £140,004 17s. 8d. expended in charity in the city and suburbs in one ear. In addition to the public markets for the sale of butchers' meat and vegetables, the magistrates have recently erected a market for the sale of live cattle; when the whole design is completed, the market will be the most extensive in the kingdom, with the exception of Smithfield, to which however it will be superior in regard to arrangeInent. Glasgow is well supplied with water from the Clyde, which is brought into the town, and distributed through every street and house in the city. In 1817 a company was incorporated for the purpose of supplying the city with gas-light. *... the direction of their talented and accomFo engineer Mr. J. B. Neilson, their works ave been brought to a state of unrivalled perfection. They have laid down upwards of sixty miles of pipes, of different sizes, for conducting the gas to the various public works, shops, warehouses, and street lamps, which are now entirely lighted in this manner. The value of the butchers' meat sold in the Glasgow market during the year 1822 is calculated at £242,800: the tallow, hides, &c., at fö1,169 4s. 5d.; making in all £303,969 4s. 5d.; the value of the bread, baked and sold, in the city and suburbs, at £177,266 10s. 8d.; and of the milk sold during the same period £67,375 7s. 0d. The Barony parish of Glasgow was originally part of the parish of Glasgow, but was erected into a separate one in the year 1595. The boundaries of this extensive parish are exceedingly irregular; but it may be shortly described as lying around Glasgow, and encircling it on the east, north, and west sides, both its extremities above and below the city being bounded on the south by the river Clyde. This parish contains a population of upwards of 50,000 inhabitants, who are included, however, in the enumeration of the inhabitants of Glasgow; extensive suburbs of the city being, with the exception of the Barony of Gorbals, situated in this parish. The suburb of Calton is situated
in the east part of this parish, and to the east of the city. It contains about 16,000 inhabitants, who are mostly weavers, or employed in the cotton factories. It was erected in 1817 into a burgh of Barony, is governed by its own magistrates, and possesses an effective police establishment. Bridgeton, containing a population of 14,000, extends in a south-east direction from the Calton to the Clyde. The inhabitants are likewise chiefly employed as weavers or cotton spinners. To the west of Glasgow stand the suburbs of Anderston and Finnieston, erected in 1824 into a burgh of Barony, containing * of 7000 inhabitants, and governed by magistrates, and a police establishment of its own. These suburbs contain extensive glass-works, p. breweries, foundries, and cotton actories. Besides these more important parts the Barony parish contains numerous other villages and public works connected with the city. A considerable portion of it is laid out in villas and country houses by the merchants and manufacturers of Glasgow; and that part of it which is applied to agricultural puroses, from being liberally supplied with manure rom the city, yields much richer crops than the quality of the soil would lead us to anticipate. In various parts of the parish are numerous coal works and free-stone quarries, which are as valuable to the city as they are profitable to the proprietors. Notwithstanding the extent and population of the parish, and the numerous townships and manufacturing villages which it contains, it possesses only one parish church. There are several chapels however in connexion with the established church, and numerous dissenting chapels and meeting-houses, situated in different parts of the parish. The Barony of Gabals, situated on the south side of the river, opposite to the city, contains upwards of 26,000 inhabitants, and is the most extensive and best built of any of the suburbs of Glasgow. The ground on which it stands contains upwards of 400 acres, and originally formed part of the parish of Govan, from which it was disjoined and erected into a separate parish in 1771. From different parts of it having been begun to be built by different proprietors, they have received the different appellations of Hutchesontown, Laurieston, Tradeston, Kingston, and Maxwellton; a small portion only, and that the oldest part, receiving the name of Gorbals. The whole, however, constitutes one barony, and is governed by bailies, and possesses a police establishment. The magistrates of Glasgow as superiors of the burgh, appoint the bailies; and the commissioners of police are chosen by the inhabitants. The burgh contains several fine streets and ranges of houses; the parish church is a beautiful modern structure, erected fronting the Clyde; and a jail and public offices have recently been built on a commodious and elegant plan. GLAsgow Port, a town in Renfrewshire, on the south bank of the Clyde, distant from Glasgow about twenty, and from Greenock two and a half miles. It is built on the Barony of Newark, and owes its origin to the corporation of Glasgow establishing a port and building a harbour there in 1668. In 1695 it was erected into a parish. The town has a neat appearance, many of the private houses being handsome. In the centre is a rather elegant structure, with a fine spire, appropriated as public offices, reading room, jail, &c. There is a parish church, and two other places of worship in the town. The harbour is good, and a graving-dock is attached, which at the time of its construction was the only one of the kind in Scotland. With the exception of o sugar-refining, and -making, Port Glasgow is almost entirely indebted to the shipping which frequent
it for the employment of its population, and in the latter respect the proximity of Greenock has of late years operated unfavorably upon it. By the constitution of the town, it is governed by two bailies and thirteen councillors, one part of which are elected by the corporation of Glasgow, and the other by trustees for the community. By the official returns of the trade of the port for 1826, it appears that 19,498 tons of British shipping, and 1,121 tons of foreign shipping cleared inwards; and 20,610 tons of British, and 1,344 tons of foreign shipping, cleared outwards in that year.
G. L. A S S.
GLASS, n.s., adj. & v.a. Sax. glar; Dut. GLAsso-FURNAce, n.s. glas; Fr. glaise; as GLAss'-GAzing, adj. Pezon imagines from GLAsso-GRINDER, n.s. glás, British, green. GLAsso-house, n.s. In Erse it is called Glass-MAN, n.s. klann, primarily sigGLAss'-METAL, n.s. nifying clean, or clear, GLAss'-work, n.s. being so denominated GLASS'-wort, n.s. from its transparency. Glas’sy, adj. See the article. The GLAze, v. a. several compound GLA’ziER, n.s. J words are applied to the persons who manufacture glass, or the place wherein the operation is conducted. Glass-wort is a plant, the ashes of which are used in making fine glass; several kinds of glasses, as hourglasses, mirrors, telescopes, &c., wine glasses, &c.: glass-metal is glass in a state of fusion. The two last words are alterations or corruptions of glass and glassier. One whose trade is to make glass windows. And in an erthen pot how put is al,— And salt yput in, and also pepere Beform these poudres that I speke of here, And wel yeovered with a lampe of glas ! And of moche other thing which that ther wos ? And of the pottes and glasses engluting, That of the aire might passen out no thing? Chaucer. The Chanones Yemannes Tale. And soth to saine, my chambre was Full well depainted, and with glas Were al the windowes wel yglased Ful clere, and nat an hole yerased,— That to beholde it was grete joie; For wholly al the story of Troy Was in the glaisinge ywrought thus, Id. Boke of the Duchesse. Whose womb produced the glassy ice? Who bred The hoary frosts that fall on Winter's head Sandys. He was the mark and glass, copy and book, That fashioned others. Shakspeare. Henry IV. I’ll see no more : And yet the eighth appears, who bears a glass Which shews me many more. Id. Macbeth. Man' proud man! Drest in a little brief authority, Most ignorant of what he’s most assured His glassy essence, like an angry ape, Plays such fantastick tricks before high heaven, As make the angels weep. Id. Measure for Measure.
Methought all his senses were lockt in his eye, As jewels in crystal for some prince to buy ; Who tendering their own worth, from whence they were glasst, Did point out to buy them, along as you past. Shakspeare. To this last costly treaty, That swallowed so much treasure, and like a glass Did break i' the rinsing. Id. Henry VIII. Were my wife's liver Infected as her life, she would not live The running of one glass. Id. Winter's Tale. Sorrow's eye, glazed with brining tears, Divides one thing entire to many objects. - Shakspeare. Get thee glass eyes: And, like a scurvy politician, seem To see the things thou doest not. - Id. King Lear. There is a willow grows aslant a brook, That shows his hoary leaves in the glassy stream. Shakspeare. Id. The crystalline Venice glass is a mixture, in equal portions, of stones brought from Pavia, and the ashes of a weed called kali, gathered in a desert between Alexandria and Rosetta; by the Egyptians used first for fuel, and then they crush the ashes into lumps like a stone, and so sell them to the Venetians for their glassworks. Bacon's Natural History.
Let proof be made of the incorporating of copper or brass with glassmetal. Id. Physical Remains.
In the valley near mount Carmel in Judea there is a sand, which, of all others, hath most affinity with glass; insomuch as other minerals laid in it turn to a glassy substance. Bacon. Let there be two delicate cabinets daintily paved, richly hanged, and glazed with crystalline glass. Id. Essays. No more his rovall self did live, no more his noble sonne, The golden Meleager now their glasses all were run. - Chapman. Let princes gather My dust into a glass, and learn to spend Their hour of state—that's all they have—for when That's out, Time never turns the glass again.
A whorson, glassgazing, finical rogue.
Shirley. Fill up the bowl there, fill it high, Fill all the glasses there; for why Should every creature drink but I, Why, man of morals, tell me why. Cowley.
While a man thinks one glass more will not make him drunk, that one glass hath disabled him from well discerning his present condition. Taylor's Rule of Holy Living. The moon whose orb Through optick glass the Tuscan artist views. Milton. The magnet attracteth the shining or glassy powder brought from the Indies, usually employed in writingdust. Browne. For the fine glass we use the purest of the finest sand, and the ashes of chali or glasswort; and for the coarser or greener sort the ashes of brake or other plants. Id. Vulgar Errours. Methinks I am partaker of thy passion, And in thy case do glass mine own debility. Sidney. I have observed little grains of silver to lie hid in the small cavities, perhaps glassed over by a vitrifying heat, in crucibles wherein silver has been long kept in
fusion. Boyle. The glas-grinders complain of the trouble they meet with. Id.
Glass is thought so compact and firm a body, that it is indestructible by art or nature, and is also of so close a texture that the subtlest chymical spirits cannot pervade it. Id. The first glass may pass for health, the second fo good-humour, the third for our friends; but the fourth is for our enemies. - Temple. He spreads his subtile nets from sight With trinkling glasses, to betray The larks that in the meshes light. Dryden's Horace. White, with other strong colours, with which we paint that which we intend to glaze, are the life, the spirit, and the lustre of it. Id. Dufresnoy. Like those who survey the moon by glasses, I tell of a shining world above, but not relate the glories of the place. Dryden. As when a taper shines in glassy frame, The sparkling crystal burns in glittering flame, So does that brightest love brighten this lovely dame. Fletcher's Purple Island. If our dreamer pleases to try whether the glowing heat of a glass-furnace be barely a wandering incagination in a drowsy man's fancy, by putting his hand into it, he may perhaps be awakened into a certainty that it is something more than bare imagination. Locke.
Glass bottles are more fit for this second fining than those of wood. Mortimer's Husbandry. Showers of grenadoes rain, by sudden burst Disploding murderous bowels, fragments of steel And stones, and glass and nitrous grain adust. Philips. When thy heart Dilates with fervent joys, and eager soul Prompts to pursue the sparkling glass, be sure "Tis time to shun it. Id. Into rabbets the several panes of glasswork are set, and fastened by the glazier. Moron's Mech. Er.
The reason of one man operates on that of another in all true oratory; wherein, though with other ornaments he may glaze and brandish the weapons, yet is it sound reason that carries the strike home. Grew's Com. Sac. I remember to have met with an old Roman Mosaic, composed of little pieces of clay half vitrified, and prepared at the glasshouses. Addison. The dexterous glazier strong returns the bound, And gingling sashes on the penthouse sound. Gay. Nature's ethereal, human, angel, man, Beast, bird, fish, insect, what no eye can see; No glass can reach from infinite to thee, From thee to nothing. Pope.
The profit of glasses consists only in a small present
made by the glassman. Swift. And Vanity with pocket-glass, And impudence with front of brass. Id.
It hath an apetalous flower, wanting the empalement; for the stamina, or chives, and the embryoes grow on the extreme part of the leaves; these embryoes afterward become pods or bladders, which, for the most part, contain one seed. The inhabitants near the sea-coast cut the plants up toward the latter end of Summer; and, having dried them in the sun, they burn them for their ashes, which are used in making of glass and soap. These herbs are by the country people called kelp. From the ashes of these plants is extracted the salt called salkali, or alkali, by the chymists. Miller.
And then, without the aid of neighbour's art, Performed the carpenter's and glazier's part. Harte.
James I. granted to Sir Robert Mansell an exclusive patent for making glaus, in consideration of his having introduced pit-coal instead of wood.
Campbell's Pol. Survey. Upon my shoulders here I must aver
My muse a glass of weatherology. Byron. A mutual language, clearer than the tome they spake
Of his lands tongue, which he would oft forsake
Glass, in a general sense, may denote any earthy, saline or metallic substance or compound, which is reduced by igneous fusion to a hard, uniform, brittle mass, having a considerable degree of lustre. It breaks with a conchoidal fracture, passing into splinters. More particularly it denotes that brittle, factitious, transparent substance produced by the vitrification of siliceous earths with salts and metallic oxides.
Some writers have derived the term from glastrum, another name with the Roman writers for vitrum, a plant with whichi the ancient Britons, as they say, painted or dyed their bodies, and which was of a light blue color; others from glesum or glusum, the name of amber among the ancient Gauls and Germans, connected with which is our English word glisten, to shine; the Swedes and Dutch use glas in the same sense as we do. Merret, in his notes on Neri's Treatise on Glass-Making, mentions certain characters or o of glass, by which it is distinguished rom all other bodies: of which we may enumerate these. It is an artificial concrete of salt and sand or stones; it is fusible by a strong heat, and when fused is tenacious and coherent; it does not waste nor consume in the fire; it is ductile when red-hot, and may be fashioned into any form, but is not malleable; and is capable of being blown into a hollow: it is frangible, always diaphanous, whether hot or cold; flexible and elastic: it may be graven, or cut with a diamond, or other hard stones and emery; it receives any color or dye, and admits of being polished: it is the most pliable thing in the world, and that which best retains the fashion given it.
De Neri traces the art of making glass to the times of the patriarch Job, who ranks it amongst the most valuable of earthy productions, chap. xxviii. 17. But this is mere conjecture; the word n°5">t translated crystal, from the root *51, to