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said to have been the birth-place of Boodh, or Budha. The revenue collected by government from the pilgrims amounts to above £16,000 er annum, a business managed entirely by the rahmins. The image is that of a man sitting cross-legged, and so rudely carved as to give reason to suppose that it is of great antiquity. An inscription on one of the stones says “The forefathers of him who shall perform the ceremony of the Sradha at this place shall obtain salvation.” “A crime of an hundred fold shall undoubtedly be expiated from a sight thereof, of a thousand fold from a touch thereof, and of a hundred thousand fold from worshipping thereof.” Gayah is the residence of the civil establishment of the district of Bahar Proper, and has a cantonment for a battalion of native infantry. GAZA (Theodore), a celebrated Greek of the fifteenth century, born in Thessalonica, in 1398. His country being invaded by the Turks, he retired into Italy; where he at first supported himself by transcribing ancient authors. In 1450 he was invited to Rome by Pope Nicholas V.; and on his death, in 1456, to Naples, by king Alphonso: who dying in 1458 he returned to Rome, where cardinal Bessarion procured him a benefice in Calabria. He translated from the Greek into Latin, Aristotle's History of Animals, Theophrastus on Plants, and Hippocrates's Aphorisms; and into Greek, Scipio's Dream, and Cicero's Treatise on Old Age. He wrote a Grammar and several other works in Greek and Latin; and died at Rome in 1478, aged eighty. GAZA, in ancient geography, a principal city and one of the five satrapies of the Philistines. It was situated about 100 stadia from the Mediterranean, on an artificial mount, strongly walled round. It was destroyed by Alexander the Great, and afterwards by Antiochus. In the time of the Maccabees it was a strong and flourishing city; but was destroyed a third time by Alexander Jannaeus. At present it is a mean place; but some remains of its ancient grandeur appear in the handsome pillars of Parian marble which are found here and there, in different parts of its streets. On the top of the hill, at the northeast corner of the town, are the ruins of large arches sunk low into the earth, and other foundations of a stately building. Soap and cotton cloths are the manufactures. Gaza is the residence of a Turkish bashaw. It was taken by the French under General Kleber in February 1799, and lies fifty miles south-west of Jerusalem.
And lifted up above the world's gase,
To admiration of that heavenly light. Id.
Do but note a wild and wanton herd, If any air of musick touch their ears, You shall perceive them make a mutual stand, Their savage eyes turned to a modest gaze, By the sweet power of musick. Shakspeare. Not a month "Fore your queen dyed, she was more worth such guzes Than what you look on now. Id A lover's eyes will gaze an eagle blind. Id. What see'st thou there? King Henry's diadem. Inchased with all the honours of the world: If so, gaze on. Id. Henry IV Straight toward heaven my wondering eyes I turned, And gazed awhile the ample sky. .Milton. With secret gaze, Or open admiration, him behold, On whom the great Creator hath bestowed Worlds. Id. Paradist Lest. I must die Betrayed, captived, and both my eyes put out; Made of mine enemies the scorn and gaze. To grind in brazen fetters, under task, With my heaven-gifted strength. Id. Agonistes. These things are offences to us, by making us gazing stocks to others, and objects of their scorn and derision. Ray. See'st thou the gazehound ! how with glance severe From the close herds he marks the destined deer" Ticke; Bright as the sun, her eyes the gasers strike; And, like the sun, they shine on all alike. Pope. His learned ideas gave him a transcendent delight, and yet, at the same time, discover the blennisher which the common gazer never observed. Watts. High stations tumults, but not bliss, create ; None think the great unhappy, but the great: Fools gase and envy ; Envy darts a sting, Which makes a swain as wretched as a king.
Young. Her ruby lips lock up from gasing sight A troop of pearls, which march in goodly row: But when she deigns those precious bones undight, Soon heavenly notes from those divisions flow. - Fletcher's Purple Island. With awe and wonder gazed the adoring swain; His kindling cheeks great Virtue's power confessed But soon t'was o'er, for Virtue prompts in vain, When Pleasure's influence numbs the nerveless breast. Beattie. Judgment of Paris The tender blue of that large loving eye Grew frozen with its gaze on vacancy. Byron. Corsair.
GAZFL, n.s. An Arabian deer.
Crystal and marble, plate and porcelain, Had done their work of splendour; lndian mats, And Persian carpets, which the heart bled to stain. Over the floors were spread; gazelles and cats, And dwarfs and blacks, and such like things, that gain Their bread as ministers and favorites—(that's To say, by degradation)—mingled there As plentiful as in a court or fair.
Byron. Don Juan.
GAZETTE, n.s. } Gazetta is a Venetian
GazetteeR, n.s. 5 halfpenny, the price of a newspaper, of which the first was published in Venice. A paper of public intelligence. A wri
ter of news; a dictionary of places or of geography. And sometimes when the loss is small, And danger great, they challenge all’; Print new editions to their feasts, And emendations in gazettes. Hudibras. An English gentleman, without geography, cannot well understand a gazette. Locke. One cannot hear a name mentioned in it that does not bring to mind a piece of the gazette. Addison. All, all but truth, falls dead-born from the press;
Like the last gazette, or the last address. Pope.
He (Brookes) was also the author of a most excellent gazettesr. Thuring.
And more might be found out if I could poke
Into gazettes, but Fame (capricious strumpet)
Gazette is with us confined to that paper of news published by authority. The first English gazette was published at Oxford, the court being there, in a folio half sheet, November 7th, 1665. On the removal of the court to London, the title was changed to the London Gazette. The Oxford gazette was published on Tuesdays, the London on Saturdays: and these continued to be the days of publication, after they were both published in London till very lately. It is now published every Tuesday and Friday evening.
GAZNA, a city of Asia, once much celebrated, and the capital of an extensive empire; now ruined and almost forgotten. During the vast and rapid conquests of the Arabs, all this country had been reduced under their subjection. On the decline of the power of the caliphs, however, the vast empire established by Mahomet and his successors was divided into a number of independent principalities, most of which were but of short duration. In the year of the Hegira 384, answering to A. D. 994, Gazna, with some part of the adjacent country, was governed by Mahmud Gazni; who became a great conqueror, and reduced under his subjection a considerable part of India and most of Persia. This empire continued in the family of Mahmud Gazni for upwards of 200 years. None of his successors, however, possessed his abilities; and therefore the extent of the empire, instead of increasing, was very considerably diminished soon after his death. The Seljuks took Khorasan; the greatest part of the Persian dominions fell off; and in the 547th year of the Hegira, the race of the Gazni sultans was entirely set aside by one of the Gauri, who conquered Khosru Shah the reigning prince, and bestowed his dominions on his own nephew, Gayathoddin Mohammed. These new sultans proved greater conquerors than the former, and extended their dominions farther than even Mahmud Gazni had done. They did not, however, long enjoy the sovereignty of Gazna; for in 1218 Jenghiz Khan, having conquered the greatest part of China and almost all Tartary, began to turn his arms westward; and set out against Gazna at the head of 700,000 men. To oppose this formidable army, Mohammed, the reigning sultan, could muster only 400,000 men; and, in the first battle, 160,000 of his troops perished. After this defeat, Mohammed, not i.
aring to risk a second battle, dis
tributed his army among the strongest fortified towns in his dominions; all of which Jenghiz Khan took one after another. The rapid progress of his conquests, indeed, almost exceeds belief. Immediately after the destruction of Bamiyan, Jenghiz marched towards Gazna, which was strongly fortified, and where he expected to have found Jaloloddin, who had now succeeded his father Mohammed. But he had left it fifteen days before; and, when Jenghiz Khan's army came up with him near the Indus, he attacked the vanguard in their camp; and having cut them almost all to pieces, without the loss of a man on his side, returned with a considerable booty. , Jenghiz Khan, finding by this that he had a vigilant enemy to deal with, É. with great circumspection. When he ad brought up the main body of his forces, he gave the command of the right and left wings to Jagatay, and Oktay; and put himself in the centre, with 6000 of his guards. On the other side, Jaloloddin prepared for battle like one who had no resource but in victory. He first sent the boats on the Indus farther off; reserving only one to carry over his mother, wife, and children. He himself took the command of the main body. His left wing, drawn up under shelter of a mountain, was commanded by his vizier. The battle was terrible, and the success various throughout a whole day. At last, however, Jaloloddin's men, who were in all 30,000, opposed to ten times their number, were seized with a panic, and fled. One part of them retired to the rocks on the shore of the Indus, where the enemy's horse could not follow them; others threw themselves into the river and were drowned, though some had the good fortune to crossover in safety: while the rest, surrounding their prince, continued the fight through despair. The sultan, however, considering that he had scarce 7,000 men left, began to think of providing for his own safety: therefore, having bidden adieu to his mother, wife, and children, he mounted a fresh horse and spurred him into the river, which he crossed in safety, and even stopped in the middle of it to insult Jenghiz Khan, who was now arrived at the bank. His family fell into the hands of the Moguls; who killed all the males, and carried the women into captivity. Jaloloddin, having landed in India, ascended a tree to preserve himself from wild beasts. Next day, as he sauntered among the rocks, he perceived a troop of his soldiers, with some officers, who at the beginning of the defeat had found a boat in which they had escaped, and soon after saw 300 horse coming towards him; who informed him of 4,000 more that had passed the river. For some time after this the sultan's affairs seemed to revive, and he gained some battles in India; but the native princes, envying his prosperity, conspired against him, and obliged him to repass the Indus. Here he again attempted to make head against the Moguls ; but was at last defeated and killed by them, who thus put an end to the once mighty empire of Gazna. The metropolis was reduced by Oktay, who committed the most horrid cruelties in the neighbourhood. The city was well provided for sustaining a siege; had a strong garrison, and a brave and resolute governor; and the inhabitants, expecting no mercy from Jenghiz Khan, resolved to make a desperate defence. They several times overthrew his works, and broke above 1000 of the battering rams of the besiegers. But one night, after an obstinate conflict, part of the city wall fell down; and a great o: of Moguls, having filled up the ditch, entered the city sword in hand. After the massacre had continued four or five hours, Oktay imposed a tax on those who were left alive, to redeem themselves and the city. After this time Gazna never made any considerable figure. It was taken by the Moguls A. D. 1222. GAZON, n.s. Fr. Pieces of fresh earth covered with grass, and used to line parapets and the traverses of galleries, in fortification. GAZYPOOR, a town and district of the province of Allahabad, Hindostan, in the collectorship of Benares. It is bounded on the north and east by the river Goggrah, on the south by the Ganges, and on the west by Joanpore. It is remarkably fertile and well watered; producing maize and other grain, cotton, opium, and sago in great abundance: also some very fine indigo, and the otto of roses. The town of Gazypoor stands on the Ganges, and has a palace and mosque both of superior structure. Gazy Pooh is also the name of a district of India, on the south bank of the Toombadre.
GEAR, n.s. Sax. geapne, furniture; zynian, to clothe. Furniture, possessions, and ornaments; hence applied to the traces of oxen and horses: stuff.
An hundred lordes had he with him there, All armed, save hir hedes, in all hir gere Ful richely in alle manere thinges. Chaucer. The Knightes Tale. Into a studie he fell sodenly, As don these lovers in hir queintegeres Now in the crop, and now down in the breres. Id. Array thyself in her most gorgeous gear. Spenser. Faerie Queene. If fortune be a woman, she is a good wench for this gcar. Shakspeare. Merchant of Venice. When he found her bound, stript from her gear, And vile tormentors ready saw in place, He broke through. Fairfax. Apollo's spite Pallas discerned, and flew to Tydeus’ son; His scourge reacht, and his horse made fresh; then took her angry run At king Eumelus, brake his gears. Chapman's Iliad. When once her eye Hath met the virtue of this magick dust, I shall appear some harmless villager, Whom thrift keeps up about his country gear. Milton. The frauds he learned in his frantick years Made him uneasy in his lawful gears. Dryden. I fancy every body observes me as I walk the street, and long to be in my old plain gear again. Addison's Guardian. To see some radiant nymph appear In all her glittering birthday gear, You think some goddess from the sky Descended, ready cut and dry. Swift.
GEASON, adj. Sax. xerean, to see or gaze: found only in Spenser. Wonderful. See Gaze.
It to Leeches seemed strange and geason. Hubbard's Tale.
GEAT, n.s. Corruption of jett. The hole through which the metal runs into the mould. GEBER, a king or chief of the Arabs, who wrote several tracts on chemistry, or rather alchemy, in Latin; printed from a copy in the Vatican, at Dántzic, in 1682 in 16mo. In this work he is styled not only rex Arabum, but philosophus perspicacissimus; and in two of these tracts, viz. Liber Investigationis Magisterii, and Testamenturn de salibus animalium, &c., he is also styled Indiae rex, though it seems difficult to account for such very distinct titles. GEBER (John), a physician and astronomer of Arabia, who flourished in the ninth century. He wrote a commentary on Ptolemy's Syntaxis Magna, in which he attempted to correct his Astronomy, but Copernicus styles him the Calumniator of Ptolemy. He wrote several other works, and Boerhaave styles him a learned chemist. But his writings are so full of the jargon of the alchemists, that Dr. Johnson traces the derivation of the word gibberish from them. See Gibb ERish. GECK, M. s. & v.a. Sax. geac; Ger. geck, a fool. A bubble (obsolete): to cheat. Why did you suffer Jachimo to taint his nob.e heart and brain with needless jealousy, and to become the geck and scorn o'th'other's villainy ? Shakspeare. Why have you suffered me to be imprisoned, And made the most notorious geck and gull That e'er invention played on 1 Id. GECKO. See LAceRTA. GED (William), a goldsmith of Edinburgh, was an ingenious artist, and has been said to have first attempted to introduce the art of stereotype printing. The invention, first practised by him in 1735, was simply this:—From any types of Greek or Roman, or any other character, he formed a plate for every page, or sheet of a book, from which he printed, instead of using a type for every letter, as is done in the common way. In July, 1729, Ged entered into partnership with William Fenner, a London stationer, who was to have half the profits, in consideration of his advancing all the money requisite. In 1730 the partners applied to the University of Cambridge to print bibles and common prayer books by blocks instead of single types; and, in consequence, a lease was sealed to them, April 23d, 1731. In their attempt they sunk a large sum of money, and finished only two prayer books; so that it was relinquished and the lease given up in 1738. Ged imputed his disappointment to the villany of the pressmen, and the ill treatment of his partners, particularly Fenner. He returned to Scotland in 1733, where he gave his friends a specimen of his performance, by an edition of Sallust. But, being still unsuccessful, he was preparing again to set out for London, to join with his son James as a printer there, when he died October 19th, 1749. GEDDES (Alexander), LL.D., a Scottish Roman Catholic priest, born in Ruthven, in 1737. He very early discovered a taste for learning, and was accordingly sent to a school in the Highlands where those designed for the Catholic priesthood received their early education; and here Geddes laid the foundation of that intimate acquaintance with the learned languages by which he was afterwards so distinguished. In 1758 he went to the Scottish University at Paris, and soon after became a student in rhetoric and theology at the college of Navarre. He returned to his native country in 1764, and became priest in the county of Angus; but the following year he was made chaplain to the earl of Traquair; with whom he continued about three years. In 1768 he again visited Paris. Returning again to his native country, early in 1769, he undertook the charge of a congregation at Auchinlarig in Bamffshire: the same year, however, he quitted his pastoral charge, and obtained the year following the degree of LL.D. from the University of Aberdeen, which had never so honored any Roman Catholic since the Reformation. About this time he removed to London, where he officiated some time in the imperial ambassador's chapel, and afterwards at that in Duke-street, Lincoln's Inn-fields. In 1782 he began to devote himself to a design which he had long entertained, of giving the world a new English translation of the Old and New Testaments. The prospectus of this work was published in 1786, and the following year an Appendix to it, and a Letter to Bishop Lowth. is year also he gave a display of his controversial talents, in an Answer to Dr. Priestley on the Divinity of Christ. In 1788 he published farther proposals for his Translation of the Bible, and two years after, a general Answer to the Queries, Č. and Criticisms, communicated to him relative to the work. He was liberally supported in the undertaking by lord Petre; and the first volume of it, comprising the Pentateuch and the book of Joshua, appeared in 1792; but even those of his own communion directly avowed their disapprobation of it, and some of the Roman Catholic bishops suspended the doctor from his ecclesiastical functions. He replied to these attacks in pamphlets written with great coarseness and illiberality. The second volume of his version was published in 1798; and in it he gives up and daringly combats the inspiration of Scripture. In the spring of 1800 he published his Apology for the oman Catholics of Great Britain, and the same year Critical Remarks in vindication of his version of Scripture, which he prepared for the press as far as the 118th Psalm; but died on the 26th of February, 1802. GEDINGOOMA, a fortified town of Kaarta, in Western Africa. Its walls are of stone, and so high that, in the narrow pass here between two hills, they have enabled Doisy the king of this lace, to set the power of Bambara at defiance. t is thirty miles north-west of Kemmoo. GEESE. Plural of goose. See Goose. GEFI.E, or GIAwle, a town on the Gulf of Bothnia, belonging to Sweden, and the seat of several provincial courts. The river Gefle flows through the middle of the town, falling into the gulf in three branches, and forms a good harbour, defended by a long jette. The inhabitants carry on a brisk maritime traffic, exporting pitch, tar, iron, and planks. It has a castle, which was burnt in 1727, but rebuilt. Population between 5000 and 6000. Sixty miles north of Upsal. GEFLEBORG, anewly erected government of Sweden, situated between Dalecarlia and West
Norrland, and extending from the gulf of Bothnia to the Norwegian mountains. Its extent is above 9000 square miles, but its population only about 90,000. It is mountainous on the side of Norway, and is, in general, covered with wood. Here are also a number of productive iron mines. The capital is Gefle. GEHENNA, GEHINNoN, Gr. Tesvya, of Heb. to"JnN2, a term which occurs in Matt. v. ver. 22,29, 30: x. 28; xviii. 9; xxiii. 15, 33. Mark ix.43, 45,47. Luke xii. 5. James iii. 6. The authors of the Louvain and Geneva versions retain the word gehenna as it stands in the Greek: as does M. Simon; the English translators render it by hell and hell-fire, and so do the translators of Mons and Father Bouhours. In the valley of Hinnom, near Jerusalem, there was a place named Tophet, where the idolatrous Jews sacrificed their children to Moloch, by fire. (See BEN-HINNoM and Moloch). King Josias, to render this place for ever abominable, . made a common sewer of it, where all the filth and carcases of the city were cast; and where a continual fire was kept up, to burn those carcases; for which reason, as the Jews had no proper term in their language to signify hell, they made use of gehenna or gehinnon, to denote a perpetual fire. &oison, a town of Wirtemburg, remarkable for its bone turners, who amount to about 1600 or 1700. In the neighbourhood is a much frequented mineral spring. Twelve miles west of Ulm. GELA, in ancient geography, a city of great extent on the south of Sicily, so named from the Gelas. It was built by colonists from Rhodes and Crete, forty-five years after the building of Syracuse, in the third year of the twenty-second Olympiad, A.A.C. 690; and originally called Lindii, from the colonists of Lindus, a city of Rhodes, who settled there first. This city, after having stood 408 years, was destroyed by Phintias, tyrant of Agrigentum; and the inhabitants were removed to a new city called Phintias after his name. It is now called Terra Nuova. GELABLE, adj. GEL’ATINE, n. s.
Lat. gelu. Whatever may be reduced to a jelly. GELAT'INous, adj. (Gelatine is a term applied GEL'LY, n.s. to a substance of this nature which forms part of animal bodies; gelatinous, that which partakes of a thick cohesive character. My best blood turn To an infected gelly. Shakspeare. Winter's Tale. The tapers of the gods, The sun and moon, became like waxen globes, The shooting stars end all in purple gellies, And chaos is at hand. Dryden and Lee's Oedipus. That pellucid gelatinous substance is an excrement cast off from the shoals of fish that inhabit the main. Woodward. The white of an egg will coagulate by a moderate heat, and the hardest of the animal solids are resolvable again into gellies. Arbuthnot. You shall always see their eggs laid carefully up in that spermatick gelatine matter, in which they are reposited. Derham. GELATIN, or jelly, an animal substance, soluble in water, capable of assuming a well-known
elastic or tremulous consistence, by cooling, when the water is not too abundant. and liquefiable again by increasing its temperature. This last property distinguishes it from albumen, which becomes consistent by heat. With tannin it forms an insoluble compound already mentioned. Its aqueous solution, evaporated to dryness, is glue. Decomposed by nitric acid, a large quantity of gas disengages, and oxalic acid is formed. In close vessels, it gives over carbonic acid, hydro-carbonic gas, carbonate of ammonia, and empyreumatic oil; its carbonaceous residuum containing phosphate of lime. Hence gelatin is not nearly so much compounded as albumen, having only carbon, hydrogen, azote, phosphorus, lime, and oxygen, as its ultimate elements. According to the analysis of MM. Gay Lussac and Thenard, gelatin is composed of
No berde hadde he, ne never none shulde have ; As smothe it wos as it were newe shave : i trowe he were a gelding or a mare. Chaucer. Prologue to Cant. Tales. Geld later with gelders, as many one do, And look of a dozen to geld away two. Tusser. Geld bull-calf and ram-lamb as soon as they fall. Id. slord Say hath gelded the commonwealth, and made it an eunuch. Shakspeare. Henry VI. He bears his course, and runs me up With like advantage on the other side, Gelding the opposed continent as much As on the other side it takes from you. Shakspeare. Though naturally there be more males of horses, bulls, or rams, than females; yet artificially, that is, by making geldings, oxen, and wethers, there are fewer. Graunt. Never old lecher more repugnant felt
Consenting for his rupture to be gelt. Marvell.
The lord-lieutenant may choose out one of the best horses, and two of the best geldings; for which shall be paid one hundred pounds for the horse, and fifty pounds a-piece for the geldings. Temple. They were diligent enough to make sure work, and to geld it so clearly in some places, that they took away the very manhood of it. Dryden. The spayed gelts they esteem the most profitable. - Mortimer. Let the others be gelt for oxen. Id. Husbandry. Geld, in the old English customs, a Saxon word signifying money, or tribute. It also denoted a compensation for some crime committed : hence wergeld, in their ancient laws, was used
for the value of a man slain; and orfgeld, of a beast.
GELDENHARIUS, GEldenhauR (Gerard Eobanus), an historian and Protestant divine, born at Nimeguen in 1482. He studied classical learning at Deventer, and went through his course of philosophy at Louvaine, where he contracted a friendship with Erasmus. He became reader and historian to Charles of Austria, and afterwards to Maximilian of Burgundy. At length he embraced the Protestant religion; taught history at Marpurg; and afterwards divinity till his death, in 1542. He wrote, 1. History of Holland; 2. History of the Low Countries; 3. History of the Bishops of Utrecht; and other works.
GELDER-ROSE. A rose supposed to come originally from Guelderland. Seo VIBURNU M. The gelder-rose is increased by suckers and cuttings. - Mortimer. GELDER Rose, VIRGINIAN. See SPIREA. GELDERS. See GUELDREs. GEL'ID, adj. } Lat. gelidus. Extreme
GEL'IDNESS, n.s. From the deep ooze and gelid cavern roused, They flounce. Thomson's Spring. GELLAH, or Collah, a fortified place cf Algiers, on a high and conical mountain near the Mejerdah. It has become a place of refuge for criminals, and has only one narrow path leading to it. Eighty-six miles east of Constantina. Gellah, a town of Tunis, in Africa, situated on a rugged promontory, near the river Mejerdah. Publius Cornelius Scipio fixed his winterquarters here, and it was called after him Castra Corneliana. GELLERT (Christian Furchtegott), a German poet and critic, was born in 1715 at Haynichen, near Freyberg, in Saxony. His father was a clergyman, and placed him at a school at Meissen, where he contracted an intimacy wıth Rabener and Gaertner, which lasted until their respective deaths. In 1734 he went to .. to study theology, and returned home, after four years, as a preacher. He afterwards became private tutor to young gentlemen of fortune, with one of whom he returned in 1741 to Leipsic. His first poetical production was, Amusements of Reason and Wit, begun 1742. In 1744 he took the degree of M.A., and published, the following year, the first volume of his Fables, some plays, and a novel, entitled The Swedish Countess. In 1748 appeared the second volume of his Fables, and a work called, Consolations for Valetudinarians, suggested by the state of his own health. In 1751 he was made professor extraordinary of philosophy at Leipsic; he died 13th December, 1769. His works have often been published collectively or separately. Gellert (Christlieb Ehregott), brother of the preceding, a distinguished metallurgist, first studied at Meissen, and then at the university of Leipsic. Being invited to Petersburg, he became an adjunct of the academy there for ten years; and very intimate with the celebrated Euler. He returned to Saxony about 1746, to prosecute his researches, when his mineralogi