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smell, which common blends yield only when weak solution of sulphate of iron. The pretreated with marine or vitriolic acids. It con- cipitate, after being well washed and dried, is pure tains .062 per cent. of auriferous silver. The gold. For the methods of analysing the ore or reddish-brown is still poorer, and seems a mix- metal, see ASSAYING, CUPEL, METALLURGY, &c. ture of blend, manganese, lead, and arsenic, Pure gold is very soft, tough, ductile, and malwith a small proportion of auriferous silver. The leable, unaltered by the most powerful furnaces, red exposed to the blow-pipe gives a purple but volatilised by the intense heat of powerful tinge to borax if nitre be added. The black does burping mirrors; and it has been driven up in the same, even without that addition, a sign that fumes by a stream of oxygen urged upon it when they contain manganese.
red hot. The electric shock converts it into a The manganesian ore consists of thin laminæ, purple oxide, as may be seen by transmitting that of a gray color, somewhat withered, inserted in commotion through gold leaf, between two plates a matrix of whitish manganese. According to of glass; or by causing the explosive spark of Hacquet it is very poor in gold, but baron Born three or more square feet of coated glass to fall tells us it contains twenty-five per cent. of this upon a gilded surface. A heat of 32° W., or metal, and is the richest of all the ores found in perhaps 1300° F. is required to melt it, which that country. Yet it is so light, that it is called does not happen till after ignition. Its color, cotton ore.
when melted, is of a bluish-green; and the same The sylvanitic ore; Weisses golderz of the color is exhibited by light transmitted through Germans; Aurum Graphicum, of some; is ac- gold leaf. But silver, copper, and all the rest of cording to baron Born of a whitish color, inter- the metals which can be formed into leaves, are mediate betwixt that of antimony and bismuth. perfectly opaque. Lustre, 3. It consists of amorphous plates, No acid acts readily upon gold but aqua regia whose fracture is granular, like that of steel and aqueous chlorine. Chromic acid, added to
Its fragments prismatic. Its hardness from muriatic, enables it to dissolve gold. 4 to 5. Brittle. Its specific gravity, 5.723; its When gold is immersed in aqua regia, an effermatrix an aggregate of lithomarga and quartz, vescence takes place, and the solution tinges aniwith pyrites interspersed. Before the blow-pipe mal matters of a deep purple, and corrodes them. it decrepitates and melts like lead. It hurns By careful evaporation, fine crystals of a topaz with a lively brownish fame and disagreeable color may be obtained. The gold is precipitated smell; and at last vanishes in a white smoke, from its solvent by a great number of substances. leaving only a whitish earth.
Lime and magnesia precipitate it in the form of According to Wallerius, native gold is found, a yellowish powder. Alkalies exhibit the same 1. In solid masses. In Hungary, Transylvania, appearance; but an excess of alkali redissolves and Peru. 2. In grains. In the Spanish West the precipitate. The precipitate of gold, obtained Indies. 3. In a vegetable form, like the branches from aqua regia by the addition of a fixed alkali, or twigs of plants. 4. In a drusic figure, as if appears to be a true oxide, and is soluble in the composed of groups or clusters of small parti- sulphuric, nitric, and muriatic acids ;. from cles united together, found in Hungary. 5. Com- which, however, it separates by standing, or hy posed of thin plates, on thin pellicles covering evaporation of the acids. Gallic acid precipiother bodies, found in Siberia. 6. In a crys- tates gold of a reddish color, very soluble in the talline form in Hungary. Gold is also found in nitric acid, to which it communicates a fine blue the form of thick solid pieces. It is in general color. more frequently imbedded in quartz, and mixed Ammonia precipitates the solution of gold with it than with any other stone; and the much more readily than fixed alkalies. This prequartz in which the gold is found in the Hunga- cipitate, which is of a brown, yellow, or orange rian mines, Mr. Magellan tells us, is of a pecu- color, possesses the property of detonating with liarly mild appearance. Sometimes, however, it a considerable noise when gently heated. It is is found in limestone, hornblende, &c. Europe known by the name of fulminating gold. See is principally supplied with gold from Chili and PowDER, FULMINATING. When precipitated Peru in South America. À small quantity is from this solution by tin, it forms the purple likewise imported from China and the coast of precipitate of Cassius, so much used in enamelAfrica. The principal gold mines of Europe ling. This consists of an oxide of gold, mixed are those of Hungary, Saltzburg, and Adelfors in with an oxide of tin. Sulphurets precipitate Smaland. Some gold is also extracted from the gold from its solvent, the alkali uniting with the silver mines of Ostersilvarberget, in the pro- acid, and the gold falling down combined with vince of Dalarne. Native gold has been found the sulphur; of which, however, it may be dein Lapland, above Tornea, and in Westmanland. prived by moderate heat. • In Peru it is found mixed with a stony matter. The solution of gold in sulphuric ether apnot well known, from which it is extracted by pears to crystallise after a considerable time. amalgamation. Sometimes kernels or lumps of Mr. Sivright having allowed a solution of gold a spongy texture, and very light, are met with, in sulphuric ether to stand four days in a vessel, which contain a good quantity of gold dust. with a cork and a piece of leather tied over it, Gold is also found separate from any matrix, in found that a great part of the liquid had evapolumps of visible grains mixed with sand in the rated, leaving the gold in the form of a thin plate, beds of rivers.
which has the usual brightness of pure gold, and Perfectly pure goid may be obtained, by dis- resembles the flat pieces of native copper found solving the gold of commerce in nitro-muriatic in Cornwall. There were distinct crystals in one acid, and precipitating the metal, by adding a or two parts of the plate.
The peroxide of gold thrown down by potash, color of fine brass, with a coarse-grained earthy from a solution of the neutral muriate, consists, fracture, and very brittle : its specific gravity according to Berzelius, of 100 gold and twelve being somewhat less than the mean. With manoxygen. It is probably a trit-oxide. The pro- ganese, in its black oxide, gold will combine, and toxide of a greenish color is procured by treating produce an alloy of a reddish gray, capable of with potash water muriate of gold, after heat has receiving a brilliant lustre like steel : the mixed expelled the chlorine. It seems to consist of 100 metal is exceedingly hard, and so far possessed metal + 4 oxygen. The prime equivalent of of ductility as to be in some measure flattened gold comes out apparently 25.
by the hammer before it breaks. Most metals unite with gold by fusion. With Zinc greatly injures the ductility of gold, and, silver it forms a compound, which is paler in when equal in weight, a metal of a fine grain is proportion to the quantity of silver added. It is produced, which is said to be well adapted to remarkable, that a certain proportion, for example form the mirrors of reflecting telescopes, on aca fifth part, renders it greenish, but occasions count of the fine polish it is susceptible of, and hardly any perceptible alteration of ductility, its not being subject to tarnish. The alloys of hardness, or niean specific gravity.
gold with molybdena are not known. It could A strong heat is necessary to combine platina not be mixed with tungsten, on account of the with gold: it greatly alters the color of the gold, infusibility of this last substance. if its weight exceed the forty-seventh part of the Mr. Hatchett gives the following order of dif
ferent metals, arranged as they diminish the ducMercury is strongly disposed to unite with tility of gold : bismuth, lead, antimony, arsenic, gold, in all proportions, with which it forms an zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel, tin, iron, platina, amalgam : this, like other amalgams, is softer the copper, silver. The first three were nearly equal larger the proportion of mercury. It softens in effect; and the platina was not quite pure. and liquifies by heat, and crystallıses by cooling. For the purposes of coin, Mr. Hatchett conLead unites with gold, and considerably impairs siders an alloy of equal parts of silver and copits ductility, one-fourth of a grain to an ounce per as to be preferred, and copper alone as prerendering it completely brittle. It gives an alloy ferable to silver alone. externally resembling fine pale gold, but which The limits of the ductility and malleability of is as brittle as glass, is wholly destitute of metal- gold are not known. According to Cronstedt, lic lustre, and has a fine-grained porcellaneous one grain of it may be stretched out so as to appearance : its specific gravity a little less than cover ninety-eight Swedish ells, equal to 63.66 the mean. The very fumes of this metal are English yards of silver wire; but Wallerius asnearly as prejudicial to the ductility of gold as serts, that a grain of gold may be stretched in those of bismuth.
such a manner as to cover 500 ells of wire. At Copper renders gold less ductile, harder, more any rate, the extension is prodigious; for, accorfusible, and of a deeper color. This is the usual ding to the least of these calculations, the addition in coin, and other articles used in 1,000,000th part of a grain of gold may be made society. Tin renders it brittle in proportion to visible to the naked eye. Nor is its malleability its quantity; but it is a common error of inferior to its ductility. Poyle, quoted by chemical writers to say, that the slightest addition Apligny in his Treatise of Colors, says, that one is sufficient for this purpose. When alloyed grain and a half of gold may be beaten into fifty with tin, however, it will not bear a red heat. leaves of one inch square, which, if intersected With iron it forms a gray mixture, which obeys by parallel lines drawn at right angles to each the magnet. This metal is very hard, and is said other, and distant only the 100th part of an inch to be much superior to steel for the fabrication from each other, will produce 25,000,000 of little of cutting instruments.
squares, each very easily discernible to the naked With bismuth, in the proportion of thirty- eye. eight grains to the ounce, it yields an alloy of a By the weight and measure of the best wrought pale greenish yellow, excessively brittle, and ex- gold leaf, it is found that one grain is made to hibiting a fine-grained earthy fracture : its specific cover 56 square inches; and from the specific gravity somewhat greater than the mean. If gravity of the metal together with this admeastandard gold be alloyed with even a quarter of surement, it follows that the leaf itself is a grain of bismuth in the ounce, the mixture, part of an inch thick. This, however, is not the although in color and texture resembling gold, is limit of the malleability of gold; for the goldyet perfectly brittle.
beaters find it necessary to add three grains of Arsenic, on account of its volatility, can be copper in the ounce to harden the go.d, which combined with gold only in small proportions. Otherwise would pass round the irregularities of
The alloy, or mixed metal hence produced, is the newest skins, and not over them; and in of a gray color, coarse granular fracture, and very using the old skins, which are not so perfect and brittle.
smooth, they proceed so far as to add twelve | Antimony, mixed by fusion with either fine or grains. From further calculation it appears that standard gold in the proportion of not more than sixteen ounces of gold, which would form a cube * gr. to the ounce (being not more than joy of the of about one inch and a quarter, would be whole mass), will give a brittle compound of a sufficient to gild a silver wire equal in length to close granular fracture, with little metallic lustre: the circumference of the globe. See CHEMISTRY. while, with a change quite as extraordinary as in
GOLDBEATER's Skin, n. s. The intestinum nickel, mixed in the proportion of thirty-eight rectum of an ox, which goldbeaters lay between grains to the ounce, produces an alloy of the the leaves of their metal while they beat it, where
by the membrane is reduced thin, and made fit pieces for a Venetian company then at Milan, to apply to cuts or small fresh wounds, as is now and whom he accompanied to Genoa, where he the common practice.
married. After visiting Tuscany, Florence, and When your gillyflowers blow, if they break the pod, Pisa, he returned to Venice, and wrote comedies open it with a penknife at each division, as low as the for the theatre of St. Angelo. These cost him flower has barst it, and bind it about with a narrow so little trouble, that it is said he wrote sixteen slip of goldbeater's skin, which moisten with your new comedies, besides forty-two other pieces tongue, and it will stick together. Mortimer. for that theatre, within a year; and many of
GOLDEN FLEECE, in the ancient mythology, these, though so rapidly executed, are considered was the skin and feece of the ram upon which as his best productions. The first edition of his Phryxus and Helle are said to have swum over works was published in 10 vols. 8vo, 1753. He the sea to Colchis; and which, being sacrificed to wrote afterwards a great number of pieces for Jupiter, was hung upon a tree in the grove of the theatre at St. Luke, which were published Mars, guarded by two brazen-hoofed bulls, and under the title of The New Comic Theatre. He a monstrous dragon that never slept; but was composed fifty-nine other pieces between 1753 taken and carried off by Jason and the Argo- and 1761; and, on the invitation of duke Philip, nauts. Some authors have endeavored to show visited Parma, from whence he went to Rome. that this fable is an allegorical representation of He next went to Paris on the invitation of M. some real history, particularly of the philoso- Zenuzzi, the chief actor on the Italian theatre pher's stone. Others have explained it by the there, with whom he engaged for two years. profit of the wool-trade to Colchis, or the gold After this, he was employed as an Italian teacher which they commonly gathered there with fleeces to the princesses, aunts to the unfortunate Louis in the rivers. See ARGONAUTS.
XVI.; for which he received 4000 livres a-year, Golden Fleece, ORDER OF THIE, a military and a present of 100 louis d'ors in a gold box. order instituted by Philip the Good, duke of In his sixty-second year he wrote a French coBurgundy, 1427; thus named from a represen- medy, entitled Bourru Bienfaisant, which was tation of the golden fleece, bome hy the knights acted at Louis XVI.'s marriage; and for which on their collars, which consisted of Aints and he received 150 louis from the king, besides consteels. The king of Spain, as duke of Burgundy siderable sums from the performers and bookis grand master of the order; the number of sellers. He died at Paris in 1792, aged eightyknights is fixed to thirty-one. It is said to have five. As a dramatic author, he is reckoned been instituted on occasion of an immense profit equal to the best comic poets of modern tiines; which that prince made by wool; though others and in fertility of invention superior to them all. will have a chemical mystery couched under it, His whole works were printed at Leghorn, in as that famous one of the ancients, which the 1788–91, in 31 yols. 8vo. He has been styled adepts pretend to be the secret of the elixir vitæ, the Moliere of Italy; and Voltaire, in a letter written on the skin of a sheep.
to the marquis Albergati, called him the Painter Gold THREAD, or spun gold, is a gilt wire, of Nature. His favorite work, generally reckoned wrapped or flatted over a thread of yellow silk, his master-piece, was his Terence. His last by twisting it with a wheel and iron bobbins. By piece was his Volponi. means of a curious machinery, a number of A GOLDSMITH, or Silversmith, is an artist threads is thus twisted at once by the turning of who makes vessels, utensils, and ornaments, in a wheel. The principal art consists in so regu- gold and silver. There is a vast variety in the lating the motion, that the several circumvolu- works made, and tools used, by goldsmiths, tions of the wire, on each thread, may just touch which we cannot here particularise. Works one another, and form, as it were, one continued that have raised figures are cast in a mould, and covering. At Milan, it is said, they make a sort afterwards carved, or polished and finished; of flatted wire, gilt only on one side, which is plates or vessels of silver or gold are beat out wound
upon the thread, so that only the gilt side from thin flat plates ; table and tea-spoons, &c., appears. There is also a gilt copper wire, made are beat out from solid ingots, and their mouths in the same manner as the gilt silver, chiefly at struck up with a punch ; tankards, and other Nuremberg. The Chinese, instead of flatted gilt vessels of that kind, are formed of plates solwire, use slips of gilt paper
, which they inter- dered together, and their mouldings are beat, weave in their stuffs, and twist upon silk threads. not cast. The business of the goldsmiths for
GOLDONI, a celebrated dramatic author, merly required more labor than it does at preborn at Venice in 1707. Having shown an sent; for they were obliged to hammer the metal early attachment to dramatic performances bis from the ingot to the thinness they wanted; but, father, Dr. Goldoni, had a small theatre erected since the invention of flatting-mills, the metals in his own house, in which, while a mere child, are reduced to the thinness required at a small be and his companions amused themselves by expense. As the goldsmith often has to make acting comedies. Having finished his gramma- his own moulds, he ought to be a good detical and rhetorical studies at Venice and Prague, signer, and have a taste in sculpture : he also he went to Rimini to study philosophy; buł, ought to know enough of metallurgy to be able preferring the theatre to Aristotle, he went off with to assay and refine gold and silver, and to mix a company of comedians to Chiozzo. After at- the exact quantity of alloy. The goldsmiths in tempting to study the law at Venice, he became London employ different hands under them for secretary to the resident of that state at Milan. the various branches of their trade; such as In this city he wrote his Venetian Gondolier, jewellers, box-makers, toy-makers, turners, gilthe first of his comedies that was acted and ders, burnishers, chasers, refiners, founders, &c. printed ; and soon after composed several other Their wares must be assayed by the wardens of
their own company in Londou, and marked; It was here he sent the first sketch of his delightand the gold and silver must be of the standard ful poem called The Traveller, to his brother the fineness, under a penalty of £10. Any false clergyman in Ireland, who lived with an amiable metel may be seized and forfeited to the king. wife on an income of only £40 a-year. From The cities of Edinburgh, York, Exeter, Bristol, Geneva Mr. Goldsmith and his pupil visited the &c., have also places appointed for assaying gold south of France; where the young man, upon and silver plate. Plate sent to the assay-office, some disagreement with bis preceptor, paid him when discovered to be coarser than the standard, the small part of his salary which was due, and is broken and defaced ; and the fees for assaying embarked at Marseilles for England. Our wanare limited.
derer was left once more upon the world at large, GOLDSMITH (Oliver), was born at Roscommon, and passed through various difficulties in traversin Ireland, in 1729. His father, who possessed a ing the greatest part of France. At length, his small estate in that county, had nine sons, of curiosity being satisfied, he bent his course whom Oliver was the third. After being in- towards England, and arrived at Dover the bestructed in the classics, he was, with his brother ginning of the winter of 1758. When he came to the Rev. Henry Goldsmith, placed in Trinity London, his cash did not amount to two livres. College, Dublin, about the end of 1749. In Being an entire stranger, his mind was filled with this serinary he took the degree of B. D.; but, the most gloomy reflections. With difficulty he his brother not being able to obtain preferinent, discovered that part of the town in which his Oliver turned to the study of physic; and, after old acquaintance Dr. Sleigh resided. This genattending some courses of anatomy in Dublin, tleman received him with the warmest affection, proceeded to Edinburgh in 1751, where he and liberally invited him to share his purse till studied medicine under the professors of that some establishment could be procured for bim. university. His benevolent disposition soon in- Goldsmith, unwilling to be a burden to his volved him in difficulties; and he was obliged friend, eagerly embraced an offer which was precipitately to leave Scotland, in consequence made him soon after to assist the late Rev. Dr. of an engagement to pay a considerable sum for Milner in an academy at Peckham; and aca fellow-student. A few days after, about the quitted himself greatly to the doctor's satisbeginning of 1754, he arrived in Sunderland, faction; but having obtained some reputation, near Newcastle, where he was arrested at the suit by the criticisms he had written in the Monthly of a tailor in Edinburgh, to whom he had given Review, Mr. Griffith, the proprietor, engaged security for his friend. By the good offices of him in the compilation of it; and, resolving to Lachlan Maclane, esq. and Dr. Sleigh, then in pursue the profession of an author, he returned college, he was delivered out of the hands of the to London, as the mart where abilities of every bailiff'; and took his passage on board a Dutch kind meet distinction and reward. As his finances ship to Rotterdam, where, after a short stay, he were not in a good state, he adopted a plan of proceeded to Brussels. He then visited great the strictest economy; and took lodgings in an part of Flanders; and after passing some time obscure court in the Old Bailey, where he wrote at Strasburg and Louvain, where he took the de- several ingenious pieces. The late Mr. Newgree of M. B., he accompanied an English gen- berry, who gave great encouragement to men of tleman to Berne and Geneva. He travelled on literary abilities, became a patron to him, and foot during the greatest part of his tour, having introduced him as one of the writers in the left England with very little money. Being ca- Public Ledger, in which his Citizen of the World pable of sustaining fatigue, and not easily terri- originally appeared, under the title of Chinese fied at danger, he became enthusiastically fond Letters. His fortune now began to improve. of visiting different countries. He had some The simplicity of his character, the integrity of knowledge of French and of music, and played his heart, and the merit of his productions, made tolerably well on the German flute; whicn, from his company very acceptable to a number of rean amusement, became at times the means spectable families; and he emerged from his of subsistence. His learning procured him an shabby apartments in the Old Bailey to the pohospitable reception at most of the religious liter air of the Temple, where he took handsome houses; and his music made him welcome to the chambers, and lived in a genteel style. The peasants of Flanders and other parts of Ger- publication of his Traveller, and his Vicar of many. Whenever I approached, he used to Wakefield, was followed by the performance of say, ' a peasant's house towards night-fall, I his comedy of the Good-natured Man at Coventplayed one of my most merry tunes; and that Garden theatre, and placed him in the first rank procured me not only a lodging, but subsistence of the poets of the eighteenth century. Among for the next day: but in truth, I must own, when- many other persons of distinction who were deever I attempted to entertain persons of a higher sirous to know him, was the duke of Northumrank, they always thought my performance berland : and a circumstance that attended his odious, and never made me any return for my introduction to that nobleman shows a striking endeavours to please them. On his arrival at trait of his character. ' I was invited,' said the Geneva, he was recommended as a travelling Doctor., by my friend Mr. Percy, to wait upon tutor to a young man who had been left a con- the duke, in consequence of the satisfaction he siderable sum of money by his uncle, a pawn- had received from the perusal of some of my broker, near' Holborn. During Goldsmith's productions. I dressed myself in the best continuance in Switzerland, he assiduously cul- manner I could; and, after studying some comtivated his poetical talents, of which he gave pliments I thought necessary on such an occasion, some proofs while at the college of Edinburgh. proceeded to Northumberland-house, and acquainted the servants that I had particular bu
In wil a man, simplicity a child. siness with his Grace. They showed me into The learned leisure he loved to enjoy was often an antichamber; where, after waiting some time, interrupted by distresses which arose from the a gentleman, very genteely dressed, made his liberality of his temper, and which sometimes appearance. Taking him for the duke, I deli- threw him into loud fits of passion; but this vered all the fine things I had composed in order impetuosity was corrected upon reflection; and to coinpliment him on the honor he had done his servants have been known upon these occame; when, to my great astonishment, he told me sions, purposely to throw themselves in his way, I had mistaken him for his master, who would that they might profit by it immediately after ; see me immediately. At this instant the duke for he who had the good fortune to be reproved, came into the apartment; and I was so confused was certain of being rewarded for it. The union the occasion, that I wanted words barely suf- versal esteem in which his poeins were held, and ficient to express the sense I entertained of the the repeated pleasure they gave in the perusal, is a duke's politeness, and went away extremely cha- striking test of their merit. He was a studious and grined at the blunder I had committed.' Another correct observer of nature; happy in the selection anecdote exhibits the strict integrity of his cha- of his images, in the choice of his subjects, and racter. Previous to the publication of his De- in the harmony of his versification; and, though serted Village, the bookseller had given him a his embarrassed situation prevented him from note for 100 guineas for the copy, which the finally revising many of his productions, his Doctor mentioned a few hours after to one of Hermit, his Traveller, and his Deserted Village, his friends: who observed, it was a very great claim a place among the most finished pieces in sum for so short a performance: In truth,' re- the English language. Besides the works above plied Goldsmith, I think so too; I have not mentioned, he wrote, 1. History of the Earth been easy since I received it; therefore I will and Auimated Nature, 6 vols 8vo. 2. History go hack and return him his note :' which he of England, 4 vols. 8vo. 3. Ilistory of Rome, absolutely did ; and left it entirely to the book- 2 vols. 4. Abridgements of the two last for the seller to pay him according to the profits pro- use of schools. 5. A view of Experimental duced by the sale of the piece; which, however, Philosophy, 3 vols. 8vo. A posthumous work. turned out very considerable. During the last 6. Miscellanies, &c. rehearsal of his comedy, entitled, She stoops to GOLETTA, or GOULETTA, the port of Tunis, Conquer, which Mr. Coleman had no opinion being a channel of communication between the would succeed, on the Doctor's objecting to the lake and sea. It was formerly deep and extenrepetition of one of Tony Lumpkin's speeches, sive, but is reduced now to a depth nowhere exbeing apprehensive it might injure the play, the ceeding six feet. It is defended on each side by manager with great keenness replied, Psha, my a well-built castle. dear Dr. do not be fearful of squibs, when we GOLF, a game much practised in Scotland, have been sitting almost these two hours upon and said to be peculiar to this country. It has a barrel of gunpowder.' The piece, however, been very ancient; for there are statutes prohibwas received with uncommon applause by the iting it as early as 1457, lest it should interfere audience; and the severity of Coleman's obser- with the sport of archery. Some derive the name vation put an end to the Doctor's friendship for from a Dutch game, called Kolf, in some respects him. Notwithstanding the great success of his similar, being played with clubs, though in others pieces, by some of which he cleared £1800 in very different. Golf is commonly played on one year, his circumstances were not in a pros- rugged broken ground, covered with short grass, perous situation ; partly owing to the liberality near the sea-shore. A field of this sort is in of his disposition, and partly to a habit of Scotland called links. The game is generally gaming, of the arts of which he knew very little, played in parties of one or two on each side, and thus became the prey of those who took Each party has an exceedingly hard ball, somewhat advantage of his simplicity. Before his death larger than a hen's egg. This they strike with a he published the prospectus of a Universal Dic- slender and elastic club, about four feet long, tionary of Arts and Sciences; and, as his literary crooked in the head, and having lead run into it friends, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Dr. Johnson, Mr. to make it heavy. The ball, being struck with Beauclerc, Mr. Garrick, and others, had under- this club, will fly to the distance of 200 yards, taken to furnish him with articles upon different and the game is gained by the party who puts subjects, he entertained the most sanguine ex- his ball into the hole with the fewest strokes. pectations from it. The undertaking, however, But the game does not depend solely upon the did not meet with that encouragement from the striking of the longest ball, but also upon meabooksellers, which he had imagined it would re- suring the strength of the stroke, and applying it ceive ; and he lamented this circumstance almost in such directions as to lay the ball in smooth to the last hour of his life. He had been for ground, whence it may be easily moved at the some years afflicted, at different times, with a next stroke. To encourage this amusement, the violent strangury, which contributed to embitter city of Edinburgh, A. D. 1744, gave to the comthe latter part of his life ; and which, united with pany of golfers a silver club; to be played fox the vexations which he suffered upon other occa- annually by the members, the victor to append a sions, brought on a kind of habitual despondency. gold or silver piece to the prize. For their better In this unhappy condition he was attacked by a accommodation, twenty-two of the members subnervous fever, which terminated in his death, on scribed £30 each in 1768 for building a house the 4th of April, 1774. His character is justly for their meetings. The spot chosen for this expressed by Pope :
purpose was the south west corner of Leith links.